Guide to the Josiah William Bailey Papers, 1833-1967
The Bailey Papers contain the personal and professional papers of Josiah William Bailey (1873-1946), noted Baptist layman, Raleigh attorney, and United States Senator. The collection covers many aspects of Bailey's life and career and provides rich information on North Carolina and the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, particularly for the Depression years and World War II.
The Bailey Papers are comprised principally of correspondence and supporting printed material, although there are also financial records, clippings, volumes, broadsides, pictures, and memorabilia. The papers date from 1833 through 1967, with most Items falling in the period from 1900 through 1946.
The Bailey Papers depict Josiah W. Bailey's family, personal, religious, and professional life and indicate the wide range of his intellectual interests throughout his adult years. Generally, papers prior to Bailey's election to the United States Senate in 1930 reflect North Carolina issues: legal, political, religious, agricultural, social, and economic. During the senatorial years, material pertaining to national affairs predominates.
The chronological division between the Pre-Senatorial Series and the Senatorial Series was established at Dec. 31, 1930. There is occasional overlap among topical files within a series (such as that among Agriculture, Taxation, and Taxation: Revaluation in the Pre-Senatorial Series) or between series in some cases. When possible, cross references and other notes have been provided in the inventory. The researcher, however, should be aware of these relationships as they apply to specific research topics.
Much of Bailey's outgoing correspondence consists of form letters and perfunctory acknowledgments, but there are also many lengthy and articulate letters. It should be noted that the correspondence in the Personal Series is comprised mainly of family letters, many of which are informative about political issues of the day. Letters from Bailey to his wife, Edith Pou Bailey, and to his father-in-law, James Hinton Pou, are particularly informative.
- Collection Number
- Josiah William Bailey papers
- Bailey, Josiah William, 1873-1946
- 270 Linear Feet, circa 422,400 Items and 10 volumes
- David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
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How to Cite
[Identification of item], The Josiah William Bailey Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.
Family correspondence consists largely of letters to and from family members. For the pre-Senatorial period, there are Items from Bailey's friends and some personal correspondence of Edith Pou Bailey. Although some of these letters are of merely passing interest, others are quite detailed on subjects of research interest. A small folder of personal printed material (programs and other memorabilia) has been placed at the end of this main correspondence section.
Alphabetical correspondence includes letters to and from several individuals with whom Bailey corresponded frequently. There may also be isolated letters from these individuals in other parts of the collection. Arranged chronologically by day within each section.
Correspondence related to The Baptist Church and Its Institutions In North Carolina includes letters to and from ministers and church officials as well as representatives of church-affiliated institutions such as Wake Forest University, Mars Hill College, and Chowan College. Also contains material on the organization and operation or the Biblical Recorder and correspondence of its editors Livingston Johnson, J. S. Farmer, J. C. Slemp, and L. L. Carpenter. Other correspondents include the following: J. W. Lynch; William B. Royall; R. L. Moore; William Louis Poteat; Frances P. Gaines; J. A. Campbell; Joseph Bascomb Huff; Preston S. Vann; Louis D. Newton, editor of the Christian Index (Atlanta, Ga.); Robert H. Pitt, editor Herald (Richmond, Va.); and Archibald Johnson, editor of Charity and Children. Of particular interest is the exchange of letters between Bailey and John E. White, a Baptist educator and preacher in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Manuscript notes, drafts and corrections, typescripts, and some printed copies of writings, addresses, and statements.
The first part of this group consists of religious writings, most of which are undated (5 folders). Some topics include:
- Does the Christian Religion Stand the Test (1920)
- The Inadequacy of Modern Christianity to the Modern World
- Jesus' View of Wealth (1922)
- Ideals of the Christian College (1923)
- Historical Testimonies to the Baptist Contribution of Religious Liberty (1928)
- After Twenty-five Years (1932; on the Biblical Recorder)
- The Common Sense of Jesus of Nazareth (1934)
- The Basis of Representation in Baptist Conventions
- Jesus - An Appeal to Reason
- Victories of the Bible
- The Divine Method of Culture
The remaining writings and addresses are on miscellaneous subjects and include sketches of prominent individuals, commencement addresses and other occasional speeches, addresses, and notes on political philosophy and American history in general. In most cases, especially for writings prepared after 1930, Items on specific subject are found in the appropriate subject category in the Senatorial or Pre-Senatorial Series.
Miscellaneous writings include the following:
- School essays; address for the class of 1893,Wake Forest College
- Sketch of Archibald Murphy;
- Decision Day Address, University of North Carolina
- The Heritage of the Great War
- Our Task of Happiness
- Notes for speeches during World War I
- Thoughts on the Financial Depression (1921)
- Times that Try Men's Souls
- Economic Conditions in Rural N. C.
- Condition of the Farmers in N. C.
- Sketch of Wesley Norwood Jones
- Sketch of Dr. William B. Royall
- A Case for the Cardinal
- On the Constitution
- Henry Groves Connor --Address upon portrait presentation
- Law Enforcement
- Our Duty to Preserve the Character of Our Republic (before the Southern Society of New York City)
- Spiritual Values
- The Spirit of the American Revolution
- The Present Outlook (1932)
- Mercer University Centennial Address
- What is the Matter with N. C.?
- Letters of a Coat-Tail Congressman, Selected By his Private Secretary (satire by Bailey later submitted to the Saturday Evening Post)
- Novom Orderum Seculares (to New England Society of Charleston)
- North Carolina Signers of the Federal Constitution
- Sketch of Judge William Gaston
- The Major Decisions of President Roosevelt
- Advertising North Carolina
- Dominant Ideas of the Constitution (to the Economic Club, Worcester, Mass.)
- The National Gold-Fish Bowl by B. Pshaw (satire about Justice Hugo L. Black)
- The South as a National Problem
- Sketch of W. W. Vass
- The Democratic Process (commencement address, Colby College)
- The President Draws the Line (race question and immigration)
- The Status of the U. S. At the Present Time (1939)
- The intervention issue
- The Price of Peace
- Our Republic--It Must be Preserved
- Robert E. Lee
- Bricks Without Straw: Fabian Socialism in the United States
- The South at the Crossroads
- The Second American Revolution (submitted to the Saturday Evening Post)
- What is the American Way of Life
Notes and fragments, poetry by Bailey, writings by members of the Bailey family, and some writings by other individuals complete the Writings and Addresses section.
The first section consists of correspondence pertaining to real estate, investments, and other financial matters. Material is arranged roughly by year. After this chronological sequence, there are separate categories for insurance policy summary, income tax returns, the Bland Hotel' and the Andrew Johnson Hotel.
Correspondence relating to various aspects of Bailey's law practice. Often routine. Includes some letters of advice to young lawyers. Unarranged, about 5 folders.
Arranged alphabetically, these case files represent a sample of files in Bailey's law office.
Deals with WPTF radio station owned by Durham Life. Correspondence and printed material presenting the station's attempts to get favorable ratings and more power from the Federal Radio Commission, Letters from educators at Shaw University, Duke University, Meredith College; from N. C. Congressmen; and from other prominent citizens. Also includes other legal affairs of Durham Life.
Treasury Department committee which investigated a complaint against Bailey. The case was ultimately dismissed.
A libel suit in which Bailey defended R. T. Wade, a Morehead City editor who had printed an editorial relating to financial matters at the N. C. School for the Feeble Minded for which Hardy was responsible. There are numerous clippings about the affair and correspondence with members of the school's Board of Trustees.
This file concerns a case, the State Board of Charities and Welfare, et al. v. Highland Hospital, Inc. and Dr. Robert S. Carroll: The case dealt with alleged immoral practices at and mismanagement of this hospital for the insane. Bailey defended Carroll.
This case involves the trial of W. V. Guerard, formerly King Kleagle of the Ku Klux Klan, for embezzlement of Klan funds. Bailey defended Guerard and perceived the case as a means to publicize the Klan as a corporation engaged in unlawful business (see letter of Dec. 18, 1922, to Harry Dougherty). Guerard later sued for slander and libel. This file is arranged in chronological order from 1922 through 1925 and includes printed Klan and records of expenses for material on the Klan propagation in N. C., as well as correspondence indicating Bailey's political interest in exposing the Klan.
Bailey sought a restraining order against the Ringling Brothers Circus which planned to hold its circus at the same time as a Negro Fair sponsored by the N. C. Industrial Corporation which was usually held with no competition
This file consists of an exchange of legal advice between Overman and Bailey about the Owensby Case (the subject of a Senate committee investigation) and in relation to the confirmation of Harlan F. Stone as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
Relates to an attempt to sue N. C. State University when a student was shot by a security guard who was responsible for preventing trespassing in an orchard adjacent to campus.
This category includes Items on topics not included in the Subject Files listed below and Items dealing with more than one topic. It includes correspondence between Bailey and Walter Clark, April-May, 1922, on taxes and the governor's race in 1924; speech by Bailey at Pittsboro (April 30, 1923) with reference to the Ku Klux Klan; correspondence with F. M. Simmons, O. Max Gardner, and other state leaders; letters to and from Bailey's friends; and miscellaneous Items.
Conditions of farmers, mainly in North Carolina; cooperative marketing of cotton and tobacco; tenant farming; taxation of farm lands; crops and prices; and tariffs protecting agricultural products. (See also Taxation; Taxation: Revaluation; War Finance Corporation; Elections: Gubernatorial, 1924; Farmers' Union; and General).
Banking, economic conditions, economic distress in eastern North Carolina.
Public and private-education in North Carolina; Bailey's relationship with UNC-Chapel Hill and his views on public education during the 1924 gubernatorial campaign, textbooks; speech by Bailey on Athletics and the Public (Jan. 30, 1925), comments concerning a speech by Bailey on the ideals of a Christian college; correspondence with G. W. Paschal of Wake Forest College (Sept.-Nov., 1929) on the rise of public education in North Carolina; material on the McLean Bill, the Equalization fund and taxation for an eight-month term in 1929. (See also Taxation; letter of Oct. 20, 1929 in Pre-Senatorial General, from Bailey to O. D. Coffin on his and Biblical Recorder's opposition to University of North Carolina).
Ballot reform, Australian ballot, primary laws and the need for election reform. In letter of August 26, 1926, Bailey criticizes Blease of South Carolina. (See also Elections: Presidential, 1928--Aftermath; Extravagance).
Correspondence concerning whether Bailey should run, his platform, Watts and the “machine” in North Carolina politics, the issues at stake, and the prison scandal May, 1923?.
Subjects discussed in correspondence and speeches include taxation, agricultural conditions, freight rates, the political machine, law enforcement, and the Ku Klux Klan. There are lists of voters, sometimes with information on occupations or political positions; correspondence with newspapers; and information on newspaper advertising rates (May and June, 1924). Most of Bailey's speaking engagements are documented in Pre-Senatorial Series--Invitations and Engagements. (See also Agriculture; Farmers' Union; General; Labor; Railroads and Ports: Taxation; Taxation: Revaluation; and War Finance Corporation).
Reflections on the results of the primary and on the political situation in North Carolina. Letters of interest include those from Bailey to John E. White (July 9, 1914); to Santford Martin (July 5, 1924); and to M. L. Kesler (July 16, 1924). See also the letter from Bailey to H. T. Alexander (July 5, 1924) in Farmers' Union file.
Alfred E. Smith's candidacy for Democratic presidential nomination and for presidency on Democratic ticket. Many references to Prohibition, the 1st Amendment, the Ku Klux Klan, and anti-Catholicism.
Includes correspondence for July, 1928, concerning selection of North Carolina Democratic national committeemen and correspondence with, among others, the following - individuals: George Gordon Battle, R. H. Edmonds; O. Max Gardner; O. M. Mull; Joseph M. Proskauer; John J. Raskob; Franklin Delano Roosevelt; C. L. Shuping; John H. Small; Alfred E. Smith; and George R. Van Namee. (See also Elections: Senatorial, 1930, Campaign, for lists of 1928 Democratic state convention delegates; and Racial and Religious Prejudices).
Includes correspondence concerning reorganization of the Democratic Party in North Carolina, particularly F. M. Simmons's role in party affairs and legislation on primaries and voter registration.
Bailey's candidacy against Furnifold McLendel Simmons; for the Democratic senator's -nomination and against George Pritchard for the U. S. Senate seat.
The decision to run against Simmons. Correspondence with, among others, Broughton, Morrison, Poe, and Robert R, Reynolds. See also letter from Bailey to O. J. Coffin (Oct, 20, 1929) in Pre-Senatorial: General, and material on reorganization of Democratic Party in Elections: Presidential, 1928 (Aftermath).
The subject and county folders listed below were apparently created by Bailey's staff during the campaign and have been preserved. The relatively small number of unsorted Items have been arranged by date at the beginning of the category. Most of this material concerns the campaign against Simmons in the Democratic primary rather than against Pritchard in the general election. Material pertaining to the latter race is divided between this category and the one following it, Elections: Senatorial, 1930, Aftermath.
Congratulatory letters and reflections on primary results are interspersed with Items related to the campaign against Pritchard and various miscellaneous topics from 1930. The organization of Items in this category follows the apparent arrangement in Bailey's office.
A filing category apparently used in Bailey's office files for material related to his 1925 campaign against extravagant expenditures of the state government but expanded now to cover similar material from other years. Some Items concern the prison system and George Pou. There are references to the Highway Commission and other departments of state government as well as to election reform. (See also letter of Bailey to O. Max Gardner, Oct. 18, 1929, in Pre-Senatorial General).
Correspondence of Bailey with R. W. H. Stone and other material related to the Farmers' Union and Bailey's connection with it. Many references to taxation, agricultural conditions, the War Finance Corporation, and Bailey' candidacy for the 1924 Democratic gubernatorial nomination. (See also Agriculture; Taxation; and Taxation: Revaluation).
Material related to Bailey's service as Collector of Internal Revenue.
Invitations for political speeches, commencement addresses, and miscellaneous occasions, mainly from the period of the 1924 gubernatorial primary. Similar material for 1928 is included also in Elections: Presidential, 1928.
Mostly correspondence with the Rev. Tom P. Jimison, Methodist minister and chaplain for the North Carolina State Federation of Labor, concerning Bailey's 1924 gubernatorial campaign and the interests of workers. Also includes material related to organized labor; references to tenant farming; letters of Bailey to Cameron Morrison (Apr. 89 1922), Josephus Daniels (Apr. 15, 1922), and others; a pamphlet on, and other references to, workmen's compensation legislation; and correspondence between O. Max Gardner and Bailey (Oct. 1929 on strikes at Marion and Gastonia.
Correspondence of Bailey and members of the General Assembly on various subjects. Reflects Bailey's role in N. C. politics. Bills on insurance, gratuities and other miscellaneous matters. See also N. C. Politics
Material related to political activity, mainly Democratic, in North Carolina, Much early material (ca. 1910-1918) concerns Raleigh; information in 1913 on commission plan of government for Raleigh and in 1918 on death rate in Raleigh, Items from 1922 relate to Tax Commissioner Watts, taxation, the 1924 gubernatorial election, and the candidacy of Miss Lewis for county treasurer and W. F. Evans for solicitor against John W. Hinsdale. Letter (Nov 17, 1925) from O. Max Gardner about his political plans. Material from 1912 and 1913 includes endorsements of Bailey as candidate for D1 strict Attorney in eastern North Carolina and items related to Simmons' candidacy for the U. S. Senate.
Items concerning white supremacy, anti-Catholicism, the Ku Klux Klan, and related topics. See also Education; General Elections: Presidential 1928; and N.C. Politics
Much of this material deals with freight rates and the need for a coastal port in N. C. to facilitate east-west railways in the state as opposed to north-south railways in order to lower rates and aid farmers. Also included are Items dealing with other railroad matters. See also Elections: Gubernatorial 1924.
Correspondence concerning recommendations for positions in the highway department, service academies, North Carolina Railroad, postal service, judiciary, etc.
Material related to U. S. income tax, especially 1920; government bonds; and taxation in N. C. Many Items on N. C. taxes on land. Other Items concern taxation for roads and, particularly in 1929, for schools. See also Agriculture; Education; Elections Gubernatorial, 1924; Farmers' Union; General; North Carolina Politics; and Taxation: Revaluation.
Material related to the valuation of land for taxation purposes in N. C. and the controversy over revaluation in the early 1920s. See also Agriculture; Elections: Gubernatorial, 1924; and Taxation.
Concerns temperance movement, Anti-Saloon League, Prohibition, and repeal of the 18th Amendment. Correspondents include Methodist Bishop Edwin D. Mouzon July 1929. See also Elections: Presidential, 1928.
Concerns the role of War Finance Corporation in providing credit for N. C. farmers, its alleged failure to do so, and the consequent charges during the 1924 Democratic senatorial primary against Angus W. McLean, who had been an official of the Corporation. See also Agriculture; Elections: Gubernatorial, 1924; Farmers' Union; and General.
The papers in this section, largely correspondence plus some printed material, are of a diverse nature and quality. of primary importance is Bailey's correspondence with persons other than family members, such as friends and fellow Senators. Letters not easily placed in subject areas--those discussing Bailey's philosophy of life, history, or the general condition of the world, for example - and letters relating to more than one subject were placed in this section. Information on racial issues is also found here. Correspondents include major state and national figures, newspaper editors, and religious figures. There is a considerable quantity of routine correspondence and some personal correspondence of Bailey's secretaries, especially A. Hand James. The material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, telegrams, notes, speeches, statements, and printed material pertain to farming and agricultural products as well as to agencies and concerns of the Department of Agriculture. Of particular importance is material relating to the production and marketing of cotton and tobacco, including such topics as grading, surpluses, voluntary versus compulsory crop control, taxes, ceiling prices, arid specific hills. There is also information on other crops, such as soybeans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and strawberries, as well as on the poultry, baking and dairy industries. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) in its various forms and stages, is thoroughly discussed by Bailey and his constituents. Also included are materials relating to the Resettlement Administration, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Land Bank, the Farm Security Administration. Information pertaining to forestry and the Bureau of Public Roads is found in this section.
The papers for the early 1930s reflect the plight of the farmers and their attempts to survive the Depression. Many farmers describe in detail the effects on the economy and the AAA on their incomes. Material for the late 1930s generally concerns efforts of the farmers to adjust to increasing governmental regulation over production. Other more routine correspondence deals with soil conservation checks and acreage allotments. The papers for the 1940s relate to Federal control over production and prices through the Office of Price Administration (OPA) and to farmers' problems in dealing with OPA. The material is arranged chronologically by day.
- 1932:Agricultural Marketing Act; Federal Farm Board; farm relief.
- 1933:Domestic Allotment Plan; Agricultural Credit Corporation; farm extension work; plight of tobacco growers.
- 1934:Bankhead Cotton Control Bill; food packaging bills; tobacco production reduction; problems of the poultry industry; crop loans; tax on cotton ginning. Frazier-Lemke Farm Refinance Bill; Flannigan Tobacco Grading Bill; Agricultural Adjustment Act and various amendments; Bankhead Farm Tenant Bill. Refund of processing taxes; Seed Loan Bill; Commodity Exchange Control Bill; plans for compulsory crop control; AAA and various amendments.
- 1937: Cotton loan; improvement of highways and railroad grade crossings; tax on plug tobacco ; 3.5 % interest rate on Federal Land Bank loans; Forestry Bill; Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act; Farm Tenancy Bill; Farm Security Act; AAA; crop control versus export bounty; proposal to move the Forestry Service from the Dept. of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, voluntary versus compulsory crop control; tax on garden seed.
- 1938:Compulsory crop control; Farm Bill; peanuts; resettlement; problems with allotments; distribution of seeds by county agents in competition with merchants; AAA.
- 1939:Crop control; Smith Cotton Bill; restriction on sugar production; Fulmer Net Weight Bill, government distribution of seeds; Bankhead Cotton export subsidy; Agricultural Appropriation Bill; Bailey Farm Marketing Bill; control of tobacco production; flue-cured tobacco marketing crisis; storage rates on cotton; flaxseed competition from Argentina.
- 1940: Marketing Bill; tobacco embargo; trade agreement with Great Britain affecting cotton and tobacco; agricultural appropriation cuts; transfer of Forest Service to the Dept. of the Interior; cotton storage rates; foreign competition with American wood pulp; crop control; Net Weight Cotton Bill; food stamp plan: Jones-Wheeler Bill; tobacco storage.
- 1941 Marketing Bill; Net Weight Cotton Bill; tobacco exports; importation of Argentine beef; Agricultural Appropriation Bill; Fulmer Bill for the funding of 4-H Clubs and Extension Service; excess wheat production.
- 1942:Price controls; sale of government surpluses below parity prices; farm labor shortage and migratory labor camps; Net Weight Cotton Bill; government distribution of seeds; Agricultural Appropriation Bill; peanut prices; tobacco tax; ceiling prices on tobacco; Thomas-Hatch Amendment to the Anti-Inflation Bill, calculating farm labor costs in parity prices; McNary Amendment for a forest fire protection appropriation; government competition with mill operators.
- 1943:Farm prices and price controls; farm labor shortage; tobacco grading program; farm wagon shortage; crop control; Pace Bill to include farm labor costs in parity prices; appropriation for the Farm Security Administration; vote on Bankhead Bill after presidential veto; Agricultural Appropriaion Bill; shortage of corn products; ceiling prices on flue-cured tobacco; reduction in importation on Chilean nitrate of soda for fertilizer; dairy industry and OPA regulations; Food Subsidy Bill; milk shortage in Roanoke Rapids, N. C.
- 1944:Food Subsidy Bill; farm labor shortage; ceiling prices on strawberries, watermelons and sweet potatoes; tobacco quotas; subsidy for the dairy industry; alfalfa shortage; Bankhead Amendment on cotton textile ceilings; baking industry and OPA regulations; post-war planning for agriculture.
- 1945.Ceiling prices and government grading of cotton; funding for the Agricultural Extension Service; sweet potato market; tobacco markets; forestry appropriation; ceiling prices on strawberries, labor from Barbados for emergency work; Pace Bill for parity prices for cotton; Ceiling prices on cotton, tobacco, strawberries, ice cream mix, poultry and dairy industries; Flannagan Tobacco Bill; registration of firearms; rationing or downgrading of flour; shortage of corn products; Flannagan Farm Credit Bill; tobacco exports; farm machinery discounts to distributors; subsidies to the dairy industry.
- 1946: Correspondence and copies of bills relate primarily to individual bills for relief, There is some routine correspondence pertaining to administrative details of the Committee on Claims, of which Bailey was chairman, 1935-1938. The material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence and copies of bills relate primarily to individual bills for relief. There is some routine correspondence pertaining to administrative details of the Committee on Claims, of which Bailey was chairman, 1935-1938. the material is arranged chronologically by day.
The correspondence, telegrams, notes for speeches, and printed materials deal mainly with the problems faced by the business community during the Depression and World War II. During the thirties notable topics of discussion are: the National Industrial Recovery Act and the NAA codes, government competition with private enterprise, and the “Roosevelt” or “business” depression of 1937-1938. Bailey was particularly outspoken during 1937-1938 on governmental policy and attitudes toward business, and there is considerable constituent mail related to his views. The majority of correspondents are textile and furniture executives. Many of these industrialists go into great detail about the Depression, the NRA codes, and Roosevelt's policy in general, and the effects of each on business. Material for the 1940s is less abundant. Its focus is on business problems caused by shortages due to the war and on postwar reconversion. Material in this category is arranged chronologically by day.
- 1932: Bill to require contractors to name their sub-contractors in bidding; Davis-Kelly Bill.
- 1933:Section 7A of National Industrial Recovery Act; NRA codes, and business complaints.
- 1934: NRA codes; government plans to build a furniture factory in West Virginia in competition with North Carolina furniture manufacturers.
- 1935:NRA codes; competition from chain stores.
- 1937: Business depression; Bailey speeches urging the government to encourage private enterprise (November and December);Bailey's Declaration of Principles.
- 1938:Constituent mail on Bailey's speeches, The Only Way to Real Recovery and American Enterprise and American Government;business depression; Neely Block Booking Bill (Motion Picture Industry); Patman anti-chain store bill.
- 1940: Neely Block Booking Bill.
- 1941: Report on Asheville and Western North Carolina as good area for industrial location.
- 1942-1943: Business problems due to war shortages.
- 1944: Postwar reconversion.
- 1945:Postwar reconversion (inc. pamphlet Victory for Freedom.)
The material in this section, mainly correspondence and telegrams, reflects the problems faced by railroads and railroad employees in the 1930s and 1940s. Federal regulation and government ownership of railroads and labor problems' such as unemployment, wages, and retirement are the major topics covered, The bulk of the material on freight rates and discrimination against southern railroads is found in the “Trade and Commerce” section. The material is arranged chronologically by month.
- 1932: Proposed committee to investigate railroad conditions; Railroad Pension Bill.
- 1933: Fort Benning Railroad (expenses cut from War Department Appropriation Bill); Emergency Railway Transportation Act.
- 1934:Labor problems, e.g. wages, retirement, unemployment.
- 1935:Government ownership of railroads; Railroad Retirement Act; extension of Emergency Railway Transportation Act. Railroad Pension Bill; Wheeler-Crosser Bill to prevent reduction in railroad employment.
- 1937: Discontinuance of Postal Mail Service by train; Train Limit Bill.
- 1938: Railroad Retirement Act; Train Limit Bill; wages of railroad employees; Wheeler-Truman Bill providing relief to railroads and eliminate competition from motor carriers.
- 1940: Vote to override presidential veto of Truman-Hobbs Bill; bill requiring conductors on Pullman cars on overnight trains.
- 1941: Railroad Retirement Act,
- 1942: Hobbs Bill to amend Anti-Racketeering Bill of 1934.
- 1943:Hobbs Bill; wage increases for railroad employees.
- 1944:Railroad Retirement Act; Land Grant Bill; Hobbs Bill, Railroad Retirement Act; Hobbs Bill.
Correspondence, telegrams, notes drafts and copies of speeches, statements, copies of bills, and printed material relate to trade and commerce as well as to the concerns of the Commerce Committee, of which Bailey was a member, 1931-1946, and chairman, 1939-1946. Information on foreign trade agreements is found in this section, while papers on specific tariffs are located in the Tax and Tariff category, material relating to commerce, particularly the regulation of commerce, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Correspondence concerns various bills to regulate the transportation of goods by rail, by motor carriers, and by waterway. Scattered throughout the section is correspondence pertaining to discrimination against the South in the matter of freight rates. There is also some information on the Merchant Marine, although the bulk of this material is located in the Navy and Marines category.
Affairs of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) and the development and regulation of public utilities are also covered in this section. In the early 1930s an important issue for Bailey and other North Carolinians was the appointment of “Hoovercrat” Frank McNinch to head the EPC and his reappointment by Roosevelt. The principal bill relating to utilities was the Rayburn-Wheeler Utility Act, 1935. Correspondence and other material related to this act are in separate folders located at the end of the papers for 1935. Material concerning the development of electricity through the Rural Electrification Authority is located in separate folders at the end of the Trade and Commerce section.
The development and improvement of the nation's waterways is a major concern. Various projects to develop navigation and power in the St. Lawrence Seaway-Great Lakes region, the proposed Florida Cross-State Ship Canal, and Panama Canal tolls are covered in this section. Considerable correspondence relates to various bills concerning rivers and harbors as well as to specific North Carolina projects to develop or improve harbors, ports, and rivers across the state. There is also material dealing with various flood control bills.
Aviation and its development was an important concern of Bailey's. There is information dealing with the construction of airports, especially in North Carolina; the regulation of air travel; private flying; and the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA) (later, the Civil Aeronautics Board). In 1944, Bailey attended the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago. Correspondence, memorabilia, and printed material concerning this conference are located at the end of material for 1944.
As a result of Bailey's efforts, a special subcommittee was formed in the Senate in 1935 to investigate the causes of the Depression. Bailey chaired the committee. Material concerning the work of the committee is in separate folders at the end of the material for 1935.
Other material found in this section relates to Federal funds for the improvement of highways, the Federal Communications Commission and the regulation of radio broadcast frequencies, Bailey's duties as chairman of the Commerce Committee, and the controversy over the confirmation of Henry A Wallace as Secretary of Commerce, 1945.
Material is arranged chronologically by month.
- 1930:Radio channel for labor; appointment of Frank McNinch to head the FPC.
- 1931:McNinch appointment; railroad freight rates; Smith's Creek Dredging Project.
- 1932: Bill to increase powers of the ICC under which it could regulate truck and bus traffic in competition with rail carriers; Federal Aid Highway Appropriation Bill; Shipping Bill to regulate shipping rates and operations of the common carriers on the inter-coastal waterways; Davis-Kelly Coal Bill; Smith's Creek Dredging Project. St. Lawrence Seaway Canal Treaty; Morehead City Port Terminal; Georgia-Florida Ship Barge Canal; pamphlet - Study in Transportation and the Coming Partnership between Rails and Trucks.
- 1934:Inland Waterway; St. Lawrence Seaway Treaty; improvement of the New River from the Inland Waterway to Jacksonville, N. C.; McNinch appointment; Pettengill Bill relating to the long-short haul clause of the Interstate Commerce Act; Morehead City Port Terminal; freight rate discrimination against the South.
- 1935:Eastman Bill to regulate water transportation; Wheeler-Huddleston Bill to regulate motor carriers; McNinch appointment; Morehead City Port Terminal; Florida Cross-State Canal; Shipping Bill; Tar River improvement; Rayburn-Wheeler Utility Act (in separate folders at end of 1935);Guffy Bituminous Coal Act (in separate folders at end of 1935); sub-committee to investigate the causes of the Depression (in separate folders at end of 1935).
- 1936:Florida Cross-State Canal; Ship Subsidy Bill; Copeland-Guffy Compromise Shipping Bill; Pettengill Bill; Guffy Bituminous Coal Bill; Morehead City Port Terminal; Drum Inlet improvement; Flood Control Bill; Panama Canal Tolls Bill. Florida Cross-State Canal Bill; Guffy Coal Bill; Casey Coal Bill; Pettengill Bill; Connally Hot Oil Act; Federal Aid to Highways Appropriation Cut; Tydings Fair Trade Act; McCarran-Lea Bill for the regulation of air transportation; Panama Canal Tolls Bill; Tar River improvement project; business depression of 1937.Pettengill Bill; McCarran Air Transportation Bill; Griswold Bill requiring contractors submitting bids on government jobs to list names of sub-contractors; Borah-O'Mahany Licensing Bill; Morehead City Harbor improvement; Tuckertown Dam power project; government owned barge line on the Cape Fear River in competition with private railroad companies; tax on nepheline to protect the feldspar industry; proposal by Bailey for the Commerce Committee to conduct a price inquiry.
- 1939:Bailey Travel Bill; Clark Anti-Pollution Bill; Transportation Bill extending the powers or the ICC to regulate all forms of transportation; freight rates; Neely Block Booking Bill; Rivers and Harbors Bill; the Civil Aeronautics Authority; appointment of Harry Hopkins as Secretary of Commerce; appointment of Thomas R. Amlie as chairman of the ICC.
- 1940:Wheeler-Lea Transportation Regulation Bill; Reciprocal Trade Agreements; Sugar Bill; Rivers and Harbors Bill; CAA; development of airports, especially the Asheville-Hendersonville Airport; Pan-American Airways; the exportation of scrap iron from the United States, question on the 1940 census concerning income for 1939.
- 1941: Florida Ship Canal; St. Lawrence-Great Lakes Navigation and Power Project; Rivers and Harbors Bill; Flood Control Bill; Federal Road Aid Act to improve the defense highway system; price-fixing bill; bill to regulate freight forwarders; CAA; improvements at the Greenville and Lumberton airports; restriction on private flying, minority views on the McKellar Amendment providing appropriation for America Export Lines; gas shortage in Wilmington, N. C.
- 1942: Florida Ship Canal; Rivers and Harbors Bill, including the St. Lawrence Seaway Treaty; bill to regulate size and weight of motor vehicles engaged in interstate commerce; Office of Defense Transportation orders on conserving trucks and tires; development of airports; sugar allocation. Reciprocal Trade Agreements; bill to make freight rates uniform; Bailey-Van Nuys Bill concerning the application of anti-trust laws to the insurance business; highway appropriations; development of airports.
- 1944:Flood Control Bill; postwar highway development plans; Insurance Bill; cut in sugar quota; development of civil aviation; Yadkin River Dam project; International Civil Aviation Conference (in separate folders at the end of 1944).
- 1945:Reciprocal Trade Agreements; allocation of radio frequencies for the use of the medical profession in operating diathermy equipment; development of airports; civil aviation; Bailey bill to aid underdeveloped areas to industrialize; Lea Airport Ald Bill; flood control, especially at Buggs Island and the Roanoke River; sugar shortage; the appointment of Henry A. Wallace as Secretary of Commerce (in separate folders at the end of 1945).Airport Bill, extension of the Office of Price Administration; flood control, especially the Yadkin Valley Flood Control Bill; sugar shortage.
Folders on the Rural Electrification Administration are in separate folders at the end of the section.
Correspondence, speeches, notes, and printed material concentrate on U. S. banking and monetary policy. The major portion of this section covers the period 1931-1935. Papers on banking relate to the banking crisis and governmental efforts to ease the situation through guarantees of bank deposits and to the various governmental loan agencies: the Home Loan Bank, the Federal Land Bank, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. There is considerable constituent mail concerning loans from these agencies. Monetary matters cover gold, silver, the devaluation of the dollar, currency stabilization, the regulation of the stock exchange, and bankruptcy legislation. During the early 1930s, there is correspondence concerning the financial affairs of the Wake County Savings Bank, of which Bailey was a vice president. Financial material on Bailey and Helen Leigh Bailey is dated during the early 1930s. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
- 1932: Forming of the three loan agencies; Glass Banking Bill; Goldsborough Bill for currency stabilization; Stegall Bill guaranteeing bank deposits.
- 1933: Constituent opinion on Federal guarantees of bank deposits; Glass-Stegall Banking Bill; World Economic Conference; Municipal Bankruptcy legislation
- 1934: Bailey's speech, Our Monetary Policy;Sumner-Wilcox Municipal Bankruptcy Bill; Fletcher-Rayburn Bill to regulate the stock exchange.
- 1935: Banking Act of 1935.
- 1937:McAdoo Bill; Patman Banking Bill.
- 1943: Insurance Bill, leaving regulation in the hands of the states.
- 1944: Insurance Bill.
Correspondence, telegrams, speeches, notes, and printed material pertain to the economy of the United States. The material tends to be of a more general nature rather than relating to specific topics such as banking. The Depression, its causes and solutions, and governmental expenditures are the major topics covered in the early 1930's. Papers on the committee formed in 1935 to investigate the causes of the Depession are found in this section, although the bulk of this material is located in “Trade and Commerce” . The “Business” or “Roosevelt” depression of 1937-1938 is of primary importance in the material of the late 1930's.. Bailey was an outspoken critic of governmental attitudes toward spending and pump priming and believed that government should encourage private enterprise. He stated his beliefs in a speech known as the “Declaration of Principles. ” Constituent opinion on governmental policies, Bailey's “Declaration of Principles, ” and a statement by Roosevelt that the South was “America's No. 1 Economic Problem” are the main thrust of correspondence during the late 1930's. Material for the 1940's generally concerns efforts to control the ecoromy and prevent inflation through “economy in government” and price fixing. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Largely correspondence and telegrams, the material consists mainly of constituent opinion on specific taxes and tariffs, predominantly the former. The bulk of the correspondence is from businessmen who were affected by the various taxes and tariffs. Frequently correspondents discussed in detail the expected or resulting effects of the tax or tariff on their businesses. Topics include income tax, sales tax, revenue bills, excess profits tax, and taxes and tariffs on specific comnodities. The material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence and printed material relate to the various agencies and concerns of the Treasury Department. The section contains material pertaining to the Coast Guard, such as appointments, promotions, regulations and specific bills dealing with Coast Guard activities. There is also information on the functions and operation of the Federal Alcohol Unit. Also included is correspondence concerning the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and its duties and constituent problems in dealing with the IRS. There are some papers relating to Bailey's personal income tax as well, although the bulk of this material is found in the Personal Series. Correspondence in the late 1930's deals with the attempts of the granite industry to have granite used in the construction of Federal buildings. There is information on currency stabilization and gold and silver in this section, as well as in Banking and Currency. The material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams and some printed material chiefly reflect constituent opinion on educational issues. The material during the early 1930's deals with the financial crises faced by many private educational institutions, particularly the Baptist-affiliated schools in which Bailey had a personal interest. Other papers for that period concern cuts in appropriations for vocational education and a proposed amendment to allow the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to aid colleges and universities. Correspondence in the late 1930's pertains to Federal aid to kindergartens and libraries. The main thrust of this section focuses on the all important issue of Federal aid to education and to state versus Federal control. This issue is the central one for the years 1939-1946. The continuation of the National Youth Administration (1943) and the school lunch program (1946) are also discussed in the correspondence. The material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, telegrams, and printed material chiefly concern the various bills proposed by Congress relating to the advertisement and regulation of sales of different foods and drugs. While much of the correspondence is routine, there is a significant number of detailed letters by producers describing the expected results of proposed bills. The bulk of the material refers to the Tugwell Food and Drug Bill (1933) the Copeland and the Stephens Bills (1934), and the Copeland Bill (1935). Correspondence for the late 1930's concerns food and drug bills of lesser importance. There is little material for the 1940's. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence and printed material are chiefly concerned with communist and Nazi influence in the United States. The bulk of the material refers to the work of the Dies Committee on Un-American Activities, constituent opinion on the continuation of the committee, and to the question of U. S. aid to “democratic” Spain. There is also some “hysterical” material on communism and Nazism, particularly the former. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Mainly letters, telegrams, and printed material chiefly concerning constituent opinion on major foreign policy issues. Although there is little material for the years 1931-1937, there is a considerable quantity pertaining to United States involvement in the World Court. Papers for 1938 concern the Spanish Civil War, the arms embargo, the Sino-Japanese war, and sales of scrap iron to Japan. Between the outbreak of World War II and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the principal topics of concern are the Neutrality Act, the Arms Embargo, aid to Finland and Great Britain, and keeping the United States out of the European war The material during the war years deals with efforts to establish a world organization for peace. There is also opinion on the Dumbarton Oaks proposal of 1945 and postwar aid to war-torn countries. Material pertaining to the conduct of the war and relations with U. S. allies is chiefly located in the National Defense section. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, clippings, and printed material pertain to Jewish affairs. The major portion of the material, 1944-1946, deals with the Palestine question and the creation of a Jewish state. There is material on a White Paper published in the 1930s concerning attitudes toward Jews and information concerning German treatment of Jews in the 1930s and efforts to get Jews out of Germany. There is also anti-Semitic correspondence and printed material. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Principally correspondence, this material relates to routine matters, such as obtaining passports and visas, receiving privilege of the port, and the entry of immigrants into the United States, More important topics on which there is information are claims against the German government, 1933; laws restricting immigration, 1935; the repeal of the Chinese excluxion Act, 1943; the nomination of Edward J. Flynn as ambassador to Australia, 1943; the postwar peace settlement, 1944; and a loan to Great Britain, 1946. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence and printed material are concerned with those matters under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior. One of the more important subjects found In this material is the development of national parks and battlegrounds, particularly the Great Smokey Mountain National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway. There is information pertaining to the policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, principally dealing with North Carolina tribes and to legislation affecting Indians. Policies and legislation related to insular affairs - especially Puerto Rico and the Philippines, are covered in this section. There is also material dealing with the development of fisheries and mines. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
- 1931: Great Smokey Mountain National Park; Park-to-park highway.
- 1932:Great Smokey Mountain National Park; George Washington Bicentennial Celebration; fisheries appropriation; Robeson County Indlans.
- 1933:Great Smokey Mountain National Park; Kings Mountain Battleground National Park; Ft. Macon State Park; Uwharrie Hills National Park; Cape Lookout Highway; Robeson County Indians.
- 1934:Park-to-park Highway; Uwharrie Hills National Park; Robeson Coclnty Indians; Wheeler-Howard Bill pertaining to the Indians; Guilford Court Tiouse battleground; relief for fishermen.
- 1935: Park-to-park highway; Uwharrie Hills National Park; Guilford Court House battleground; coastal highway; Bentonville battleground; Indians; soil erosion; appropriation cut for park for Negroes in Raleigh, N. C.; Penderlea resettlement project.
- 1936:Kings Mountain Battleground National Park; Bentonville Battleground; park-to-park highway; Indians.
- 1937:Cherokee Indians; Great Smokey Mountain National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway; Constitution Scsquicentennial Celebration.
- 1938: Blue Ridge Parkway.
- 1939:Blue Ridge Parkway; Ft. Fisher state historic site; Panama Canal.
- 1940:Blue Ridge Parkway; Alamance Battleground.
- 1941:Great Smokey Mountain National Park; Alamance Battleground; Roanoke River flood control.
- 1942:National parks; manganese production.
- 1943:Philippine independence; manganese production.
- 1946:Cape Fear River project; flood control.
Correspondence and statements deal with efforts to preserve wildlife and natural resources and with the functioning of the Committee on Wildlife and Conservation, of which Bailey was a member. The material concerns the development of wildlife preserves, hunting regulations, and other matters related to conservation. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, telegrams, and copies of bills pertain chiefly to routine affairs, such as requests for assistance in obtaining paroles and recommendations for appointments of a juclicial nature, Other correspondence deals with legislation concerning the establishment: and the restructuring of judicial districts in North Carolina. There is also material related to legislation concerning bankruptcy laws and anti-trust laws, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and to immigration laws. Some material pertaining to Bailey's private law practice appears in this section, although the bulk of it is found in the Legal Series. Separate folders at the end of this section contain correspondence and printed material related to various Federal anti-lynching bills, and Bailey's opposition to Federal bills as an encroachment on state jurisdiction.
While the papers for the 1930's are covered by the above description, several other important issues appear in those for the 1940's: FBI appropriations and the activities of the FBI (1940); fifth column activity and bills concerning aliens (1940-1941); the question of the legality of wire tapping by the FBI in time of emergency (1942); and Federal seizure of the Montgomery Ward Company (1944). Material is arranged chronologically by day.
The bulk of the material in this section consists of constituent correspondence concerning Roosevelt's “Court-packing Bill” of 1937. An outspoken critic of the reorganization plan, Bailey made several speeches, including The Living Soul of Democracy (February, 1937) and In Defense of the Independence of the Judiciary (July, 1937), and the major portion of the letters deals with Bailey's stand on Roosevelt's proposal. Included are copies and drafts of Bailey's speeches and statements. The material for other years is meagre. There is some correspondence dealing with Supreme Court nominations, such as the replacement of Justice Holmes (1932) and the nominations of Hugo Black (1937), Felix Frankfurter (1939), and Frank Murphy (1940). Much of the material during the 1940's, centering around the two presidential campaigns, deals with proposals supported by Bailey to limit presidential tenure. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
This section is comprised of correspondence, telegrams, copies of bills, statements, speeches, and notes, principally concerning labor legislation and the duties of labor and management. The main focus of legislation during the 1930's concerns various bills to establish maximum hours and to provide a minimum wage and unemployment compensation, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NTRA), and the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). Correspondence from various labor organizations requested Bailey's support on numerous bills. Other constituent mail opposed the activities of the unions. Much of the latter correspondence concerns the actions of John L. Lewis, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), and sit-dowm strikes. There is also correspondence, 1933, dealing with Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins's statement ahout the “shoeless South” and Bailey's defense of conditions in the South. The bulk of the material for the 1940's relates to the conflict between labor unions, principally the CIO, and the prosecution of the war. The major question concerned whether the sit-down strikes and demands of the labor unions were jeopardizing the war effort and the postponement of these demands until after the war. Much of the correspondence for 1944 deals with Bailey's proposed “Work or Fight” Bill, his response to this national dilemma. Correspondence for 1946 deals with the Fair Employment Practices Commission. Although some papers pertain to the regulation of immigration, the major portion of the material is in the State Department and Immigration category of the Foreign Affairs section. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
- 1931: Reduction of wages of Federal employees,
- 1932: Reduction of wages of Federal employees; Flagner Public Works Bill; Norris Anti-Injunction Bill.
- 1933: Black Thirty-hour-Work-Week Bill; Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins's statement about the “shoeless South” ; Section 7A of NIRA (collective bargaining).
- 1934:Wagner-Connery Labor Disputes Bill; Section 7A of NIRA; Wagner Labor Relations Bill.
- 1935:Wagner Labor Relation Bill; Black Thirty-Hour-Work-week Bill; Kerr Deportation Bill.
- 1936: National Textile Act (Ellenbogen Bill); Reynolds Immigration Bill; Kerr Deportation Bill.
- 1937:Black-Connery Wage and Hour Legislation; John L. Lewis, the CIO, and sit-down strikes.
- 1938: Fair Labor Standards Act; wage and hour legislation
- 1939:Amendments to the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act).
- 1940:Smith amendments to the Wagner Act; Barden amendments to wage and hour legislation.
- 1941: Strikes versus national defense.
- 1942: Strikes versus national defense; forty hour work week.
- 1943: Strikes versus national defense; exemption of laborer from conscription.
- 1944: Bailey's speech, Let us Face the Issue, on proposal requiring labor unions to file financial information with the Treasury Department; reconversion; Work or Fight Bill.
- 1945: Minimum wage legislation; unemployment compensation; Bailey's bill to eliminate royalty payments to unions.
- 1946: Minimum wage legislation; Fair Employment Practices Commission; Case Strike Control Bill.
Correspondence and printed material pertaining principally to legislation concerning medical issues. Material during the early 1930's deals with funds for a public health service, local hospitalization of veterans, and legislation on birth control. There is some material concerning food and drug legislation (1935), althougn the major portion is located in its own “Food and Drugs” section. The bulk of the correspondence of the late 1930's and the 1940's concerns various bills dealing with socialized medicine, including the Wagner-Murray-Dingall Bill (1944-1946). There is also information on legislation for the control of venereal disease, particularly 1938-1939. Other major topics include the Tolan Bill (1941) to include chiropractic services as a benefit for government employees; a dental bill (1942); and funds for the St. Agnes Hospital for Negroes in Raleigh (1943). Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, telegrams, and printed material concern naval appropriations, shipbuilding, and the development of naval power for national defense. There is material pertaining to the U. S. Maritime Commission, including considerable correspondence with Admiral Emory S. Land. There is also information concerning the Merchant Marine, especially for the 1940's during an investigation by the Commerce Committee of communist influence in the Merchant Marine. Although the bulk of the Maritime Commission and Merchant Marine material is found here, other information is located in the Trade and Cormnerce category of the Commerce section.
Although a generous sample remains, the following types of material were largely discarded: naval academy applications; applications for officers' candidate school; requests for assistance in obtaining commissions, deferments, or re-assignment; copies of form letters to families of dead, wounded, or missing sailors; and requests for publications.
The material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams, and petitions relate to issues affecting veterans of the U.S. Armed Services. The bulk of: the material is constituent mail either concerning various bills or dealing with individual cases. The major portion of the correspondence during the early 1930's focuses on the Patman Bonus Bills to provide cash payment for soldiers' adjusted compensation certificates. Other issues which appear throughout the correspondence include the location of veterans' hospitals, especially in North Carolina, and individual requests for assistance on claims and disability insurance. Numerous letters requested legislative assistance for Spanish-American War veterans and widows, and scattered letters made similar requests for Civil War veterans and widows. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams, and printed material concern War Department projects, including contracts and bids. There is also material on military installations, the Army Corps of Engineers, and special problems. Legislation affecting the War Department and the Army is found here, although there is some material in the National Defense section. Other material in this section pertains to inventions, war supplies and surplus, and examples of individuals who sought to fight in World War II.
Similar types of material were sampled as those in the Navy and Marines category.
The material is arranged chronologically by month.
The bulk of the correspondence in this category consists of constituent mail concerning the Lend-Lease Bill to provide aid to Great Britain. Nearly all the letters are concentrated in 1941. Material for other years generally pertains to the establishment of various harbors as lend-lease ports for the shipment of lend-lease goods. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams statements, speeches, petitions, and printed material pertain to national defense policies of the United States, U. S. involvement in World War II, preparation for war, mobilization, and military policy not directly connected with the War or Navy departments. The major portion ot the material is concentrated in the late 1930's and in the 1940's. Information during the early 1930's generally relates to disarmament, defense appropriations, and the development of various branches of the armed services. With the outbreak of hostilities in Spain in 1936, there is correspondence concerning neutrality and an arms embargo. Most of the material from the beginning of World War II in Europe through the entry of the United States into the war revolves around tile issues of keeping the United States out of a “European” war, military conscription, and neutrality versus aid to the Allies. Correspondence during the war years relates largely to the prosecution of the war and to the home front. Major topics of concern include conscription and the various draft laws, including age limits, drafting single and married men, and the drafting of women; rationing and shortages; the Office of Price Administration (OPA) and its policies; and the Federal Works Administration. Toward the end of the war, thoughts turn to peacetime conscription and the Universal Military Training Bill, the continuation of the OPA, and the return of servicemen to the United States. The McMahon Bill of 1946 provided for civilian control over atomic research, Material is arranged chronologically by month.
- 1932: Disarmament conference; national defense appropriation.
- 1933-1935: National defense appropriation for the development of the armed services, including the Navy, the Army Air Corps, and the Army.
- 1936: Neutrality Act; Arms Embargo; pamphlet entitled Report of the Proceedings of the Statewide Coordination Meeting of Federal Agencies Operating in North Carolina,War Emergency Act.
- 1939: Embargo on arms to Spain; U. S. involvement in the European war.
- 1940: Conscription; neutrality and aid to the Allies.
- 1941: Selective Service, constituent opinion on the of Robert Rice Reynolds (D-N. C.) as chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs; pamphlet entitled The People Look at National Defense.
- 1942:Teenage Draft Bill; rationing, especially automobile tires and rubber; Federal Works Administration.
- 1943: Drafting of married and unmarried men; rationing, especially gasoline; copies of addresses by Eddie Rickenbacker; OPA regulations. OPA regulations; selective service; peacetime conscription; National Service Act.
- 1945: Continuation of OPA; shortages, especially of fuel oil; Universal Military Training; price controls; Work or Fight Bill.
- 1946:Continuation of price controls; petitions for restoration of full power to OPA; Universal Military Training; McMahon Bill for civilian control over atomic research; Terminal Leave Bill.
Correspondence, telegrams, petitions, and printed material concern national defense affairs as they specifically relate to North Carolina and its citizens. The development of airports in North Carolina for the national defense is an important matter covered in this section. Other important issues concern the Office of Price Administration regulations and commodity shortages specifically as they affect North Carolinians and North Carolina industries.
Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence, telegrams, statements, lists, and printed material relate to politics in North Carolina. There is material pertaining to the Democratic Party in North Carolina, the state and county organizations, state officers, state party platform, and finances. A separate folder located at the end of the section is devoted to the Young Democrats in North Carolina. Also included is information on various state and local contests. One of the most important campaigns covered is the 1932 primary contest between Cameron Morrison and Robert Rice Reynolds for the Democratic Party nomination for United States Senator. After Reynolds's election, correspondence between Bailey and Reynolds discussed the distribution of major patronage positions between the two men. Other correspondence throughout the section also relates to patronage distribution in North Carolina. Individual requests and recommendations for specific patronage positions are located in the Patronage category. Scattered letters include references to election laws and to Negroes in state politics.
A large portion of this section consists of material pertaining to Bailey's senatorial campaigns in 1936 and 1942, particularly the former. Correspondence from friends and party workers throughout the state analyzed Bailey's strengths and weaknesses, policies, voting record, and prospects, and they also discussed more routine matters such as speaking engagements and finances. Included are numerous lists containing names of precinct chairpersons, county and local officials, Democratic Party officers of local organizations, prominent community citizens, and people who could be of assistance in the campaign.
Correspondence is arranged chronologically by month. Lists are arranged in part by county; others are devoted entirely to the 1936 campaign.
Correspondence, telegrams, drafts and copies of speechs, public statements, and printed material deal with politics on the national level. Included in this section is material concerning the National Democratic Party and its policies, organization, and finances. Letters discuss Democratic Party platforms, party leaders, fund raising efforts such as the Jackson Day Dinner, and various groups such as the Young Democrats. Political campaigns, both national and in states other than North Carolina, are also covered. There is information on Roosevelt's presidential campaigns, especially the campaign of 1932. Included is material on Prohibition as an issue in that campaign. Lengthy letters analyzed Democratic prospects for the various campaigns. Correspondence for 1944 referred to the movement to nominate Harry Byrd as the presidential candidate of the Democratic Party. The issue of the limitation of presidential tenure in office appears in the correspondence for 1940, 1944, and 1945.
There is considerable correspondence between Bailey and other politicians and with North Carolinians concerning Roosevelt's policies and the New Deal, particularly as conservatives became disenchanted with the program. Especially significant is the correspondence for 1937 and 1938 dealing with the Declaration of Principles, also known as the “Conservative Manifesto,” written principally by Bailey in conjunction with other conservative Democratic senators who opposed Roosevelt's New Deal policies. There is also importent correspondence between Bailey and colleagues Peter Gerry, Harry F. Byrd, and Waltor F. George pertaining to Roosevelt's efforts in the 1938 elections to elect liberal candidates and to “purge” the Democratic Party of those Democrats standing for re-election who had not supported his policies. The threat of a third party, both by Roosevelt supporters and by a supposed coalition of Southern Democrats and Northern Republicans is also discussed. Scattered lettors refer to the influence of Negroes and organized labor in the Democratic Party and to the Equal Rights Amendment. Letters for 1940 include references to the Hatch Act.
Located at the end of the section are separate folders on Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Bailey's voting record in the 72nd - 75th Congresses. There are also separate folders on Huey Long containing constituent mail, including letters and clippings from members of the Women's Committee of Louisiana, attacking or supporting Long's program, and folders comprised of constituent mail pertaining to Bailey's verbal attack on the Reverend Charles E. Coughlin on the Senate floor. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence and telegrams written principally by constituents pertaining to postal rates, mail service, and legislation affecting postal workers. Bills concern the status of substitutes, rural carriers, special delivery messengers, and star route carriers, particularly relative to Civil Service status; wages and salaries for various classes of postal warkers; work week and overtime pay; and paid furloughs. Other material pertains to postal rates, the development of airmail service, and the use by the Post Office of cotton or jute twine. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams, petitions, statements and printed materical concern prohibition, liquor control bills, legislation related to the advertisement of liquor, and the sale of alcohol near military bases. Material for the carly 1930's pertains principally to the repeal of the 18th Amendment, and includes a number of pamphlets dealing with prohibition. There is also information on various liquor bills, federal and local control of alcohol, and the issue of local option. Thc correspondence for 1938 deals largely with a bill to prevent the advertising of liquor over the radio. Material relating to the War years concerns the Shepperd Bill to prohibit the sale of liquor in and near army camps. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams, and printed material relate to matters affecting housing. The bulk of the material during the early 1930's concerns efforts by the Federal government to help homeowners pay mortgages and refinance their houses through the Home Loan Bill, the National Housing Act, and the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC). The problems of building and loan associations were also discussed. Much of the correspondence is routine, either constituent mail expressing opinion on various bills or individual requests for assistance in obtaining loans. Included is a pamphlet (1935) put out by the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) entitled Modernization for Profit showing businessmen and homeowners how to redesign old buildings for modern use. Papers for the late 1930s generally relate to the FHA and its policies, expecially in North Carolina; slum clearance; and low income housing projects. During the war years, material concerns defense housing, housing shortages, rent control, and several bills to liquidate HOLC. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Correspondence, telegrams, petitions, statements, and printed material pertain to efforts of the U. S. government to provide various forms of relief for its citizens. The material is concentrated during the years of the Depression of the early 1930s. Much of the correspondence is devoted to the passage of an Old Age Pension Bill, various relief bills, the Social Security Bill, and appropriations for governmental relief agencies, especially the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Public Works Administration (PWA), and the Civil Works Administration (CWA). There is also considerable information dealing with specific North Carolina relief projects funded by the CCC, the PWA, and the CWA. During the late 1930's and the 1940's, correspondence related principally to continuation of relief appropriations, funding of specific projects, and amendments to the Social Security Act. Material is arranged chronologically by month.
- 1932:Costigan-LaFollette Act providing relief for the unemployed; bill for the relief of widows and dependents of Spanish-American War veterans; Old Age Pensions; Emergency Officer's Retirement Bill.
- 1933:Old Age Pensions; Relief Bill; National Recovery Administration codes.
- 1934: Old Age Pensions.
- 1935: Old Age Pensions; Social Security; unemployment insurance.
- 1936: Funding for PWA projects.
- 1937: Continued relief appropriations.
- 1939: Continuation of various relief measures; Social Security
- 1940: Continuation of WPA and PWA expenditures; Social Security.
- 1945-1946:Social Security Act amendments.
Correspondence and telegrams contain constituent opinion on Roosevelt's proposed Executive Reorganization Bill. While the bulk of the replies from Bailey's office were routine, there are some lengthy letters from Bailey concerning his views on this bill. Material is arranged chronologically by day.
Correspondence and printed material are related to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), various flood control and electric projects associated with TVA, and funding for these projects. There is material concerning Muscle Shoals, dams across the French Broad and the Hiawassee rivers, the Cherokee Dam, flood control, an investigation of TVA (1937), the Bone Bill (1941-1942), and the McKellar Amendment to abolish revolving funds (1946). Material is arranged chronologically by month.
Josiah William Bailey born, September 14; Warrenton, N.C.
Bailey's father, Christopher Thomas Bailey, appointed editor of the Biblical Recorder; family moves to Raleigh,
Bailey attends Raleigh Township Graded Schools and Raleigh Male Academy.
Received B.A. degree from Wake Forest College.
Edited Biblical Recorder. As editor,
Bailey emphasized the need for improved public school conditions in N.C. and advocated
state aid to public schools.
Member, state Board of Agriculture.
Supported disfranchisement of Negroes, Furnifold Simmons for Senate, and Charles
B. Aycock for governor.
Chairman, N.C. Anti-Saloon League. Fought to establish
Opposed national prohibition. Resigned when League resolved to
support state prohibition.
Studied law under Samuel French Mordecai, Trinity College.
Admitted to the bar, began practice with Wesley N. Jones.
Elector at Large.
Member, Board of Education, Wake County.
Chairman, Stste Child Labor Committee.
Supported Woodrow Wilson for President and Locke Craig for governor. F.M. Simmons
re-elected U.S. Senator.
Appointed by President Wilson to be Collector or Internal Revenue for N.C.
Governor Craig appointed Bailey to N.C. Constitutional Commission. Commission
recommended voting reform, court changes, tax reform, required school term.
Assumed leadership of liberal faction of State Democratic Party. Suggestions of
this faction defeated by subsequent state convention.
Married Edith Walker Pou.
Addressed N.C. General Assembly in behalf of women's suffrage.
Internal Revenue Collector for N.C.
Represented interests of the Farmers' Union before the N.C. General Assembly,
opposing increased property taxes.
Returned to legal practice full time with James Hinton Pou.
Candidate for governor. Defeated in primary by Angus Wilton McLean whom Simmons
Supported Alfred E. Smith for the presidency, O. Max Gardner for
Candidate for U.S. Senate; defeated Simmons in primary and won election with
Advocated currency control. Suggested reducing administrative expenses, but
supported public works appropriations
Actively supported Roosevelt in N.C.
Opposed Agricultural Adjustment Act.
Re-elected to Senate.
Neutrality Act. Emerged as key Figure in Senate
Opposed Fair Labor Standards Act. Became chairman of Commerce Committee.
Supported Selective Service Bill.
Supported Lend-Lease. Reversing earlier position, advocated intervention.
Re-elected to Senate.
Supported ratification of the United Nations Charter.
Died Dec. 15 in Raleigh, N.C.
- Claims: 1931-1944 72nd-78th Congresses (Chairman, 1933-1938)
- Commerce: 1931-1946 72nd-79th Congresses(Chairman, 1939-1946)
- Finance: 1935 74th Congress (Apparently Bailey was on this committee only briefly)
- Interstate Commerce: 1933-1934 73rd Congress
- Post Office and Post Roads: 1931-1946 72nd-79th Congresses
- Special Committee on the Conservation of Wildlife Resources: 1933-1946 73rd-79th Congresses
- Special Committee to Investigate Conditions in the Merchant Marine (Chairman): 1939-1944 76th-78th Congresses
Josiah William Bailey Josiah William Bailey
- Father: Christopher Thomas Bailey
- Mother: Annie Sarah (Bailey) Bailey
- Sister: Sallie C. Bailey (married Wesley N. Jones; children: Annie Railey,Sallie W., William B.)
- Brother: Christopher Thomas Bailey, Jr. (married Mary Himbish)
- Brother: Edmund Lamar Bailey
- Brother: Bayard Yates Bailey (died in infancy)
Edith Walker Pou
- Father: James Hinton Pou
- Mother: Annie Walker Pou
Children of Josiah William and Edith Pou Bailey
- James Hinton Pou (b. 1917)
- Annie Elizabeth (b. 1920)
- Josiah William, Jr. (b. 1922)
- Edith Pou (b. 1925)
- Sallie (b. 1927)
Click to find related materials at Duke University Libraries.
The Bailey Papers were given to Duke University by the Bailey family.
Processed by: Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library Staff
Completed August 30, 1977
The collection was arranged and described under the auspices of a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.
Encoded by Stephen Douglas Miller