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Guide to the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth records, 1887-1963 and undated, bulk 1914-1946

Abstract

The Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth was a vocational guidance service organization originally created under the leadership of Orie Latham Hatcher as the Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Women (1914-1921), and later known as the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance (1921-1937). Disbanded in 1963. The records comprise an extensive set of organizational records for Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth and its predecessors. Series include correspondence, administrative files, project files, conference files, subject files, writings and speeches, publications, clippings, press releases, and photographic materials, which include prints and nitrate negatives. The records document the organization's evolution from its early focus on increasing vocational opportunities for educated southern women and rural high school girls to its later activities in providing county-wide vocational programming for rural youth. Additional subjects addressed in the papers and photographs include economic conditions throughout the South; migration patterns from U.S. rural regions to cities; Appalachian culture, including crafts and music; community life in the South; and employment for African Americans. The collection includes 42 matted platinum prints of rural citizens and scenes in Kentucky taken in the 1930s by noted photographer Doris Ulmann, and include a portrait of her assistant and folklorist, John Jacob Niles.

Descriptive Summary

Title
Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth records
Creator
Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth (U.S.)
Extent
21.5 linear feet, approximately 15,900 items
Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.
Language
Material in English

Collection Overview

The records of the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth (AGRY) span the years 1887 to 1963, although the bulk of the collection begins in 1914 with the creation of the organization and ends in 1946 with the death of founder and president, Orie Latham Hatcher. Additional records for the Alliance from 1947 to 1963 can be found in the Amber Arthun Warburton papers, also located in the Rubenstein Library.

The records comprise an extensive set of organizational records for AGRY and its predecessors, the Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Women (VBVW) and the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance (SWEA), and document the organization's evolution from its early focus on increasing vocational opportunities for educated southern women and rural high school girls to its later activities in providing county-wide vocational programming for rural youth. Series include correspondence, administrative files, project files, conference files, subject files, writings and speeches, publications, clippings, press releases, and photographic materials, which include prints and nitrate negatives.

Early materials in the Correspondence, Administrative Files, and Clippings and Press Releases series document the Bureau's projects, such as the speaker's bureau and the scholarship program, as well as the Bureau's relationship with other women's organizations such as the Virginia Association of Colleges and Schools for Girls, Southern Collegiate Women (later the American Association of University Women), the National Federation of Business and Professional Women Clubs (BPW), and the National Council of Women.

Strong ties were developed between the Bureau and these organizations during its formative years: Hatcher chaired national and local committees in most of these organizations, and early correspondence and administrative files center on her work with these organizations particularly concerning educational standards and vocational training in women's colleges. In these early records it is often unclear which of these activities were officially adopted by the Bureau or if they were solely Hatcher's activities.

The AGRY's activities documented in the Branch Files Series include benefits, forums, exhibits, and festivals. The New York Branch sponsored several opera benefits to help raise funds during the 1920s. The Rural Mountain Festival, sponsored by the Richmond Branch, was held in 1938. In 1932, the Alliance commissioned noted New York portrait photographer, Doris Ulmann, to photograph rural youth and other individuals in Kentucky. The photographs were subsequently exhibited by several of the branches and were used to promote discussion of vocational issues and the work of the Alliance. Forty-two of these original platinum prints are located in the Photographic Materials Series.

Organizational changes reflected modifications in the organization's goals. Although SWEA continued many of the projects started by the Virginia Bureau, emphasis shifted away from lobbying efforts aimed to open new careers for women and more towards research on women's occupational trends and model guidance counseling programs based on that research. Correspondence during the early 1920s contains letters from faculty and administrators from women's colleges throughout the Northeast and South which describe various approaches (or lack thereof) to providing vocational guidance to students. Administrative files contain information on surveys and on a vocational guidance course for college women which was developed at Goucher College under the auspices of SWEA and tested at Duke University (then Trinity College) and the College of William and Mary. The Publications and Clippings and Press Releases series also contain considerable information regarding Alliance research and activities during this time.

During the mid to late 1920s, SWEA sponsored several research projects through its Rural Guidance Project which examined vocational trends of rural girls in North Carolina and Virginia. While the Correspondence and Administrative Files series document how the projects were organized, the comprehensive data collected during these projects is extant only in resulting SWEA publications such as Rural Girls in the City for Work and the unpublished manuscript "Fifty Rural High School Girls."

Alliance projects in the late 1920s and 1930s consisted of experimental and demonstration guidance programs in rural schools. These projects were located at the Konnarock Training School (Virginia), elementary schools in Albemarle Co., Virginia, Farm Life School (Craven Co., N.C.), and elementary and secondary schools in Breathitt Co., Kentucky, among others. Each of these demonstration projects also resulted in substantial Alliance publications which in most cases represent the bulk of extant documentation of each project. The Photographic Materials series contains many snapshots taken in these various communities, although most are of poor quality and unidentified; there are also negatives in this series. Additional information may also appear scattered throughout Correspondence, Clippings, and Administrative Files series.

The Breathitt County Project Files Series, provides the most comprehensive documentation of the demonstration project which grew to become the Alliance's main research activity from about 1934 to 1942. The project encompassed a wide range of activities including data collection on students' home life, teacher training workshops, vocational guidance programming through the county's Planning Council, and a visit by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1938. Particularly noteworthy in these materials are the extensive raw data files consisting of approximately 2500 autobiographical surveys of students. Additional files contain charts of data compilations and teacher reports which identify trends in students' educational behavior. Photographs of Breathitt County schools, students, and home life, chiefly taken by noted photographer Doris Ullman, are contained in the Photographic Materials Series.

SWEA and AGRY's emphasis on research and dissemination of information was reflected in the increase of published materials produced by the organization. Much of this material is contained in the Publications Series. Clippings of book reviews document the wide-spread acceptance of these publications in a newly emerging field. Several unpublished manuscripts resulting from Alliance research projects are extant in the Writings and Speeches Series and include "Occupations for Educated Women in Durham, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina" (1926), a bound copy of "Fifty Rural High School Girls'' (1930), and final drafts of "When Our Young Folks Come Home to the Smaller Communities" (1945).

Another strategy for publicizing the work of the Alliance was through local and national radio broadcasts. Shows were broadcast from Richmond, New York, and Washington, D.C., and gave information on specific occupations and discussed vocational guidance issues. Broadcast scripts contained in the Writings and Speeches Series feature youths interviewing each other and Orie Hatcher about career goals, a dialogue between Eleanor Roosevelt and Hatcher on the future of rural youth (1938), and a presentation by Amelia Earhart on women in aviation (1931).

The Correspondence, Clippings and Press Releases, and Subject Files series demonstrate the Alliance's shift away from relationships with women's organizations in the late 1920s and towards guidance and educational organizations such as the American Council for Guidance and Personnel Associations (CGPA), National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA), National Occupational Conference (NOC), National Education Association (NEA), and the U.S. Department of Education in the 1930s. In many of these organizations, Hatcher chaired committees on rural youth, and representatives from these groups served on AGRY's Board of Trustees.

Numerous regional and national conference activities are reflected in the Conference Files Series, with a complete set of conference proceedings and findings contained in the Publications Series. Information on pre-1930s conferences is slim, but additional information on all conferences can be gleaned from the Correspondence and Clippings and Press Releases series. Copies of papers delivered by Alliance members and others are located in the Writings and Speeches Series.

Materials dating past Hatcher's tenure in the Alliance consist mainly of routine administrative correspondence. A more complete set of AGRY organizational records dating from 1947-1963 is located in the papers of Amber Arthun Warburton, her successor. These records continue several series started in the AGRY records such as executive board minutes, publications, project files, and correspondence.

Administrative Information

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warning Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research. However, nitrate negatives may be consulted only with permission from Curator of Documentary Arts.

Patrons must sign the Acknowledgment of Legal Responsibility and Privacy Rights form before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. Consequently, there may be a 24-hour delay in obtaining these materials.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The status of copyright interests in these records is unknown. For further information, see the section on copyright in the Regulations and Procedures of the Rubenstein Library.

Contents of the Collection

Correspondence Series, 1914-1963 and undated

13 boxes; 5.2 lin. ft.

Official and routine correspondence with researchers, educators, administrators, public officials, conference organizers, and other Alliance members. Contains incoming letters and copies of outgoing correspondence chiefly with Hatcher or her secretary. Subjects range from requests for information to routine conference arrangements to discussion of vocational guidance policies at various schools and government agencies. Chronological arrangement.

1914-1922
(7 folders)
Box 1
1923-1931
(6 folders)
Box 2
1932-1933, March
(6 folders)
Box 3
1933, April-1935, May
(6 folders)
Box 4
1935, June-1938
(6 folders)
Box 5
1939-1940, January
(5 folders)
Box 6
1940, February-1941, February
(6 folders)
Box 7
1941, March-November
(5 folders)
Box 8
1941, December-1942, August
(6 folders)
Box 9
1942, September-1943, August
(6 folders)
Box 10
1943, September-1944, September
(5 folders)
Box 11
1944, October-1945
(6 folders)
Box 12
1946-1963, undated
(6 folders)
Box 13

Administrative Files Series, 1919-1963 and undated

5.0 boxes

Includes minutes of executive bodies, annual statistical reports, financial records, project files, and subject files on routine administrative matters. Project files contain information on early Bureau and SWEA activities such as student scholarships, Speaker's Bureau, vocational orientation courses, Rural Guidance Project, Rural Youth Study, and Hatcher's work with the Va. Assn. of Colleges and Schools for Girls. Series chiefly spans 1919-1949 . Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Alliance relationship to other organizations and agencies, 1923-1942, undated
Box 14
Annual financial reports, 1946-1963
Box 14
Audit reports, 1920-1949
(3 folders)
Box 14
Budget reports, 1924-1940, undated
Box 14
By-laws, 1936, 1946, undated
Box 14
Directory questionnaires, 1936, 1945, undated
Box 14
Financial papers-misc. (notes, receipts, authorizations), 1924-1946, undated
Box 14
Financial papers-Pine Mountain Institute, 1942, undated
Box 14
Financial procedures. 1924-1936
Box 14
Fifty rural girls reunion, 1932, 1936, undated
Box 15
Find Yourself vocational orientation course (Duke University), 1926
Box 15
Hatcher death and will. 1946
Box 15
Heaven Bound (play production), 1934
Box 15
Home service course for general maids, 1933-1934
Box 15
Mailing lists, undated
Box 15
Membership lists, 1949-1950
Box 15
Memorandum-misc., 1926-1944, undated
Box 15
Minutes-Board of Advisors (Bureau of Vocations), 1920
Box 15
Minutes-Executive Board (SWEA), 1921-1925
Box 15
Minutes-Executive Board (SWEA), 1926-1930
Box 15
Minutes-Executive Board (SWEA), 1931-1935
Box 16
Minutes-Board of Trustees (SWEA and AGRY), 1935-1946
Box 16
Minutes-misc., undated
Box 16
Monthly financial statements, 1930-1945, 1940-1948
Box 16
Office procedure manual, 1925-1926
Box 16
Officers and trustees, 1934-1939
Box 16
President's annual report, 1920, 1926-1938
(4 folders)
Box 16
Project proposals-misc., 1932, 1940, undated
Box 16
Requests (for information), 1937-1943
(4 folders)
Box 17
Rural Guidance Project (general), 1924-1927
Box 17
Rural Guidance Project (Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial grant), 1924-1927
Box 17
Rural youth study: Youth migration in Virginia counties (proposal), 1935-1939, undated
Box 17
Salary/staffing controversy, 1934-1937
Box 17
Speaker's bureau, 1919-1920
Box 17
Statement of purpose (Book of reference), 1920-1949, undated
Box 17
Student aid, 1920-1925
Box 17
Transfer of Alliance records to Duke University, 1939-1942
Box 18
Travel and desk diary, 1937-1940
Box 18
Virginia Association of Colleges and Schools for Girls, 1914-1920, undated
Box 18
Virginia School of Social Work, 1916-1923
Box 18
Vocational orientation for college women (Dr. Peter's course), 1925, undated
Box 18
Vocational value of graduate study (Vassar study), circa 1930
Box 18
Vocational survey of southern colleges, circa 1919-1926
Box 18
White House tea (Alliance 25th anniversary), 1939-1940
Box 18

Branch Files Series, 1924-1940 and undated

3 boxes; 1.2 lin. ft.

Includes meeting minutes and reports, membership and dues lists, news clippings, brochures and routine correspondence of Atlanta, Chicago, New York, Richmond, and Washington, D.C., branches of SWEA and AGRY. Arranged alphabetically by branch, thereunder alphabetically by subject.

Atlanta Branch, 1924-1925
Box 19
Atlanta Branch-news clippings, 1923-1925
Box 19
Branch by-laws, 1924-1925
Box 19
Branch treasurers and financial committees, 1935-1940
Box 19
Chicago Branch-financial reports, 1923-1944, undated
Box 19
Chicago Branch-membership and dues, 1930-1945, undated
Box 19
Chicago Branch-minutes and reports, 1923-1938, undated
Box 19
Chicago Branch-misc., 1922-1944, undated
Box 19
Chicago Branch-news clippings, 1922-1941, undated
Box 19
New York Branch-correspondence, 1931-1944, undated
Box 19
New York Branch-financial reports. 1934-1939, undated
Box 19
New York Branch-membership and dues, 1923-1942, undated
Box 20
New York Branch-membership lists, 1932-1941
Box 20
New York Branch-minutes and reports, 1920-1938, undated
Box 20
New York Branch-misc., 1923-1934
Box 20
New York Branch-misc., 1935-1940, undated
Box 20
New York Branch-opera benefit (receipts and authorizations), 1939
Box 20
New York Branch-news clippings, 1922-1923
Box 20
New York Branch-news clippings, 1924-1941, undated
Box 20
New York Branch-weekly report of the opera committee, 1939
Box 21
Richmond Branch-correspondence, 1929-1936, undated
Box 21
Richmond Branch-financial reports, 1933-1936
Box 21
Richmond Branch-membership and dues, 1930-1937, undated
Box 21
Richmond Branch-minutes and reports, 1929-1936, undated
Box 21
Richmond Branch-misc., 1929-1938, undated
Box 21
Richmond Branch-news clippings, 1929-1935
Box 21
Richmond Branch-news clippings, 1936-1939, undated
Box 21
Richmond Branch-rural festival, 1938
Box 21
Washington Branch-financial reports, membership and dues, 1937-1938, undated
Box 21
Washington Branch-minutes and reports, 1930-1943, undated
Box 21
Washington Branch-misc. and news clippings, 1924-1938, undated
Box 21

Conference Files Series, 1918-1947

4 boxes; 1.6 lin. ft.

Contains information on conferences, institutes and forums sponsored by the Alliance or in which Alliance members participated on the program. Arranged chronologically by conference, files contain brochures, programs, reports, published proceedings and findings. Files may also include additional routine materials such as registration lists, memoranda, drafts of papers to be presented, and related reference materials. Arranged chronologically by date of conference.

Conference chronology, 1918-1935
Box 22
Conferences, 1918-1929
Box 22
Conference on Guidance for Rural Girls and Boys, February 23, 1930
Box 22
Dinner forum Just Where are Women Now? November 7, 1930
Box 22
National Education Association, Department of Superintendent's convention, Working Together for the Children of America, February 21, 1931
Box 22
National Education Association, Department of Rural Education, biannual meeting, February 22, 1931of Talent with Plastic Arts, January 17, 1932
Box 22
SWEA National Board forum, The Discovery and Development of Talent in Music, January 26, 1932
Box 22
National Vocational and Guidance Associations annual convention, February 18, 1932
Box 22
A Conference on Supply, Demand and Outlook in the Major Occupations Open to Educated Women in Richmond, October 14, 1932
Box 22
SWEA annual board meeting, The Plight of Rural Young People Today, October 31, 1932
Box 22
Luncheon conference on Present Supply, Demand and Outlook for Educated Women, November 1, 1932
Box 22
National Occupational Conference, general meeting, April 10, 1933
Box 22
International Council of Women, July 16, 1933
Box 22
National Occupational Conference, Regional Occupational Conference on Vocational Guidance, August 28-September 2, 1933
Box 22
The Cleveland Conventions of Guidance and Personnel Associations (SWEA and NVGA Rural Section), February 21-25, 1934
Box 23
SWEA conference and board meeting, Guidance Aids for Rural Young People, March 27, 1934
Box 23
National Occupational Conference, Southern Regional Conference on Vocational Guidance and Education, April 23-28, 1934
Box 23
SWEA joint conference on Guidance Aids for Rural Young People, May 25, 1934
Box 23
U.S. Office of Education Conference on Youth Problems, June 1-2, 1934
Box 23
National Education Association annual meeting, June 30-July 6, 1934
Box 23
Conference on individual Development and Guidance, July 31 August 2, 1934
Box 23
Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations annual meeting, February 24, 1935
Box 23
National Occupational Conference, general meeting, March 4, 1935
Box 23
SWEA conference on Guidance Aids for Rural Youth, November 8, 1935
Box 23
Conference on Nursing in Rural Areas, October 12, 1936
Box 23
Occupational forums, 1936-1937
Box 23
SWEA and Graduate Nurses Association, joint session, January 12, 1937
Box 23
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations, annual convention, February 17-20, 1937
Box 23
Forum conference on Nursing Service in Rural Areas, March 3, 1937
Box 23
Conference on Art Needs in Rural Areas, April 21, 1937
Box 23
Rural Youth Institute, November 1, 1937
Box 23
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations, annual convention, February 23, 1938
Box 23
Rural Youth in the City for Work, April 11, 1938
Box 23
Rural-Urban Institute on Youth Migration, Youth Comes to the Big City. (New York), October 21-25, 1934
Box 23
Rural-Urban Institute on Youth Migration, Youth Comes to the City (Washington), January 26, 1939
Box 24
Rural-Urban Institute on Youth Migration, From Virginia Small Towns and Rural Areas, February 15, 1939
Box 24
Conference on Guidance Aspects of Youth Migration in and from North . Carolina, July 28, 1939
Box 24
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations, annual convention, February 18-22, 1941
Box 24
Institute for Rural Youth Guidance, February 27, 1941
Box 24
American Council for Guidance and Personnel Associations, annual convention, February 17, 1942
Box 24
Institute for Rural Youth Guidance, April 23, 1942
Box 24
National Institute on Education and the War, August 28-31, 1942
Box 24
Luncheon forum, 1942
Box 24
Luncheon forum, May 17, 1943
Box 25
Institute on Postwar Problems of Youth Migration, May 26, 1943
Box 25
Luncheon forum, November 30, 1943
Box 25
Luncheon forum, January 17, 1944
Box 25
Luncheon forum, February 29, 1944
Box 25
Luncheon forum, March 27, 1944
Box 25
Luncheon forum, May 18, l944
Box 25
Institute on War and Postwar Problems of Rural Youth Migration, May 18-19, 1944
Box 25
White House Conference on Rural Education, October 3-5, 1944
Box 25
Luncheon forum, November 28, 1944
Box 25
Luncheon forum, January 23, 1945
Box 25
Luncheon forum, February 19, 1945
Box 25
Luncheon forum, March 28, 1945
Box 25
Luncheon forum, May 28, 1945
Box 25
Washington Institute on Postwar Problems, 1945
Box 25
Luncheon forum, January 15, 1946
Box 25
Luncheon forum, April 7, 1947
Box 25
Miscellaneous, undated
Box 25

Breathitt Co., Kentucky, Project Files Series, 1933-1944

8 boxes; 3.2 lin. ft.

Correspondence, approx. 2500 autobiographical surveys of students' home life and education, teachers' diaries and reports, publications, and newspaper clippings documenting the Alliance's efforts of vocational research and programming in the county's public school system. Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Autobiographies-Adkins School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Baker School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Bethel School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Big Hill School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Birch Lick School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Black Lick School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Blackwater School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Blooming-Grove School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Bond School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Buffalo School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Buncombe School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Carpenter School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Cavanaugh School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Chestnut Flat School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Cloverbottom School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Collier School District, 1934-1935
Box 26
Autobiographies-Drip Rock School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Dry Fork School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Dry Fork H.L. School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Durham Ridge School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Egypt School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Fairview School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Fall Rock School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Flat Top School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Gravel Lick School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Gray Hawk Community School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Green Hill School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Hickory Flat School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-High Knob School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Huff School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Hugh School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Hurst School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Lower Indian Creek School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Upper Indian Creek School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Indian Springs School District, 1934-1935
Box 27
Autobiographies-Johnson School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Kerby Knob School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Laurel Branch School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Letter Box School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Lewis School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Lite School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Maulden School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-McKee School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Moores Creek School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Morris School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-New Zion School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Old Bend School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Pigeon Roost School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Pine Flat School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Pine Grove School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Powell School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Privett School District, 1934-1935
Box 28
Autobiographies-Rice Hill School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Sand Gap School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Sand Lick School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Sand Springs School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Salt Rock School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Seven Pines School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Sinking Valley School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Smith School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-South Fork School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Sparks School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Terrill Creek School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Travis School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Tyner School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Union School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Autobiographies-Welchburg School District, 1934-1935
Box 29
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports, 1935-1936
Box 30
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports: Agriculture, 1936-1937
Box 30
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports: English, 1936-1937
Box 30
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports: Home Economics-Physical Education, 1936-1937
Box 30
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports: Sciences-Social Studies, 1936-1937
Box 30
Breathitt Co. High School teachers' reports, 1937-1938
Box 30
Carnegie Corporation grant, 1935-1937, undated
Box 30
Comprehensive program report, circa 1936
(2 Folders)
Box 31
Correspondence, 1933-1943, undated
(2 folders)
Box 31
Guidance workbooks, circa 1936
(2 folders)
Box 31
Miscellaneous, 1935-1943, undated
Box 31
Miscellaneous reports, 1934-1937, undated
Box 31
Printed materials, 1937-1944
(2 folders)
Box 32
Problem book, 1935-1936
(2 folders)
Box 32
Problem book (from selected school diaries of the teachers), 1936-1937
(2 folders)
Box 32
Publications and brochures, 1930-1937
Box 32
Publicity (news clippings), 1934-1942, undated
Box 33
Student art, 1936-1937, undated
Box 33
Survey (data compilations), undated
(3 folders)
Box 33
Survey (general), undated
Box 33
Survey (misc.), undated
Box 33
Survey (store), circa 1935
Box 33
Teachers' diaries, 1935-1936
Box 33

Pine Mountain Guidance Institute Files Series, 1936-1945 and undated

3 boxes; 1.2 lin. ft.

Correspondence, research reports, program brochures, published reports, printed materials, and news clippings documenting the annual guidance institute and other vocational workshops sponsored by the Alliance and held at the Pine Mountain Settlement School in Harlan County, Ky. Files contain proceedings and findings of the institutes as well as information on the Pine Mountain Settlement School and Harlan County, Ky. vocational programming. Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Bristol conference, 1942
Box 34
Harlan Co. correspondence, 1939-1942
Box 34
Harlan Co. Guidance Institute, 1947
Box 34
Harlan Co. junior counseling service, 1940-1941, undated
Box 34
Harlan Co. misc., 1936-1941, undated
Box 34
Harlan Co. supervisor's report of visit to schools, 194?
Box 34
Harlan Co. workshop (University of Kentucky), 194?
Box 34
Pine Mountain Guidance Institute (PMI), 1937-1938
Box 34
PMI-notes and proceedings, 1939
Box 34
PMI, 1940
Box 34
PMI-notes and proceedings, 1941
Box 35
PMI-findings, 1941
Box 35
PMI-correspondence, Jan.-Apr. 1942
Box 35
PMI-correspondence, May-Dec. 1942
Box 35
PMI-misc., 1942
Box 35
PMI-notes, 1942
Box 35
PMI-proceedings, 1942
Box 35
PMI-summaries and reports, 1942
Box 35
PMI-teacher survey I, 1942
Box 36
PMI-teacher survey II, 1942
Box 36
PMI-misc., 1941-1942, undated
Box 36
PMI-publicity (news clippings), 1937-1945, undated
Box 36
PMI-reason for discontinuing, 1942
Box 36
Pine Mountain Settlement School-correspondence, 1939-1943
(2 folders)
Box 36
Pine Mountain Settlement School-information and studies, 1934-1942
Box 36
Pine Mountain Settlement School-printed materials, 1938-1946, undated
Box 36
Report on teacher shortages, 1942
Box 36

Subject Files Series, 1919-1946 and undated

7 boxes; 2.8 lin. ft.

Contains chiefly printed materials such as pamphlets, articles, research reports, newsletters, and memoranda related to occupational and women's organizations, women's occupations, rural youth, rural education, African American occupations, vocational education, war work, social work, and vocational guidance. Files on organizations such as the American Association of University Women, American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations, National Information Bureau, Richmond Urban League and the YWCA contain pamphlets, minutes, newsletters, and reports which help to document any formal or informal working relationships with the Alliance. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

American Association of University Women, 1920-1940, undated
Box 37
American Council on Education, 1941-1945, undated
Box 37
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations (CGPA), 1936-1946, undated
(3 folders)
Box 37
Broadcasting, 1930-1942
Box 37
Community counseling centers, 1938-1946, undated
Box 37
Craven Co. (NC) guidance, 1931, 1933
Box 37
Education during wartime, 1942-1945, undated
(2 folders)
Box 37
Federal Council of Churches of Christ, 1936-1942, undated(2 folders)
Box 38
Federation of Business and Professional Women, 1919-1946, undated
Box 38
National Council of Women, 1933
Box 38
National Education Association, 1923-1936, undated
(2 folders)
Box 38
National Information Bureau, 1923-1944
Box 38
National Occupational Conference, 1933
Box 38
National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA), 1929-1933
Box 38
National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA), 1934-1941, undated
(2 folders)
Box 39
National Work Conference on Veteran's Education, 1946
Box 39
Negro education [original title], 1931-1946
Box 39
Negro nurses [original title], 1935-1944
Box 39
Negro occupations [original title], 1928-1942, undated
Box 39
Negro vocational guidance [original title], 1930-1938, undated
Box 39
Negro youth [original title], 1937-1940
(2 folders)
Box 40
North Carolina youth-serving agencies, 1938-1939
Box 40
Postwar vocational guidance, 1942-1945, undated
Box 40
Pre-school (nursery school) guidance, 1926, undated
Box 40
Richmond Urban League, 1930-1942, undated
Box 40
Rural education, 1939-1946, undated
Box 40
Rural life, 1933-1946, undated
Box 40
Rural migration (general), 1938-1946, undated
Box 41
Rural migration-New York, 1932-1935
Box 41
Rural migration-North Carolina, 1929-1937, undated
Box 41
Rural migration-Ohio, 1930-1942
Box 41
Rural migration-postwar, 1946
Box 41
Rural schools, 1930-1937, undated
Box 41
Rural youth, 1931-1951, undated
Box 41
Rural youth (wartime), 1942-1943, undated
Box 42
Social Science Research Council, 1927
Box 42
United Council of Social Work, undated
Box 42
Virginia Rural Youth Survey, 1941
Box 42
Vocational guidance (general), 1923-1944, undated
Box 42
Vocational guidance-girls in secondary schools, 1925
Box 42
Vocational guidance-rural youth, 1930-1943, undated
Box 42
Vocational guidance-veterans, 1944-1946, undated
Box 42
Vocational rehabilitation-handicapped, 1940-1946, undated
Box 42
Vocational schools, 1929-1944, undated
Box 42
War work, 1940-1945
Box 43
War workers-Recreation, 1942-1944, undated
Box 43
Washington Federation of Churches, 1943
Box 43
White House Conference on Children in a Democracy, 1939-1942
Box 43
Women-occupations, 1924-1945
Box 43
YWCA, 1919-1943
Box 43
Youth delinquency, 1929-1945, undated
Box 43
Youth organizations - Misc., 1938-1945, undated
Box 43

Writings and Speeches Series, 1919-1945 and undated

3 boxes; 1.2 lin. ft.

Contains notes and texts for speeches by Alliance members, chiefly Hatcher; copies of addresses presented by non-Alliance members at Alliance meetings; unpublished manuscripts and manuscript fragments; copies of scholarly articles published by Hatcher in educational, vocational, and women's journals; and radio broadcast scripts. Miscellaneous writings and speeches by Alliance members outline the history, purpose, and various activities of the Alliance. Miscellaneous writings and speeches by others contain information on more general subjects such as southern women, youth in industry, migrant war workers, postwar economic outlook and rural education. Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Child Development and Guidance in Rural Schools (notes and ms. fragments), 1942
Box 44
Fifty Rural High School Girls (unpublished ms.), 1930
Box 44
Fifty Rural High School Girls (ms. fragments), circa 1930
Box 44
Findings of the 1944 Rural Guidance Institute (unpublished ms.), 1944
(2 folders)
Box 44
Guide to Wartime Washington, D. C. (youth migration handbook), 1944
Box 45
Hatcher, O. Latham speeches, 1919-1944, undated
(7 folders)
Box 45
Hatcher, O. Latham published articles, 1922-1946
Box 45
Memorials, 1932
Box 45
Misc. writings and speeches by Alliance, 1924-1943, undated(2 folders)
Box 46
Misc. writings and speeches by others, 1928-1944, undated
Box 46
Misc. writings and manuscripts fragments, n. d.
Box 46
Occupations for Educated Women in Durham, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem, N.C. (unpublished ms.), 1926
Box 46
Radio broadcast scripts, 1925-1939, undated
(3 folders)
Box 46
When Our Young Folks Come Home to the Smaller Communities (unpublished ms.), circa 1945
Box 46

Publications Series, circa 1918-1943

2 boxes: 0.8 lin. ft.
Arrangement note

Materials published and distributed by the Alliance are divided into two groups. Smaller publications such as brochures, newsletters and conference proceedings are arranged alphabetically by type. Books and longer research reports are arranged chronologically by date of publication. Twenty-five Years of Work (1939) provides an extensive history of the organization. Miscellaneous file includes My Autobiography, a collection of forms used by the Alliance to gather data on rural youth, and A Syllabus for a General Course in Vocational Guidance. Also included are lists of publications.

List of publications, 1921-1939, undated
Box 47
Annual reports, 1918-1919, 1921-1923, 1939-1941
Box 47
Brochures, circa 1919-1940
Box 47
Bulletins, 1921-1922, 1928-1929, 1932-1934, 1938
(3 folders)
Box 47
Conference proceedings, 1930-1943
(2 folders)
Box 47
Newsletters, 1924-1927, 1929-1936, 1943
Box 47
Misc., 1921-1939, undated
Box 48
Occupations for Women, 1927
Box 48
Guidance Work in the Schools of Craven Counter, North Carolina, 1930
Box 48
Guiding Rural Boys and Girls, 1930
Box 48
A Mountain School, 1930
Box 48
Rural Girls in the City for Work, 1930
Box 48
Experimentation in Simple Guidance Programs for Rural Schools, 1931
Box 48
Handicaps of Elementary School Girls, 1931
Box 48
The Need for Guidance Programs in Privately Supported Mountain Schools, 1933
Box 48
Twenty-five Years of Work, 1939
Box 48
Child Development and Guidance in Rural Schools, 1943
Box 48

Clippings and Press Releases Series, 1914-1946 and undated

2 boxes; 0.6 lin. ft.

Contains copies of articles published in newspapers and periodicals, book publishers' advertisements for Alliance publications, typescript copies of press releases concerning activities and publications of the Alliance, and lists of periodicals to whom the press releases were sent. Divided into two groups: general and book reviews. Each group arranged chronologically.

Alliance activities, 1914-1946, undated
(9 folders)
Box 49
Book reviews, 1923-1942, undated
(4 folders)
Box 50

Photographic Materials Series, circa 1887-1930s

3 boxes; 1.5 lin. ft.

Black-and-white snapshots, negatives, and platinum prints depicting individuals living in rural areas of Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Most of the photographs and corresponding negatives were taken by Alliance staff in locations where vocational workshops or research projects were conducted: Breathitt County, Kentucky; Pine Mountain, Kentucky; Craven County, North Carolina; Ocracoke, North Carolina; Konnarock Training School, Virginia; Pleasant Hill Academy, Tennessee, and other mountain or rural mission schools. Included are two pictures of Rural Alliance leader Orie Hatcher and friends taken in 1887 and 1901.

Also contains 41 original matted and signed 6x8 inch platinum prints, negatives, and other prints by photographer Doris Ulmann, taken in Kingdom Come and Hindman, Kentucky, consisting of carefully composed portraits of rural residents, commissioned by the Southern Women's Educational Alliance of Richmond. Subjects consist of family groups and individuals, chiefly children, youth, and women, but including some men; many individuals are identified by name in the Ulmann's notes, along with comments on their lives and personalities. One image taken by Ulmann in her studio features her assistant and Appalachian folklorist and musician John Jacob Niles. Includes a typed list of titles and notes for each print, identifying most individuals, and copies of photographs intended for publication, according to original folder titles.

Series is arranged in two groupings: Alliance materials, and Doris Ulmann materials.

Photographs: Orie Latham Hatcher, 1887, 1901
Box 51
Photographs: Breathitt Co. Ky., circa 1920s-1930s
Box 51
Photographs: Pine Mountain, Kentucky, circa 1920s-1930s
Box 51
Photographs: unidentified, circa 1920s-1930s
Box 51
Photographs: misc. and unidentified, circa 1920s-1930s
Box 51
Photographs: manuscript fragments, circa 1930
Box 51
Photographs: manuscript fragments, circa 1930
Box 51
Nitrate negative film stills

Nitrate film negatives from snapshots taken by Women's Education Alliance staff or others. The single negatives typically measure 2x2 or 2x3 inches. Images were taken chiefly in Kentucky, North Carolina, and Virginia. Place names that have been identified are Breathitt (Ky.); Crozet (Va.?); Red Hill; Konnarock Training School (KTS) and KHS, possibly Konnarock High School, Whitetop (Va.); and Midway (Va.?). Subjects are chiefly girls and women, in groups or single portraits. Hand-written notes that were photocopied from the wrappers that accompanied the negatives usually include first names and initials of last names, and some details about family members present. A few of the nitrate negatives are deteriorated but most are in good condition.

Box 52-B

Doris Ulmann photographic prints

Contains a total of 42 signed, matted platinum prints by noted photographer Doris Ulmann that were commissioned by the Richmond branch of the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance and which were found among its archives. Titles and captions are taken directly from the inventory for 95 prints (represented by 92 entries); original spellings and colloquialisms have been retained. Although Ullman most likely authored the titles and captions, this has not been verified.

The matted platinum prints are arranged in legacy identification number order (marked on backs), a system probably deriving from Rural Alliance staff who obtained the prints from Ullman for exhibition and publicity. They measure 6x8 inches, the size of the glass plate negatives used by Ullman, and are glued to original 11x14 inch cream-colored window mats with paper hinges, a few of which are detached. Most are signed by Ulmann in pencil on the mount, on the right side just below the print. The mats are fragile; please handle with care. The glass plates are not included in the collection; they may still exist within the New York Historical Society's large collection of Ullman photographs and negatives.

Oceola Phipps

Age 14. Has made her own dresses since her ninth year. Wants to be a nurse. Is a very fine example of a blond mountain girl. Has great personal charm and with an equal chance would make her place anywhere in the world. Has had the usual education of a girl her age. Her parents favor her having a wider education.

Legacy id number: 1A

Box 52
Folder 1
Image RL_10067_P_01
Oceola Phipps

Legacy id number: 1B

Box 52
Folder 1
Item RL_10067_P_02
Oceola Phipps

Legacy id number: 1C

Box 52
Folder 1
Item RL_10067_P_03
Oceola Phipps

Legacy id number: 1D

Box 52
Folder 1
Item RL_10067_P_04
Mrs. Adams and her children

Legacy id number: 24

Box 52
Folder 1
Item RL_10067_P_05
Student at Methodist Settlement School at Kingdom Come

She wants to be a doctor, and will, no doubt, succeed.

Legacy id number: 28

Box 52
Folder 2
Item RL_10067_P_06
Miss Whittaker

Ran away from home because she did not like her stepfather. Come to Methodist Settlement School and is a model pupil. She is going to Washington to study Nursing.

Legacy id number: 30

Box 52
Folder 2
Item RL_10067_P_07
Miss Whittaker

Ran away from home because she did not like her stepfather. Come to Methodist Settlement School and is a model pupil. She is going to Washington to study Nursing.

Legacy id number: 31

Box 52
Folder 2
Item RL_10067_P_08
Little girl at Kingdom Come, with a clean dress and a little brother

They were bright youngsters and good students.

Legacy id number: 35

Box 52
Folder 2
Item RL_10067_P_09
Ethel Holcolm, a rare singer and a very fine child

She is a model student and a great blackberry picker.

Legacy id number: 36

Box 52
Folder 2
Item RL_10067_P_10
Ethel Holcolm and Tab Holcolm

Legacy id number: 39

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_11
Gathel Holcolm

Grandson of Mrs. Solomon Holcolm, of Kingdom Come.

Legacy id number: 41

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_12
Mrs. Cornette, a rare singer and play actor, little Ethel Holcolm and John Jacob Niles

Mr. Niles [noted folklorist and assistant to Ulmann] is recording the songs of both Mrs. Cornette and Ethel Holcolm. Mrs. Cornette left her blackberry preserving to come sing for the folks.

Legacy id number: 42

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_13
Mrs. Cornette, a rare singer and play actor, little Ethel Holcolm and John Jacob Niles

Legacy id number: 43

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_14
Headmaster of Kingdom Come School and a group of his friends and students

Legacy id number: 45

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_15
Mr. Greer, carrying a burlap poke containing watermelon rinds for his hogs

He is a republican and was born in Owsley County 85 years ago.

Legacy id number: 47

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_16
Little children at the Fireside Industries School at Wooton, K.Y.

Child on the left of Mary Munsey an extraordinary person and very pretty.

Legacy id number: 54

Box 52
Folder 3
Item RL_10067_P_17
Nola Josephs at the loom in the Fireside Industries at Wooton, K.Y. [3/4 frontal view]

Legacy id number: 55

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_18
Nola Josephs at the loom in the Fireside Industries at Wooton, K.Y.

Legacy id number: 56

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_19
Nola Josephs at the loom in the Fireside Industries at Wooton, K.Y. [back view]

Legacy id number: 57

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_20
Children in creek at Wooton, K.Y.

The oldest child was only 11, but managed the family perfectly. She spanked and delivered the law very successfully.

Legacy id number: 60. Missing front of mat.

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_21
Children in creek at Wooton, K.Y. [Portrait of oldest girl seated]

Legacy id number: 62

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_22
Children in creek at Wooton, K.Y. [Portrait of younger child, side view, with hand to eyes]

Legacy id number: 63

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_23
Miss Grace Combs

Has had a little learnin at the Richmond, K.Y., Normal School, and has taught a little. She is truly a beauty of the most extraordinary type. She has, however, great naivete and could almost be called bashful. She wants to see the outside world.

Legacy id number: 67

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_24
Miss Grace Combs

Legacy id number: 68

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_25
Miss Grace Combs

Legacy id number: 69

Box 52
Folder 4
Item RL_10067_P_26
Miss Grace Combs

Legacy id number: 70

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_27
Dale Smith, daughter of Senator Smith

Legacy id number: 71

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_28
Dale Smith and Miss Combs

Legacy id number: 72

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_29
Kindergarten teacher at Hindman School [Ky.]

Legacy id number: 73

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_30
Courtday in Courthouse at Hindman, K.Y. [Front of courthouse from distance with about 40 individuals on steps and balcony, almost all men]

Legacy id number: 74

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_31
Old lady with the sunflower dress

She came visiting on Sunday and sang lovely songs, too.

Legacy id number: 78

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_32
Judge Begley and his wife

The Judge is highly thought of in those parts, that is, Hyden, K.Y.

Legacy id number: 79

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_33
Begley children, taken a Sunday at Hyden, K.Y. [Portrait of young girl standing by chair]

Legacy id number: 80

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_34
Begley children, taken a Sunday at Hyden, K.Y. [Portrait of young girl with a bow in her hair, seated on ground]

Legacy id number: 81

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_35
Begley children, taken a Sunday at Hyden, K.Y. [Portrait of young girl seated in chair]

Legacy id number: 84

Box 52
Folder 5
Item RL_10067_P_36

Ulmann prints "for publication"

Four photographic prints, matted and numbered as the others, but separately housed with title "for publication." Arranged in legacy id order. The portrait of Mr. Greer and the Fireside Industries children are closely related to other prints in the collection.

Ethel Holcomb and Tab Holcolm

Legacy id number: 40

Box 52
Folder 7
Item RL_10067_P_37
Mr. Greer, carrying a burlap poke containing watermelon rinds for his hogs [Close-up]

He is a republican and was born in Owsley County 85 years ago.

Legacy id number: 46

Box 52
Folder 7
Item RL_10067_P_38
Little children at the Fireside Industries School at Wooton, K.Y.

Child on the left of Mary Munsey an extraordinary person and very pretty.

Legacy id number: 53

Box 52
Folder 7
Item RL_10067_P_39
Fred Stampler's group of fiddlers [Portrait of two male musicians - a white guitarist and a black fiddler - a "Mr. Storr" - and two seated women, near Hindman, Ky.]

Legacy id number: 65

This may be a mis-titled print, as there is only one fiddler. The guitarist has not been positively identified as Fred Stampler. There was a large family of musicians in Hindman by the name of Stamper (Hiram). The fiddler is unidentified in this image, but a solo portrait of the same individual shows up in other Ulmann collections as "Mr. Storr".

Box 52
Folder 7
Item RL_10067_P_40

Other prints

2 items
John Jacob Niles playing lap dulcimer, [1930?]
(6 x 8 in.)

Portrait of Niles (1892-1980), noted folklorist, musician, and field assistant to Ulmann, reportedly taken in her N.Y. studio in 1930. He is shown seated and playing a lap dulcimer. Black-and-white unmatted print; possibly an oil pigment process. No legacy id number was identified.

Box 52
Folder 8
Image RL_10067_P_41
Scenic view of mountain range, [1937?]
(6 x 8 in.)

Glued to thin board with inscription in lower left corner of print: Staley [9?]37. May have been taken by Staley Brothers Studio in Tullahoma, Coffee County, Tennessee. Both brothers reportedly were taking photographs into their 70s; brother William Staley died in 1937.

Box 52
Folder 8
Image RL_10067_P_42

Paper copies of Ulmann prints

Four printed paper copies of Ulmann portrait photographs of rural children; the images measure 6x8 inches, with the overall sheet dimensions measuring 11x14. One is a duplicate image already in the collection (#41); the other three are the only images in the collection. Only one has a title and a legacy id.

Gathel Holcolm

Grandson of Mrs. Solomon Holcolm, of Kingdom Come.

Legacy id number: 41

Box 52
Item RL_10067_PR_01
[Young girl holding another young girl, with flowers bunched in each hand]

No original legacy id number or title was found. This does not seem to be represented in the list of 95 prints found in the collection.

Box 52
Item RL_10067_PR_02
[Blond girl leans out of window]

No original legacy id number or title was found. This does not seem to be among the list of 95 prints found in the collection.

Box 52
Item RL_10067_PR_03
[Boy looks out of window, chin in hands]

No original legacy id number or title was found. This does not seem to be among the list of 95 prints found in the collection.

Box 52
Item RL_10067_PR_04
Copy prints, undated

Twenty-five unmatted black-and-white 8x10 inch glossy prints of a selection of Doris Ulmann prints, produced at an unknown date. A few are duplicate images.

Box 52-A
Inventory of 95 prints, undated

Set of typed notes on thin paper giving the number identification, title, and caption details for 95 prints (all of which were most likely commissioned by the Richmond branch of the Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth), 42 of which are in the collection. The titles and texts are by the photographer, Doris Ulmann. A photocopied set is available for use. There are also several sheets of loosely written penciled notes in an unidentified hand on topics related to the Alliance's plans for the images.

Box 52-A

Oversize Materials, 1920-1942 and undated.

1 box

Arrangement reflects order of series in main collection.

Administrative Files Series. Heaven Bound (playbill), 1934
Box 53
Administrative Files Series. President's annual report, 1920, 1925
Box 53
Administrative Files Series. Rural youth study: Youth migration in Virginia counties (proposal), 1935-1939, undated
Box 53
Administrative Files Series. Vocational survey in southern colleges, circa 1919-1926
Box 53
Breathitt Co. Project Files Series. Survey (data compilations, circa 1935
(3 folders)
Box 53
Subject Files Series. Negro occupations [original title], 1928-1942, undated
Box 53
Publications Series. Brochures (SWEA membership poster), undated
Box 53
Publications Series. Newsletters, 1925-1926
Box 53

Historical Note

Although the Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth officially came into being in 1937, its work stretched back to 1914, with the founding of the Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Women by Orie Hatcher and several other Richmond women. The roots of this first organization can be traced back to Hatcher's work with the Virginia Association of Colleges and Schools for Girls. As one of the association's founders in 1906, Hatcher was quickly elected to chair several successive committees designed to evaluate educational standards in Virginia's women's schools. Several surveys on women's colleges done by these committees clearly showed that educational standards in southern women's colleges were far below their northern counterparts and in fact did little to prepare women for careers other than teaching and homemaking. Hatcher's tenure at Bryn Mawr had exposed her to the women's employment bureaus which were emerging in the North. The Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Woman was thus created out of Hatcher's desire to reform women's education so that it provided a means to meaningful employment.

To meet this mission, the Bureau sought to open up new career paths for women and to provide a reliable source of information and sound counseling regarding education and occupational training for Virginia women. Because so few schools offered a curriculum that would train women directly for a specific occupation, the Virginia Bureau often lobbied various institutions to include educational programs that would prepare women for work. By working with other women's organizations and by using public opinion, the Bureau was an instrumental force in persuading the Medical School of Virginia to admit women to its dentistry, pharmacy, and medical programs, and in fact recruited the school's first twelve female students. In a similar manner, the Bureau was also able to influence the Richmond School of Social Economy to change to the Richmond School of Social Work and Public Health and for the Smithdeal Business College in Richmond to create a secretarial school which would serve women wanting to receive professional clerical training.

By 1920, the Bureau's mission had broadened, and it began to see itself as more of a regional group which represented emerging opportunities for southern women. To reflect this broader constituency, the Bureau changed its name to the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance and acquired new visibility through the addition of prominent regional and national figures to its board. By establishing branches in Atlanta, Chicago, New York, Washington, and Richmond, the Alliance was able to broaden its base of support. The primary functions of the branches were fundraising and promotion. Consequently, prominent and wealthy women such as Irene Gibson, her sister Lady Astor, and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson were recruited to help organize the branches.

The desire to get vocational information to women at a time when it would be most useful to their employment and career development eventually led SWEA to explore the role of vocational guidance for high school girls, especially those who would never attend college. This aspect of vocational guidance was particularly relevant in the South, where rural youth migrated out of their communities to look for work in cities. In exploring the vocational needs of rural high school girls, SWEA quickly realized that it would not be effective to separate guidance services for boys and girls in rural schools and therefore shifted its focus to rural youth in general. Although SWEA did not formally change its name until 1937, the organization was working exclusively on rural youth guidance by 1930.

Conference activity took on an increasingly important role in fulfilling the organization's mission of gathering and disseminating information on various vocational topics. From about 1918, the Virginia Bureau co-sponsored conferences with the Virginia Association of Colleges and Schools for Girls, National Committee of Bureaus of Occupation for Trained Women, and the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs. During the 1920s SWEA sponsored several conferences on occupational trends for women, developing guidance programs for women's colleges and schools, and effective guidance aids f or rural girls.

During the 1930s and 1940s, SWEA and AGRY s conference activity increased significantly. Alliance members participated in conferences sponsored by NVGA, CGPA, NOC, and NEA by chairing sessions and presenting papers on rural youth guidance. In addition, the Alliance sponsored several series of guidance conferences and forums on its own. Notable among these are the Pine Mountain Guidance Institutes, 1937-1942; Rural-Urban Institutes on Youth Migration, 1938-1939; luncheon forums for Washington (D.C.) youth-serving agencies, 1942-1947; and the Rural Guidance Institute held in conjunction with the group's annual board meetings.

With the success of Orie Hatcher's Occupations for Women (1927), the Alliance began to publish book-length research reports. Rural Girls in the City for Work (1930) and Handicaps of Elementary School Girls (1931) resulted from Rural Guidance Project research done in North Carolina. Guidance Work in the Schools of Craven Co., North Carolina (1930), Guiding Rural Boys and Girls (1930), A Mountain School (1930) and others were the product of the Alliance's work in North Carolina and Virginia with experimental county-wide guidance programs. These longer publications were instrumental 1n promoting the efforts of the Alliance.

The Alliance's far-reaching work in the field of rural youth guidance served to establish the organization as a national authority. After Hatcher's death in 1946, the group continued its research projects, publications, and conference activities under the direction of Amber Arthun Warburton who became the organization's executive secretary.

Subject Headings

Related Material

  • Amber Arthun Warburton papers, 1917-1976 (Additional material on AGRY) (Rubenstein Library, Duke University)
  • Virginia DeMott Cox papers, 1979, 1982 (Contains oral history interviews with Orie Latham Hatcher) (Rubenstein Library, Duke University)
  • Doris Ulmann Photograph Collection (Largest collection of Ulmann prints and negatives) (New York Historical Society)

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth Records, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Processing Information

Processed by Virginia Daley, June 1988

Encoded by Stephen Douglas Miller, April 1997

Further processing and description of the Doris Ulmann photographs and negatives and other images provided by Joanne Fairhurst and Paula Jeannet Mangiafico, December 2013