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Guide to the Stephen C. Harward Papers, 1949-1975 and undated, bulk 1963-1975

Abstract

Stephen Cannada Harward served on the Durham City School Board for 12 years in the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the Durham city and county school districts were desegregated following a series of court mandates beginning in 1963.

The collection contains memos, bulletins, reports, evaluations, minutes, agendas, educational and administrative guides and handbooks, court documents, financial statements and budgets, correspondence, clippings, printed materials, and maps pertaining to the activity of the Durham City School Board. The papers span the years 1949-1975 and document the daily workings of the Durham City School Board chiefly between the years 1963 and 1975, with a special focus on the process of desegregation during that time. It contains no personal papers of Stephen C. Harward.

Descriptive Summary

Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University
Creator
Harward, S. C. (Stephen C.)
Title
Stephen C. Harward papers 1949-1975 and undated, bulk 1963-1975
Language of Material
English
Extent
10.5 Linear Feet, Circa 4000 Items
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.

Collection Overview

The Stephen C. Harward Papers span the years 1949-1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1963-1975. The collection contains approximately 300 files stemming from the activities of the Durham City School Board (North Carolina), including audit reports, budgets, financial records, agendas, external and internal evaluations, teachers' manuals, and education policy materials, as well as court and other documents related to the redistricting and desegregation of the Durham city schools. Beyond the daily workings of the Durham City School Board and the Durham city school system are also materials documenting the use of funds stemming from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), which was later renamed and revised as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and materials related to concerns about student discipline and unrest during the late 1960s. The collection is divided into six series: Desegregation and Redistricting, Financial Papers, Handbooks, Legal Papers, Reports, and Subject Files.

The Desegregation and Redistricting Series collects materials related to the different attempts to desegregate the Durham city schools in response to court mandates. It documents the legal struggle deriving from the NAACP Legal Defense Fund suits of 1959 and 1960, the latter of which continued through the 1970s in response to the outcomes of other suits, particularly Green v. School Board of New Kent County (1968) and Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), both of which demanded the abandonment of "freedom-of-choice" integration plans in favor of geographical zoning plans, and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971). Following the latter, the Durham City School Board was given a mandate by the court in 1975 to eliminate racially identifiable schools in the district, using any means necessary to ensure that the balance of black to white students at any school varied no less than 10% from the overall racial balance of the school group. Along with the legal papers, the series documents the move to desegregate the Durham city schools with memos and internal school board documents, clippings, correspondence from parents, maps, proposals (in both draft and completed form), and a printed booklet about desegregation. It also deals with the related attempts to merge the city and county school districts into a single unit, finally accomplished in 1992. The Financial Papers Series houses budgets, financial statements, accounting materials, and other papers documenting the financial workings of the Durham city schools and school board. Those interested in these finances should also consult the extensive audit reports in the Reports Series. The Handbooks Series documents educational and administrative practices and concerns of the time with teachers' manuals and handbooks, student and administrative handbooks, policy statements, school directories, and bound print materials on educational topics. The small Legal Papers Series contains the legal files not related to the desegregation suits, including court papers, bills passed, and easements on school properties. The Reports Series collects audit reports, external and internal evaluations of schools and school programs, and results of studies and surveys. These documents contain detailed information related to the ESEA funds and their usage (in the audit reports and several narrative evaluations). Finally, the Subject Files Series contains topical files documenting different projects, programs, initiatives, and issues addressed by the Durham City School Board. It also documents the regular functioning of the school board in the extensive files of meeting minutes, agendas, and information bulletins.

Administrative Information

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

warning Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. There may be a 48-hour delay in obtaining these materials.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

Contents of the Collection

Houses materials related to the desegregation of the Durham, N.C. city schools, proposed redistricting, and the repeated failed attempts to consolidate the city and county administrative units into a single school district (accomplished in 1992). Formats include memos and internal school board documents, clippings, correspondence from parents, legal files and briefs, study and survey reports, maps, proposals (in both draft and completed form), and a printed booklet. The extensive court files mostly pertain to the NAACP suit of Wheeler, Spaulding, and Thompson v. the Durham City and County School Boards, begun in 1960 and continuing on through 1975; they are of particular interest in documenting the various court mandates and school board proposals for desegregation plans. The later court papers (from 1974 and 1975) contain useful summaries of the process of desegregation, as well as progress reports and statistics gathered by the school board and submitted to the court. Researchers interested in the attempted merger of the city and county schools may wish to consult the files on the bond issues of 1967-1973 in the Subject Files Series, which contain some related materials. Those interested in federal financial support for desegregation may also wish to consult the files on the Emergency School Aid Act of 1972.

Arranged in alphabetical order by folder title.

Brief on outside school district but inside city limits, 1971
Box 1
Civil Rights Act compliance, 1965
Box 1
Civil rights survey, 1974
Box 1
Charlotte plan, 1974
Box 1
Class assignment plans, 1974
Box 1
Consolidation of city and county schools, 1968-1969
(2 folders)
Box 1
Consolidation study I, 1968
Box 1
Consolidation study II, 1966
Box 1
Desegregation: Opportunity or Problem, 1970
Box 1
Desegregation suits, 1959-1965
(7 folders)
Box 1
Desegregation suits, 1966-1975
(7 folders)
Box 2
Emergency School Aid Act, 1974-1975
Box 2
Emergency School Aid Act--application for assistance, 1973-1975
Box 2
Enrollment, 1970-1974
Box 2
Maps, 1964, 1970-1974

[Some items removed to Oversize Materials.]

Box 2
Merger, 1971
(2 folders)
Box 2
Miscellaneous, 1964-1970
Box 3
Miscellaneous, 1974-1975
(2 folders)
Box 3
Proposed redistricting, Durham city schools--junior high schools, 1972-1974
Box 3
RTI attendance zones, 1964-1970
Box 3

Primarily budgets and financial statements of the Durham city school system, but also information on accounting, wages, employee insurance, and real estate appraisals. Researchers interested in the finances of the city school district should also consult the audit reports located in the Reports Series.

Arranged alphabetically, then chronologically by date.

Accounting system, 1968
Box 3
Appraisal of real estate: Southside, Crest Street, and Edgemont Elementary Schools, 1972 Aug. 18
Box 3
Budget, 1961-1966
(5 folders)
Box 3
Budget, 1966-1975
(7 folders)
Box 4
Budget--special, 1967-1969
Box 4
Current expenditures by source of funds, 1966-1968
(3 folders)
Box 4
Financial statements, 1969-1974
(6 folders)
Box 5
Insurance, 1975
Box 5
Salaries, wages, 1969-1975
Box 5

Comprises educational manuals; handbooks for students, teachers, and administrators; food service guides; school law reference books; and other books and pamphlets treating topics related to education.

Arranged alphabetically, then chronologically by date.

Activity manual-- F.O.O.D. For Thought: Focus on Optimal Development, Intermediate Level, 1974
Box 5
Activity manual-- F.O.O.D. For Thought: Focus on Optimal Development, Primary Level, 1974
Box 5
Athletics manual, junior high school, 1974
Box 5
Board of Education policy manual, 1975
(2 folders)
Box 5
Bridging the Gap between Government in Books and Government in Action by Albert Coates, 1974
Box 5
Career Opportunities Program overview, circa 1971
Box 5
Coaches manual, Durham city schools, undated
Box 5
Cooperative Distributive Education student handbook, undated
Box 5
Discipline Problems: An Educational Malignancy by Walter E. McPhie, 1971
Box 5
Drugs in North Carolina: Problems and Programs by Anthony D. M. Mulvihill, 1972
Box 5
Food service guides, 1967-1968
Box 5
Handbooks for North Carolina school board members, 1962, 1974
(2 folders)
Box 6
Hillside High School handbook, 1972
Box 6
How Can the American People be Given a Better Understanding of Our Economic System?, 1949
Box 6
The Informer [Durham High School handbook], 1974-1975
Box 6
Manuals of position descriptions, undated
(2 folders)
Box 6
Personnel guide for teachers, 1973
Box 6
Physical education manual, junior and senior high schools, 1973
Box 6
Program of studies, Durham High School, 1974
Box 6
Public Education by Robert E. Phay, undated
Box 6
Public School Laws of North Carolina, 1969
Box 6
Public School Laws of North Carolina, 1971
Box 6
School personnel directories, 1966-1975
Box 6
The Scope and Sources of School Board Authority to Regulate Student Conduct and Status by Stephen R. Goldstein, 1969
Box 6
Student Rights in North Carolina, 1974
Box 6

This series contains the legal papers related to Durham city schools and the Durham City School Board not subsumed under the Desegregation and Redistricting Series (which houses all of the court documents and legal papers from the NAACP desegregation suits). This includes bills proposed and passed, easements on school properties, and court papers from a suit ( Ronald Kelly et als v. Lew W. Hannnen et als) made regarding the refusal of Durham High School to allow distribution of the off-campus publication Uprising on campus.

Arranged alphabetically.

Easements, 1975
Box 6
Federal suit on Uprising, 1971
Box 6
General Assembly of North Carolina bills, 1973-1975
(2 folders)
Box 6
School Budget and Fiscal Control Act, bills proposed, 1975
Box 6

The majority of the series is made up of annual audit reports of the Durham city school system (including correspondence from the firm conducting the audits), but narrative evaluations and quantitative survey and study results are also included. There are also files from individual school evaluations made in 1965, and files of analyses of these evaluations.

Arranged alphabetically, then chronologically. The one exception to this is the extensive group of audit reports, which are arranged alphabetically by type (audit reports), then date, then report title. This preserves the original organization of the reports in the collection.

Audit report correspondence from Ricca, Nelson and Gantt, 1967-1975
Box 7
Activity funds
Box 7
Cafeteria system
Box 7
Durham city schools
Box 7
Special funds
Box 7
Activity funds
Box 7
Cafeteria system
Box 7
General fund
Box 7
Miscellaneous funds
Box 7
Activity funds
Box 7
Cafeteria system
Box 7
General fund
Box 7
Miscellaneous funds
Box 7
Activity funds
Box 7
ESEA Title I
Box 7
ESEA Title II
Box 7
Food service department
Box 7
General fund
Box 7
Miscellaneous funds
Box 7
Activity funds
Box 8
Durham city schools
Box 8
ESEA Title I
Box 8
ESEA Title II
Box 8
Food service department
Box 8
Miscellaneous funds
Box 8
Activity funds
Box 8
Durham city schools
Box 8
ESEA Title I
Box 8
ESEA Title II
Box 8
Food service department
Box 8
Miscellaneous funds
Box 8
Activity funds
Box 8
ESEA Title I
Box 8
ESEA Title II
Box 8
ESEA Title III
Box 8
ESEA Title IV-A
Box 8
Food service department
Box 8
Local current expense and capital outlay fund
Box 8
Special funds
Box 8
ESEA Title III
Box 8
Activity funds
Box 8
Federal funds
Box 8
Local funds
Box 9
Activity funds
Box 9
Federal funds
Box 9
Local funds
Box 9
Activity funds
Box 9
Federal funds
Box 9
Local funds
Box 9
Activity funds
Box 9
Federal funds
Box 9
Local funds
Box 9
Activity funds
Box 9
Federal funds
Box 9
Local funds
Box 9
Activity funds
Box 9
Federal funds
Box 9
Local funds
Box 9
Charrette reports, 1971
Box 10
A Child Well Taught: A Report of the Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System of North Carolina, 1968
(2 folders)
Box 10
ESEA survey, 1975 Mar.
Box 10
ESEA Title III statistical data, 1967 Dec. 20
Box 10
Durham Chamber of Commerce Subcommittee on Funding of Public Education report, 1972 Sept.
Box 10
Durham city schools self-study report, 1974 Apr.
Box 10
Emergency School Assistance Program, 1971 Oct.
Box 10
ESEA Title 1, 1966-1967, 1969-1971, 1975
(5 reports)
Box 10
SEED evaluation, 1973 June
Box 10
Government: A Report on City and County, 1970 Summer
Box 10
How Students Feel About School: A Survey of Student Attitudes at Durham and Hillside High Schools, 1974 July
Box 10
Local Plan for Occupational Education, 1974
Box 11
Merit Rating research bulletin, 1959 Oct.
Box 11
Ranking of school administrative units, 1968 July
Box 11
Recommended personnel classification and pay plan, 1973 Sept.
Box 11
Salaries and Supplemental School Taxes research bulletin, 1967 Oct.
Box 11
Brogden Junior High School, 1965
Box 11
Carr Junior High School, 1965
Box 11
Durham High School, 1965
Box 11
Hillside High School, 1965
Box 11
Holton Junior High School, 1965
Box 11
Witted Junior High School, 1965
Box 11
Committee on Accreditation report on 1965 school reports, 1966-1968
(4 folders)
Box 11
School survey, 1969
Box 11
School utilization report, 1975
Box 11
Students out of School: Dropouts or Pushouts?, 1974 July
Box 11

Topical files Harward kept related to the workings of the school board. Includes proposals, meeting records, correspondence, some financial records (particularly those related to school food service), policy statements, clippings, and pamphlets. Of particular interest for documenting the ongoing workings of and issues faced by the Durham City School Board are the extensive files of meeting agendas, minutes, and information bulletins. Those interested in the attempts to merge the city and county school districts will find relevant information in the folders on the bond issues of various years, as well as the more extensive materials contained in the Desgregation and Redistricting Series.

Arranged alphabetically, then chronologically by date.

Ability grouping, 1974
Box 12
Abstract--Durham schools study, 1969-1971
Box 12
Ad hoc committee on student affairs, 1972
Box 12
Advisory committee, 1974
Box 12
Agendas, 1970-1975
Box 12
Athletic program, 1969-1975
Box 12
Bids, 1975
Box 12
Black studies, undated
Box 12
Bond issue, 1967, 1971-1973
(6 folders)
Box 12
Book policies, 1969
Box 12
Calendar, 1970-1975
Box 12
City-county school commission, 1972-1973
Box 12
Cooperative School for Pregnant School Girls, 1975
Box 12
Construction, 1975
Box 12
Correspondence, 1969-1975
Box 12
Crest school correspondence, 1972
Box 12
D.C.E.A. [ Durham City Education Association], 1967-1969
Box 12
Durham city schools aims--mission, 1973-1974
Box 13
Durham County Library, 1968
Box 13
Education Development Council, 1972
Box 13
Evaluation of the Duke-Walltown tutoring program, 1972
Box 13
Exceptional children evaluation, 1974
Box 13
Food service, 1966-1975
(2 folders)
Box 13
Green Circle program, 1971
Box 13
Health benefits program, 1973
Box 13
Holidays, 1972-1973
Box 13
Information bulletins, 1969-1973
(4 folders)
Box 13
Information bulletins, 1974-1975
(2 folders)
Box 14
Joint committee, 1959-1960, 1967
Box 14
League of Women Voters, 1971
Box 14
Minutes, 1967-1973
(6 folders)
Box 14
Minutes, 1974-1975
(3 folders)
Box 15
Miscellaneous, 1975
Box 15
Miscellaneous information, 1969-1975
(3 folders)
Box 15
Miscellaneous proposals, reports, recommendations, suggestions, etc., 1970-1975
Box 15
Model for an assistant or an associate superintendent's contract, undated
Box 16
National Workshop for Management on Collective Negotiations in Education, 1972
Box 16
Newsletters, school papers, etc., 1972-1974
Box 16
Night school, 1975
Box 16
Property, 1972-1973
Box 16
Reading tests, 1971-1975
Box 16
Rules and regulations, 1973
Box 16
Sale of property, 1973-1975
Box 16
School Law Bulletin, 1971-1975
Box 16
Sick leave and substitute teacher regulations, 1972
Box 16
Statistics, 1968
Box 16
Southside school property, 1975
Box 16
Student conduct, 1968-1969
Box 16
Subcommittee on closing schools, 1974
Box 16
Suspension of students, etc., 1974-1975
Box 16
Washington Fastreport, 1972-1973
Box 16

Oversize Materials

(1 oversize folder)
Maps, 1972
Oversize Folder 1

Historical Note

Chronology List

DateEvent(s)
1922Stephen Cannada Harward born
1960Actions Wheeler v. Durham City Board of Education and Spaulding v. Durham City Board of Education filed for disestablishment of separate segregated school systems in the Durham city school system
1963Action Thompson v. Durham County Board of Education filed for desegregation of Durham County Administrative School Unit
Wheeler, Spaulding, and Thompson suits consolidated
Federal court ordered Durham city schools to adopt freedom-of-choice desegregation plan
1963-1975Harward served on Durham City School Board
1965Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed as part of President Johnson's "War on Poverty"
Durham County schools began desegregation under freedom-of-choice plan
1966Court approved Durham City School Board freedom-of-choice plan
1969Following Green v. School Board of New Kent County and Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education decisions, the Federal Court of Appeals directed the abandonment of freedom-of-choice plan and the implementation of a geographic zoning plan for desegregation of Durham County schools
1970The corresponding mandate was made for Durham city schools
1971Proposed merger of Durham city and county school systems rejected by two-thirds majority
1972-1974Harward served as Duke University Treasurer
1992Durham city and county school districts merged into Durham Public School district
1993Death of Harward

Subject Headings

Related Material

Related Material

Those interested in the history of the Durham City School Board and the desegregation of Durham schools may wish to consult the Nicholas Rencher Harris Papers and the Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc., Durham Chapter, Records, also housed at the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. Nicholas Rencher Harris (1900-1965) was an African-American businessman and civic leader in Durham and served on the Durham Board of Education during the late 1950s and early 1960s; that collection also houses materials related to school desegregation in Durham. The Durham chapter of Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes was founded by Elna Spaulding in 1968, and the organization was involved in the struggle for school integration in the 1970s. These collections, both cataloged separately from the Stephen C. Harward Papers, are searchable by title in the Duke University Libraries online catalog.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Stephen C. Harward Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University

Provenance

The Stephen C. Harward Papers were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library as a gift in 2003.

Processing Information

Processed by Alexander Ruch, May 2007

Encoded by Alexander Ruch

Completed May 2007

Accession 2003-0129 is described in this finding aid.

Descriptive sources and standards used to create this inventory: DACS, EAD, NCEAD guidelines, and local Style Guide.