Research Guide: Student Guide

by Nancy Tomes, Professor of History, State University of New York at Stony Brook

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Student Guide: Advertisements and the study of history

The history of advertising provides fascinating insights into the way Americans lived and thought in the past. Historical advertisements are a particularly useful kind of primary evidence, that is, first hand evidence about the past produced by people actually living at that time. Studying old advertisements helps us track changing standards of the "good life," that is, the material and social conditions ordinary people were encouraged to equate with personal success and happiness. As such, ads provide a mirror, albeit a distorted one, of everyday life and aspirations. In them students of history can find evidence about aspects of daily life, such as fashion, food habits, home furnishings, sports, and personal hygiene that are often absent in more traditional historical sources. The advertisements in this database, which evoked health-related issues, are particularly helpful in understanding popular conceptions of health promotion and disease prevention.

The challenges of using ads as historical sources

While historical advertisements are a rewarding and interesting form of primary evidence, their analysis is by no means easy. Looking at a historic advertisement, it is tempting to see it as a clear, coherent message whose meaning can be clearly deduced. In fact, it is a much messier -- and more interesting -- historical artifact. To use them well requires practice and a willingness to move beyond simple explanations. Becoming adept at ad analysis requires an appreciation of the special interpretive challenges they represent.

1. The creation of any single ad was a complex and negotiated process.

The supplementary documents in the MMA database, especially the material drawn from the J. Walter Thompson Co. Archives, suggest how complicated the process of producing a single ad actually was. By the 1920s, the technical and creative process of developing an ad had come to involve a range of people with different expectations and talents. The agency's clients, that is, the manufacturers paying for the advertising campaign, often had very definite opinions about their product and how to promote it, opinions that did not necessarily square with the advertising professional's perceptions. The selling "platform" the agency arrived at often represented a compromise between the client and the creative staff. Developing the ad itself involved different groups of creative personnel, such as copywritersand illustrators, who brought their own vision to the product.

2. Ads had no single fixed meaning, but rather were read in many different ways by consumers.

Not only did the creators of the advertisements often have different agendas, but also the messages they meant to convey to consumers were by no means fixed or predictable. When working with historic advertisements, it is crucial to emphasize that they have no single, fixed message. As is true of any document, whether the Declaration of Independence or Uncle Tom's Cabin, ads could be read in many different ways by different people. Moreover, their meanings operated at different levels: rational appeals to the mind may be combined with more emotional appeals to the heart or senses. This complexity is especially evident with health-related ads, which often sought to invoke scientific authority at the same time they addressed very personal concerns about the body, including the fear of disease and the desire to be physically attractive.

While appealing to what might be considered a universal desire to be free of disease, health-related advertisements inevitably conveyed very different meanings depending on the viewer's gender, ethnicity, race, age, class, and sexual orientation. For example, a toothpaste ad featuring a lovely young white girl might evoke very different responses from a young white man, a middle aged white woman, and a young African American girl.

3. The influence of advertising is best understood as general and diffuse, rather than specific and decisive.

Although advertising had become widely disseminated by the 1920s, we cannot conclude that everyone saw them or heeded their messages. Market research reports, such as the one on Scottissue included in MMA suggest that even within the same class, race, or gender group, individuals varied dramatically in their attention to ads. Some might not even notice them, some might find them annoying or silly, while only a relatively small group took their messages more seriously. Both historical and contemporary research suggests that advertising's impact is best understood as general and diffuse rather than specific and decisive. Advertisements help raise awareness of certain kinds of problems and groups of products, but do not necessarily induce consumers to adopt specific beliefs or buy specific brands. For example, we may safely conclude that advertisements for mouthwash and toothpaste helped educate Americans about the importance of oral hygiene without necessarily convincing them to buy Listerine or Pepsodent.

4. Advertising provoked determined efforts to restrain and discipline its content that had an important impact on its evolution.

Last but not least, as advertising became more popular, criticisms of it also became more robust. The more advertising tried to borrow from modern medicine and science, the more experts in those fields found reason to criticize those borrowings. The explosion of modern health-related advertising in the early 1900s aroused concern among physicians and consumer advocates about its potential to mislead. New regulatory bodies, such as the Food and Drug Association (founded in 1906) and the Federal Trade Commission (founded in 1914), as well as medical and consumer groups, sought to force advertisers to be more truthful in their claims. These efforts definitely influenced the way professional advertisers crafted their selling campaigns.

So as you work with the ads and documents in this database, keep in mind these four points:

1. The creation of any single ad was a complex and negotiated process.
2. Ads had no single fixed meaning, but rather were read in many different ways by consumers.
3. The influence of advertising is best understood as general and diffuse, rather than specific and decisive.
4. Advertising provoked determined efforts to restrain and discipline its content that had an important impact on its evolution.

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Student Guide: Case studies

To illustrate the last four points from section 1 more clearly, we have developed three case studies of specific product campaigns: Fleischman's Yeast, Scottissue and Listerine. These documents track the complexity of an ad campaign from inception through reception.

1. Fleischmann's Yeast

Historical background:

The popularity of yeast eating in the interwar decades reflected two American health obsessions: vitamins and constipation. The isolation of vitamins in the early 1900s focused new attention on the importance of nutrition. Between 1920 and 1940, scientists identified over twenty different vitamins, and the popular press began to carry many articles about the dietary deficiencies of the modern diet and the importance of these trace nutrients. But before the late 1930s, vitamins were not available in an easily swallowed tablet form. Instead, people sought to get additional vitamins by taking cod liver oil and other tonics (Apple 1996). During these same decades, Americans were very concerned about the danger of constipation. Since ancient times, bowel regularity has been equated with good health. At the turn of the century, changes in diet and exercise patterns associated with advancing industrialization made many Americans even more concerned about their patterns of elimination. Physicians and health reformers offered many remedies for constipation in the early decades of the twentieth century (Whorton 2000).

Starting in the 1920s, the J.Walter Thompson Company began a campaign designed to promote the eating of yeast cakes as a way both to get vitamins and prevent constipation. This campaign successfully used medical and personal testimonials to increase the sales of Fleischmann's Yeast. Many elements of this campaign, including the use of testimonials and the invocation of medical authority, were widely copied. But the yeast campaign also attracted negative attention from the Federal Trade Commission, resulting in several investigations and disciplinary actions against Standard Brands, the company that owned Fleischmann's Yeast. With the development of soluble vitamin tablets in the 1930s, yeast eating declined in popularity.

The following group of documents allows you to appreciate the rise and fall of the yeast campaign. Before reading the documents, we recommend that you look through all the yeast ads. For a good historical overview of the Fleischmann campaign, see Marchand 1985, pp.16-18. For a personal account of the campaign's end, see Pierce 1991, pp. 273-280.

To trace the development of the Fleischmann's ad campaign, read the following documents:

JWT Account Files:
The Fleischmann Company, Jan. 2, 1926.

JWT Staff Meeting Minutes:
July 18, 1928. Yeast for Health campaign.

JWT News Bulletin:
Stanley Resor, "Personalities and the Public," 138 (Apr. 1929).

JWT Newsletters:
Aug. 13, 1925: "Fleischmann Sales continue upward trend."
Feb. 11, 1926: "Fuller Brush Salesmen Eating Yeast to gain pep."
Apr. 23, 1926: "How we get yeast for health photographs."

Now read the criticisms of the Fleischmann's campaign outlined in the FTC's findings:
1) FTC materials concerning case against Standard Brands re Fleischmann's yeast, 1933, including:

-- FTC complaint against company;
-- Standard Brand's (parent company of Fleischmann's) reply;
-- depositions taken from Rudy Vallee and Mabel Kinneer;
-- sample letter of complaint and reply.

2) FTC, Stipulationsigned by Standard Brands re Fleischmann's yeast, 1938:

Yeast stipulation

The following are extracts from a release distributed by the Federal Trade Commission regarding a stipulation agreed to by Standard Brands, Inc., maker of Fleischman's Yeast.

The company "agrees to cease representing that the product will cure or prevent constipation, bad breath, boils, acne, pimples or other manifestations of irregular digestion, and that it will 'clear' skin irritants out of the blood, unless limited to such skin irritants as competent scientific tests prove can be removed from the blood by using such product... Other representations to be discontinued are that Fleischmann's Compressed yeast will prevent or correct underfed blood, or increase the capacity of the blood to perform its functions, except insofar as competent scientific evidence demonstrates that the vitamins and other constituents of the product affect the composition andfunctions of the blood and supplement and enhance the biologic values of food."

[Text reprinted in Printers' Ink, vol. 184, no. 5 (Aug. 4, 1938), p. 53.]

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2. Scottissue

In the early 1930s, the J. Walter Thompson Company also developed what became a controversial campaign to promote toilet paper for the Scott Paper Company. Ads emphasized the danger of rough, chemical laden toilet paper and suggested that its use might lead to the need for rectal surgery. This campaign aroused the ire of the American Medical Association, which published a highly critical editorial in JAMA about it. A market survey of Scottissue done in the same time period documents the difficulties in gauging consumer reactions to a selling platform. So this series of documents illustrates the complexities of using the science sell, both from a regulatory and consumer standpoint.

Note: the MMA website does not include these controversial advertisements from the 1930s. One of the ads is included in this Scot Tissue ad.

JWT Staff Meeting Minutes:
Nov. 10, 1927: Good overview of Scott campaign.

AMA Bureau of Investigation, "Scot Tissue," JAMA July 16, 1932.

JWT Staff Meeting Minutes:
Sept. 28, 1932 Creative Staff discussion of JAMA editorial.

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3. Listerine

The Listerine advertising of the 1920s was another groundbreaking use of the science sell. The J. Walter Thompson Co. did not develop this campaign, but when Warner Lambert became their client in the 1950s, the agency came into possession of an extensive run of Listerine ads, a sample of which has been included in the MMA database. The documents below suggest the complexity of interwar concerns about germs and bad breath. As the documents make clear, the American Medical Association (AMA) took public issue with Listerine's claims to kill germs. At the same time, an article published in the AMA's own popular health magazine, Hygeia, reinforced the belief that bad breath could be a sign of a serious physical disorder. For secondary literature on the Listerine campaign, see Marchand 1985, pp. 18-21.

Chemical Laboratory, AMA, "Listerine" JAMA Apr 18. 1931.
[Editorial], "Listerine and other mouth washes," JAMA Apr. 18, 1931.
Robert Brotman, "Halitosis," fr. Hygeia 1932.

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Classroom excercises

Here are some additional suggestions for classroom exercises using the MMA database. They are divided into the following general categories:

I. Analyzing advertisements: basic skills
II. Using gender, race, and class as categories of analysis
III. Analyzing health themes in advertisements: views of science and medicine
IV. Analyzing views of the body and disease
V. Understanding concerns about deceptive health advertisement
VI. Developing awareness of advertising and its influence on ourselves


I. Analyzing advertisements: basic skills

1. Individual ad analysis exercise

Ads can be analyzed on many different levels: as works of art, as inducements to buy, as symbolic statements of basic cultural values. The different elements of the ad - the text, the images, the design - work together to convey information about the product as well as to suggest its symbolic appeal. Reading an ad closely requires learning to appreciate these different components and levels of meaning in an ad. The texts on advertising and culture listed in the bibliography provide excellent overviews of the different methodologies involved in ad analysis. Chapter 8 of Jib Fowles, Advertising and Popular Culture, presents a good short introduction to "deciphering advertisements."

This exercise is designed to introduce you to some of the basic skills of reading an ad.

Pick an ad that interests you from the database and answer the following questions (loosely adapted from Jib Fowles, Advertising and Popular Culture, pp. 171-174):

Exploring the ad's context

1. What product category does the advertised commodity fall into?
2. Which medium - magazine, newspaper, radio - did this ad appear in? What month, day, and year did it appear?
3. Judging from where the ad appeared (the kind of magazine and newspaper), what might you infer about its intended audience? (Example: ads appearing in the Ladies' Home Journal are likely aimed at women readers.) Describe this audience: who they are, what they are likely to be attracted by.

Looking at the ad

4. Consider the ad in aesthetic terms. Describe the layout: what are the different design elements and how are they placed. Why do you think these particular elements were chosen? What does the image and the typeface say to you? Do they help establish an overall mood for the ad?
5. Look at the artwork in the ad. Is it a line drawing, a painting, or a photograph? What is the lighting like? What is the angle taken on the subject? Is it a close up or a long shot? Is the focus sharp or blurred? Why do you think the agency art directors chose this particular image?
6. In the imagery, what appears in the foreground versus the background? Why do you think these choices were made?
7. Precisely what is the product being offered for sale? What do you learn about its objective qualities? (Try to distinguish here between factual versus symbolic appeal.)
8. Make a list of all the various elements in the ad that suggest its symbolic appeal; that is, what positive attributes its purchase will supposedly bring the consumer? Think of the ad as a play: what are the props and characters it employs? How is that symbolic value conveyed?
9. Go over the list from question 8 and consider each item in terms of the intended audience: what signal might that item convey regarding class status, leisure time activities, gender roles, sexual attractiveness, health and vitality, family responsibilities, and the like. Ask, "What might this item, this feature, mean to the targeted consumer?" Start with the most prominently featured items first.
10. Look at the human figures pictured in the ad. What might you infer about their states of mind from the ways they are presented? How might the intended audience have responded to those representations?
11. Look carefully at the locale of the scene. Where does it take place? What symbolic significance is the locale likely to have for the intended audience?
12. Locate the scene in time: is it in the past, the present, or the future? What does the temporal location suggest?
13. Consider the ad as a narrative, a story, or scene from a play. Can you supply the overall story? What has happened, is happening, or will happen soon? What is this narrative likely to mean to the intended audience?
14. Sometimes it is not what is in the ad that pulls the viewer in, but what is missing. Is there anything missing in this imagery that the intended audience might supply?
15. Is the symbolic message of this ad idealizing some aspect of life? If so, what is it and how is it presented?
16. To sum up: imagine a group of people totally engaged with this ad. What state of mind would they take away from it?
17. Are there any references to previous ads or other forms of popular culture in the ad - what scholars refer to as "intertexuality"?
18. Ads succeed by framing some things in and excluding the rest. What are some associations to the product and the symbolic themes suggested for it that have to be framed out by the persons making the ad? Why?

Implications of the ad

19. What might this ad be inferring about the nature of human relationships? What kind of nonverbal communication appears with the ad? Which figures dominate?
20. What messages does this ad say about what it means to be a man or a woman? About self-identity? About personal happiness, sexual attractiveness, or other forms of self-fulfilment?
21. What does the ad convey about markers of social status or class? About racial or ethnic identity?
22. What kinds of cultural beliefs are promoted in this ad? Try to imagine yourself as an outsider to this society, viewing this ad. What seem to be the values of the ad's creators and its receivers?
23. Advertising is often linked with the process of commodification: that is, taking a human value or need and equating it with the process of buying and using a product. From that standpoint, ask yourself: what human needs and values is this ad attempting to commodify?

2. Context/sampling exercise

The ads in this database have been selected out of millions of possible ads printed in American magazines and newspapers. To get a better sense of how consumers actually saw them, it is useful to look at ads in magazines and newspapers. The following sampling exercise helps students appreciate ads in context; it also helps them see how common the health appeal was in relation to other kinds of advertising themes.

Pick a general interest magazine (the Saturday Evening Post or Collier's are good choices). Choose a year to sample, and pick two months (January and July). Count all the ads that appear in those two months, categorizing them by product type and dominant theme (health related or not). Then repeat the exercise using a woman's magazine (Good Housekeeping or Ladies' Home Journal are good choices). Write a brief summary of what you found: what kinds of ads did you find? What were the most common themes? Did one type of magazine tend to have more health related ads?

Repeat the exercise using a daily newspaper from the same year. Sample ads for one or two days rather than a month. Compare the results with your magazine survey.

Finally, repeat the above exercise with items from two decades later. How do the results differ? What themes remain constant?

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II. Using gender, race, and class as categories of analysis

3. Read the article by Frances Maule on The "Woman Appeal." Find examples in the database of the selling strategies she recommends.

4. Many advertisements used selling appeals targeted at mothers. Choose a sample of ads from the database that picture mothers and children: one group from before World War II, one group from after. You may use this list of suggested ads:

-- Child's cold may be flu,
-- Mother! Your child's cough...,
-- To puzzled fathers of rather young children,
-- Ask your doctor, your grocer, your husband, and
-- If your baby catches cold.

Compare the "mommy sell" over time: what elements remain the same, which ones change?

5. In an influential book published in 1979 titled Gender Advertisements, the sociologist Erving Goffman showed that advertisements usually pictured men and women in certain stereotyped positions: men's bodies were always positioned higher than women; women's bodies were often posed at angles rather than standing straight; men's hands grasped objects while women's hands only touched or grazed them. Goffman noted that women were often posed in child-like ways, snuggling against a man or pictured with a finger in their mouth. Choose a sample of ads from the MMA database and examine the relative positions and gestures of men's and women's bodies. Do Goffman's observations about the relative positioning of men and women's bodies hold true for the historic ads?

6. Ads from the time period covered in this database contain very few representations of African Americans. What does this absence tell you about health, race, and advertising in this time period? Look at the few ads that do feature African Americans. Compare how blacks and whites are pictured in these ads. You may use this list of suggested ads:

-- Got a cold at your house?...,
-- One cold after another?...,
-- New Vicks double-buffered cold tablets..., and
-- New Vicks double-buffered cold tablets... (not same as above)

7. Pick a sample of ads that interest you, or use this list:

-- The job hunter with two strikes against him,
-- Smokers! Now make your next smoke taste better,
-- New Vicks double-buffered cold tablets...,
-- New Vicks double-buffered cold tablets... (not same as above),
-- How you can eliminate the washroom "double standard",
-- Neglected. Protected.,
-- He'd look and feel better if...,
-- Now it's so easy to choose your favorite Soft-Weve color!,
-- Street car colds!..., and
-- For cuts, bruises, wounds, stings - all infections - Listerine...

How are class differences represented in them? Are there any ads that feature people from working class backgrounds? What markers of class and racial identity do you see in the ads? How representative of Americans as a whole do you think people featured in ads were during this time?

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III. Analyzing health themes in advertisements: views of science and medicine

8. Testimonials from celebrities, medical experts, and ordinary consumers were often used in health related advertisements. Read Stanley Resor, "Personalities and the Public." Why does Resor argue that testimonials are effective? Look at a sample of ads that use testimonials; you may use this list of suggested ads:

-- How a bad back almost beat Ben Hogan!,
-- Konjola,
-- He didn't even kiss me goodnight!,
-- Just imagine! My story in this newspaper!,
-- Let Listerine help you get through the winter...,
-- Civilization's curse can be conquered...,
-- She had been constipated since childhood,
-- Rudy Vallee says..., and
-- This common ailment steals vigor...

How do testimonials from experts differ from those of celebrities and ordinary citizens? Take each kind of testimonial and imagine how the intended audience might respond. Which style do you find most convincing?
9. Make a survey of how doctors are represented in drawings and photographs. What do they look like? How are they dressed? How are they posed in relation to patients? What symbols of science and scientific medicine appear with them?
10. Do the same with nurses and compare the results. How do commercial representations of the nurse differ from the doctor's?
11. Make a list of the images used to suggest the power of modern science. What symbols do the ads use to represent medical authority and scientific truth?
12. Make a list of the scientific facts and truths invoked in advertisements. What scientific discoveries and theories do they refer to?
13. Read the sample radio commercial and transcript of Dr. Haggard's talk. How do the messages of the advertisement for the product S.T. 37 mesh with those of Dr. Haggard's talk on the history of medicine? Why do you think the JWT agency paired this ad with this health education broadcast?
14. Read the radio script for the Sunbrite junior nurses' commercial, which appeared before a radio drama about Clara Barton. How did this commercial reflect contemporary views of nurses? Of health and hygiene? Why do you imagine young girls might have joined this group?

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IV. Analyzing views of the body and disease

15. Concerns about health and romance are often intertwined in many advertisements. Choose a sample of ads for toothpaste, mouthwash and tonics; for example

-- She's a calendar girl...,
-- Do you ever wish you were single again,
-- He didn't even kiss me goodnight!,
-- I want gaiety, friends, love..., and
-- I was a hitch hiker on the highway of love.

How are concerns about health and romance intertwined? Compare the appeals to men and women. How are they similar, how are they different?
16. How are health risks at different stages of life (e.g. infancy, childhood, adolescence, middle and old age) presented?
17. How are the health interest of mothers and fathers, husbands and wives, parents and children presented differently?
18. How are sick people pictured in ads? Do they seem noticeably different in appearance from the well people? How does the viewer know they are sick?
19. Look for references to current events in the ads. How do health related ads reflect the political and cultural currents of the era (E.g.. "Asian flu" and "cold war" ads from 1950s)?
20. Look at examples of "good will" advertising by pharmaceutical companies. You may use this list of suggested ads:

-- Strange symbols that may save your life,
-- Parke, Davis & Company,
-- An open letter to mothers and dads, and
-- This is what we work for at Parke-Davis.

How did these ads represent the American medical profession and/or the pharmaceutical industry? What do you think these companies were trying to accomplish by running these "good will" campaigns?
21. Have students take a time period and/or product type and make a list of the information ads convey about the origins of disease and the ways to stay healthy. What basic attitudes toward health promotion do ads convey?

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V. Understanding concerns about deceptive health advertisement

22. Read the article, AMA Bureau of Investigation, "Scot Tissue," and the J. Walter Thompson Creative Staff meeting minutes for Sept. 28, 1932 discussing that article. What did the AMA officials object to about the Scott tissue campaign? How did the JWT officials defend themselves against those charges? Whose arguments do you find most convincing? Look at the sample of Scottissue ads in the database, which date from after this controversy. Do you think this controversy had any impact on the style of these later advertisements?
23. Read the report from the JWT consumer panel on Scott tissue. What problems did they have getting their selling ideas across? What kinds of resistance did consumers have to the advertising message?
24. Look at the Fleischman's yeast advertisement featuring the testimonial by Mabel Kinneer (This common ailment steals vigor... and Rudy Vallee says...). Then read Kinneer's deposition in the Federal Trade Commission's complaint against the parent company, Standard Brands. How was Kinneer's testimonial and photograph obtained? Do you think her attitudes toward the product were fairly stated by the ad? Now read the FTC complaint about the ad. What did the FTC officials object to in the portrayal of Mabel Kinneer? Finally, read Standard Brand's response to the FTC. How did they defend their portrayal of Kinneer? Whose arguments do you find most convincing.
25. Using the FTC documents as a model, have students pick an ad they consider questionable in its claims and stage a mock hearing. Have different students play the roles of the parent company, the ad agency executives, the complainant (which could be another company or a consumer), and the FTC lawyers. Have the complainant and the FTC lawyers draft a complaint; let the ad agency and manufacturer draft a response. Appoint another group of students to review the two documents and issue a ruling as to whether the manufacturer can continue to use this kind of advertisement.
26. Both medical experts and consumer activists often criticized advertisements for their overstatement of disease risks. Yet popular health literature often represented common symptoms as signs of potentially serious disease. Read Brotman's articleon "Halitosis" and then look at mouthwash and toothpaste ads from the same time period, such as

-- The job hunter with two strikes against him,
-- The whispers he never heard,
-- The one man who would tell her!, and
-- She caught the bouquet but....

Where do their messages overlap? Where do they differ?

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VI. Developing awareness of advertising and its influence on ourselves

27. Ask students to write a description of an advertisement on TV, radio, the Internet, or in print, that they have noticed in the last 2 days. Have them list everything about the ad that they remember. Use these recollections as the basis for a general discussion about what people tend to take away from ads. Ask them to be particularly aware of forms of resistance to the ad's message they experience (e.g. hostility or humorous putdown) Follow up by asking them to see if their awareness of ads changes after doing this exercise.
28. Ask students to write a paragraph identifying the last ad they can remember (may be from TV, radio, or in print) that convinced them to buy a certain product. Use these recollections as the basis for a general discussion of how ads influence behavior. Ask students to identify areas of daily experience where they believe people are most likely to be most open to advertising's influence. Then have them read Chase and Schlink's article "Consumers in Wonderland." How much has changed from the 1920s and how much has stayed the same?

References

Apple, Rima. 1996 Vitamania: Vitamins in American Culture.
Craver, Kathleen W. 1999 Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History.
Jacobson, Michael F. and Masur, Laurie Ann. 1995 Marketing Madness: A Survival Guide for a Consumer Society.
Linnett, Richard. 2001 "The Numbers Game," Ad Age July 30, 2001.
Marchand, Roland. 1985 Advertising the American Dream.
Pierce, Russell. 1991. Gringo Gaucho: An Advertising Odyssey.
Schudson, Michael. 1984 Advertising, the Uneasy Persuasion.
Whorton, James C. 2000. Inner Hygiene: Constipation and the Pursuit of Health in Modern Society.

Bibliography for further reading

A bibliography has been created containing suggestions for further reading on the history of medicine, disease, health-related beliefs and behaviors, and advertisingfrom the period 1910 to 1960.

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