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Guide to the J. Walter Thompson Company. Howard Henderson Papers, 1867-1978

Collection Overview

The papers of Howard Henderson, a J. Walter Thompson Co. advertising executive, span the years 1867 to 1978, although the bulk of the material dates from 1954 to 1960. The collection documents the history of the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT). In particular it illustrates changes in the company's advertising philosophy through 1960; JWT's marketing strategies (especially the use of new findings in the fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology); historical company and client relationships; structural relations and internal policies; analyses of advertising media; the company's adaptation to the changed business situation during World War II; and the career of Henderson and his deep personal involvement with clients, colleagues, and contacts outside of advertising. The material consists of correspondence, office files, memoranda, notes, account histories, advertisements, reports, charts, scripts, clippings, and printed materials. Clients represented include Andrew Jergens, Chesebrough-Pond's (1930s and 1940s especially), Eastman Kodak International, General Cigar, U.S. Playing Card Company (1930s and 1940s especially), NATO, Union Central Life Insurance, Arbuckle, U.S. Brewers Foundation, and Standard Brands (Fleischmann Yeast).

The Correspondence Series contains an extensive collection of letters relating to both personal and business matters. Most of the correspondents have some connection to JWT, either as employees or as clients, and they include William Groom, Axel Hornos, Arno Johnson, Stanley Resor, Norman Strouse, James Webb Young, and John B. Watson. The correspondence discloses reservations about the expansion of consumer culture and advertising's role in it in the late 1950s; discusses advertising as a vehicle for public benefit;, and evaluates new market strategies.

The Clients Series contains material on accounts that Henderson worked on and illustrates the special interest he took in his clients' success. Especially well-documented clients include the Chesebrough-Pond's, U.S. Playing Card Company, General Cigar, and Union Central Life Insurance Company accounts. This series documents JWT's client relationships, the clients' products, specific campaigns, and JWT's methods of acquiring new clients.

The large Special Projects Series comprises files that Henderson created when he began working for JWT half-time and mostly out of his home. Because of the diverse nature of these files, the series is organized into eight subseries. The first of these is the J. Walter Thompson Company Study Subseries, which contains the research materials Henderson collected for a study and survey of JWT's history. Henderson originally designed his study to acquaint JWT employees with the roots of the company and to pinpoint the sources of its basic strengths; however, it evolved to include practical answers to specific conceptual and organizational issues. Other well-documented topics include JWT's use of case studies; N. W. Ayer and Son advertising agency; advertising strategies in the 1940s; development of the JWT Consumer Panel; concerns with house advertising; information on the New York Office, Detroit Office, and London Office; and London's Rowntree account. Also included in this subseries are cables and letters that discuss sending the London Office staff members' children to the US during the bombing in 1940. The Case History Project Subseries complements the J. Walter Thompson Company Study Subseries and includes copies of resulting case histories and some source materials for the histories. Accounts studied for this project include Pan American Airlines, Chesebrough-Ponds, Foundation for Commercial Banks, General Cigar Company, Standard Brands, U.S. Brewers Foundation, U.S. Playing Card Co., and various coffee and tea accounts. The case histories detail successful strategies that Stanley Resor and Henderson hoped would prove effective also for other accounts.

The Eastman Kodak International Advertising Subseries in the Special Projects Series consists of materials generated during Henderson's business trip to research improvements for the international Kodak campaign. Henderson also used this trip to investigate prospects for securing individual European Kodak accounts for JWT's international offices. The subseries includes business correspondence relating to the trip, personal correspondence with Eastman Kodak personnel, and an Eastman Kodak clippings file. A report on his trip to Europe documents company thinking on the need to coordinate and to unify Kodak advertising in all of Western Europe. The Copy Seminar Study Subseries contains materials Henderson generated while investigating the effectiveness of JWT's Copy Seminar. JWT's Copy Seminar was designed to teach staff members about copy writing. Briefly covered in the series is the existence of a Women's Copy Study Group designed specifically to promote copy writing talent among the company's women staff. The subseries includes Henderson's findings and recommendations along with memoranda relating to the purpose and process of the study. The Personnel Department Subseries provides insight into J. Walter Thompson's recruiting and hiring philosophy, especially as it regards gender. The material highlights J. Walter Thompson's early recognition of the importance of women's contributions to advertising. In general, the material collected in this series emphasizes the company's desire to attract the best talent from the country's colleges, shows the intense competition for the few openings each year at J. Walter Thompson, and documents contemporary recruiting policy.

The Trade and Technical Department Study Subseries of the Special Projects Series consists of material on finances, statistics, organization, and policies of the Department. The primary orientation of the materials is toward improving the effectiveness of the Department. The comparatively low percentage of advertising to the retail trade and ways to increase the company's profits in this area are also revealed in this subseries. The International Offices and Special Assignments for Sam Meek Subseries covers a variety of subjects, most of which are related to J. Walter Thompson's international operations during the time Sam Meek headed the International Division. Subjects include taxes on national and international advertising, the use of television advertising overseas, international visitors to the New York Office, international offices' policy letters, advertising for NATO, fund raising for Johns Hopkins University's School for Advanced International Studies, information on a campaign for the Citizens' Committee to Keep N.Y.C. Clean, and JWT's research procedures and general policy letters. The New Business Presentations Subseries contains material on the company's administrative and departmental structure and provides insight into JWT's procedures for securing new accounts.

The Cincinnati Office Series documents the early activities of the JWT office as well as Henderson's transfer to the New York Office and his appointment as Vice President.

The Clippings Series relates to JWT, its employees and clients, and indicates how thoroughly Henderson involved himself with the life of the company.

Descriptive Summary

Title
J. Walter Thompson Company. Howard Henderson papers 1867-1978
Creator
J. Walter Thompson Company.
Extent
4.8 Linear Feet, circa 3,300 Items
Repository
Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.
Language
English.

Administrative Information

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

warning Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. There may be a 48-hour delay in obtaining these materials.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in the J. Walter Thompson Company Archives have not been transferred to Duke University. For further information, see the section on copyright in the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

Contents of the Collection

Primarily consists of personal correspondence between Henderson and his friends and acquaintances. Many folders contain other materials relating to the correspondent: biographical notes, articles, and speeches. These files are arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

Following the individual files, correspondents are grouped together alphabetically. Correspondents in this section include Carroll Carroll regarding the history of the Hollywood Office, Henry Flower's personal letters and solicitations for the presidential election of 1956, A. H. Gunn and Thayer Jaccaci containing biographical information about Henderson, James Kennedy reminiscing about J. Sterling Getchell, and a letter from Ruth Waldo concerning her appointment as the first woman vice president of JWT. A separate folder contains solicitations Henderson received from various sources.

Boyle, Joseph, 1959
Box 1
Buchen, Walter, 1921-1955
Box 1
Cherington, Paul T., 1939-1943
Box 1
Coleman, Loyd Ring, 1931-1971

The folder for Loyd Ring Coleman includes information on the Paris and Belgium Offices, including an anti-Nazi advertisement.

Box 1
D'Olive, Gene, 1957-1959
(2 folders)
Box 1
Groom, William, 1925-1962

William Groom's folder includes information on the Cincinnati Office.

(2 folders)
Box 1
Hornos, Axel, 1960
Box 1
Johnson, Arno, 1947-1960
Box 1
Nance, John James, 1927-1960

John James Nance's folder contains correspondence concerning the Cincinnati Office's attempt to get the Frigidaire account.

Box 1
Reeves, George C., 1943-1969
Box 1
Resor, Stanley B., 1916-1964

Stanley Resor's letters contain detailed material on the development of testimonial advertising in the late 1920s and document the strategy JWT used to contract a large number of Hollywood actresses for their Lux campaign.

(2 folders)
Box 1
Smilde, Lubertus, 1952-1965
Box 1
Strouse, Norman, 1958-1971
Box 1
Thompson, J. Walter, 1914-1937
Box 1
Watson, John B., 1921-1960
Box 2
Watson, John M., 1922-1970
Box 2
Young, James Webb, 1924-1974
(4 folders)
Box 2
Young, James Webb, advertisements: Collier's, 1922
Box 2
A-B, 1936-1964
Box 2
C, 1941-1966
Box 2
D-E, 1947-1967
Box 2
F-G, 1942-1964
Box 2
H-I, 1941-1962
Box 2
J-L, 1941-1978
Box 2
M, 1940-1965
Box 2
N-Q, 1937-1968
Box 3
R, 1937-1965
Box 3
S, 1937-1961
Box 3
T-V, 1947-1966
Box 3
W-Z, 1936-1974
Box 3
Solicitations, 1954-1955
Box 3

Includes correspondence, memos, reports, account histories, advertisements, clippings, printed material, including leaflets, pamphlets, government documents and company annual reports, charts and graphs.

Arranged by client name. For clients with multiple folders, the correspondence is filed first, followed by the remaining folder titles in alphabetical order.

Andrew Jergens Co., 1920-1967
Box 3

The Pond's files include material on life in London during the Blitz, the ways in which World War II impacted the advertising business, and the introduction of testimonial advertising. Also in the Pond's material is a copy of the brief used before the Federal Trade Commission to defend the advertising claim of Pond's cream as a “Skin Vitamin”

Correspondence, 1937-1958, undated
Box 3
Gunning, Alick, 1938-1961
Box 3
Hinks, William, 1938-1952
Box 3
Rodgers, John, 1931-1950
Box 3
Wenham, Keith, 1938-1962, undated
Box 3
Correspondence, miscellaneous, 1937-1952
Box 3
Advertisements, 1887-1953, undated
Box 3
Advertising, sales, and profits by products, 1910-1958
Box 3
Clippings, 1933-1961, undated
Box 3
Consumer interview reports, 1940-1941
Box 3
Federal Trade Commission case, (“Skin vitamin” cream), 1940s
Box 4
History [of Pond's Extract Co.] from J. Walter Thompson Public Relations, 1960
Box 4
Sales policy and advertising history, 1937-1944
Box 4
Surveys, meetings, and other materials, 1885-1955
Box 4
General Cigar Co., 1941-1969

The folders for General Cigar contain information on sponsorship of radio commentators Raymond Swing and Raymond Clapper.

Box 4
Gruen Watch, 1930
Box 4
Klearflax Linen Looms, 1922-1923
Box 4
Correspondence, 1938-1961
(2 folders)
Box 4
Correspondence, Allison Stanley, 1945-1975
(2 folders)
Box 4
Case history, 1867-1957
Box 4
Conference reports, 1927-1934
Box 4
Miscellaneous, 1941-1975
Box 4
Richardson [Roofing] Co., Scholl Manufacturing Co., 1923
Box 5
Swift and Co.: Wool Soap, Tendra (meat tenderizer), 1921-1936

The folder for Swift and Company's Wool Soap product contains a research project report on consumer use.

Box 5
Union Central Life Insurance Co., 1932-1961
Box 5

This series is divided into eight subseries: J. Walter Thompson Company Study, Case History Project, Eastman Kodak International Advertising, Copy Seminar Study, Personnel Department, Trade and Technical Department Study, International Offices and Special Assignments for Samuel W. Meek, and New Business Presentations.

Contains the research materials compiled by Henderson for his writing of the “ JWT Study,” a survey of JWT's history, a trial draft of the study, and a brief capsule version.

Research materials, 1949-1961, undated
(3 folders)
Box 5
London office, 1940
Box 5
Detroit office, 1958-1959
Box 5
Trial version, 1959
Box 5
A Short History of J. Walter Thompson Company, 1960
Box 5

Contains the records of Henderson's work on the compilation of case histories of selected accounts.

Arranged alphabetically by client, preceded by a section of memoranda and notes on the development of the project.

Memoranda and notes, 1956-1962, undated
Box 5
Chesebrough-Ponds (memos), 1959-1960
Box 5
Chesebrough-Ponds, 1959
Box 5
Coffee accounts (Arbuckle Brothers, Chase and Sanborn), 1914-1960
Box 5
Foundations for Commercial Banks, 1958-1959
Box 5
General Cigar Co.: Source notes, 1917-1959, 1961, 1936-1963
Box 6
New York Central Railroad (Flexi-van), 1958-1959
Box 6
Scott Paper Co., Soft-weave, 1960-1961
Box 6
Standard Brands, 1959
Box 6
U.S. Brewers Foundation, 1959
Box 6
United States Playing Card Co., 1948
Box 6

Materials were generated from a research trip taken by Howard Henderson and Kodak representative Richard Holtz to investigate advertising practices in Kodak's European markets, September to November, 1953. Consists of correspondence both business and personal, clippings, pamphlets, reports, and slides. Slides show primarily store displays and meetings; they also include pictures of the J. Walter Thompson London office staff, Charles Rheinstrom, Shirley Woodell, James Webb Young and his son, and others.

Report on International Trip, 1954-1955
Box 6
Report on International Trip, slides to accompany, 1953-1954
Box 6
Eastman-Kodak International meeting, 1958

The material contained in the International Meeting folder delineates the long relationship between J. Walter Thompson and Kodak since 1930.

Box 6
Idea for advertising [camera and science], 1958-1959
Box 6
Correspondence, 1953-1958
(2 folders)
Box 6
Downing, Leonard C., 1953-1955
Box 6
Hornos, Axel, 1960-1961
Box 6
Leghorn, Richard, 1954-1963
Box 6
Clippings and pamphlets, 1953-1976, undated
Box 6

Contains participant lists and notes on their activities in their departments along with seminar literature. Arranged chronologically within the sections.

Study findings, 1958
Box 7
Memoranda, 1957-1958
Box 7
Participants and survey notes, 1955-1958

Material in the Participant and Survey Notes folder collects data on Seminar participants, their time with the company, their reasons for leaving, and lists criteria for judging prospective copy writers.

Box 7
Seminar literature, 1956-1958
(2 folders)
Box 7

Consists of a college recruitment booklet Henderson worked on in 1958, along with background material, memoranda, and drafts of the booklet. In addition, there is a section of memoranda, correspondence, and notes relating to personnel recruitment and training for 1954 to 1958. Included in this subseries is information on the Chicago Office training program and a memo from 1939on apprentices.

Background materials, 1957-1958
Box 7
Memos and background material, 1957-1958
Box 7
Rough drafts, 1957
Box 7
Recruitment and training, 1929-1960
Box 7
Seminars, 1957-1960

The Seminars folder provides information both on the increasing number of seminars, classes, and workshops taught at J. Walter Thompson and on their content.

Box 7

The memos and reports circulated to Henderson and John H. Morse, head of the Trade and Technical Department, suggest cost reductions by increasing economy, promoting efficiency, and terminating unprofitable accounts.

Materials are arranged chronologically.

1944-1957
(2 folders)
Box 7

Consists of correspondence, reports, notes, memoranda, campaign texts and scripts, and printed materials.

Materials are arranged in subject sections according to Henderson's original folder labels, then chronologically.

Citizens' Committee to Keep New York Clean, 1956-1960

(The material in the Keep N.Y.C. Clean folder provides an example of a campaign that integrates public education and advertising.)

Box 7
Citizens' Public Expenditure Survey, 1958-1959
Box 7
International Personnel Training, 1947-1960
Box 8
International Policy, 1956-1960, undated

(The International Policy folder provides insight into the relations between the company's New York Office and J. Walter Thompson's international offices.)

Box 8
International visitors, 1957-1961

(International Visitors folder documents the increasing involvement between the advertising business and national politics.)

Box 8
Memos: Sam Meek, 1926-1961

(The Memos folder contains materials mostly from the late 1950s that address questions of growth, especially in J. Walter Thompson's international operations, and questions relating to new product development.)

Box 8
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1956-1959

(The NATO folders document the advertising campaign by JWT that aimed to promote the organization's image. These folders include ad texts, scripts for film commercials, lyrics for a NATO song, and a printed document entitled "Fifteenth Annual Report of the Advertising Council," which contains information on other Advertising Council campaigns that JWT created.)

(3 folders)
Box 8
Policy Letters, 1927-1960

(The material in the Policy Letters folders address company principles including promoting similar products for different clients, adherence to standard practices throughout the company, conflict over ownership of intellectual property in advertising, the relationship between agency and advertiser, advertising contests and awards, interoffice operations, commissions in international advertising, repetition of ads, and company thinking about the usefulness of Gallup-Robinson polls. There is also substantial material on speculative presentations and whether they should have a place in new business solicitations.)

(2 folders)
Box 8
Research Releases, 1956-1958

(The Research Releases folder contains substantial material discussing JWT's research procedures.)

Box 8
School for Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1957-1958

(The School for Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University folders concern a fundraising drive among leading U.S. businesses and potential international contributors on behalf of the School.)

(3 folders)
Box 8
Taxes on Advertising, 1957-1959

(The Taxes on Advertising folder contains newspaper clippings, letters, and other documents that illustrate the struggle between the advertising industry and local and state governments over proposals to tax advertising. The folder also contains information about taxes on advertising practices in India, France, Italy, and the territory of Hawii.)

Box 9
Television Advertising, 1957-1959

(The Television Advertising folder includes a detailed memo on TV and movie theater commercials for overseas markets that discusses ways of keeping costs down and the division of responsibilities among representatives. There is also some material on the beginnings of TV advertising in Germany and a memo on services and clients of the Frankfurt office.)

Box 9
U.S. Information Agency, 1956-1958

(The U.S. Information Agency material offers a glimpse of that agency's activities and its influence on overseas advertising business.)

Box 9

Includes organizational charts of departments and offices throughout JWT, detailed information on competitors' services in relation to services rendered by J. Walter Thompson, and information on the Company's account team structure. It also includes a presentation prepared by Richard Brecker for Sunkist Growers.

1956-1950
Box 9
Presentation to Sunkist Growers, 1960
(2 folders)
Box 9

Includes account figures of the Office from 1918 to 1935, a manual of policy letters and operating principles of the Office, sample letters of terms, correspondence on the Marietta Chair, Gruen Watch and Jergens accounts, notices of account termination, some advertising booklets, and correspondence relating to the 1935 closing of the Cincinnati Office. Much of the correspondence in this series is personal in nature and includes letters from James Webb Young, Stanley Resor, William Groom, Ruth Waldo, and H. T. Stanton.

Account figures, 1918-1932
Box 9
New Business Presentation, 1933[?]
Box 9
Correspondence and other materials, 1923-1935

(One folder contains notes by Henderson on a manuscript entitled " World Peace Through Advertising" (1924) and a summary of Henderson's 1928 speech "Human Nature in Advertising.)"

(2 folders)
Box 9
Advertisements booklets, 1925-1927

(The advertisement booklets are for Hooven and Allison (rope), Breneman (window shades), and Richardson and Company (roofs).)

Box 9
Henderson's transfer to New York
Box 9
Correspondence, 1935-1936
Box 9

Consists of biographical information on Howard Henderson, his personnel records from the 1950s, information on his investments, speeches that he gave, material concerning his search for an academic position in 1930, and correspondence and other information pertaining to three civic organizations of which he was a leading member: the Westchester County Civil Defense League, the Public Affairs Committee, and the International Recreation Association.

Within sections materials are arranged chronologically.

Biographical records and speeches, 1925-1956
Box 9
Personnel matters, 1939-1961
Box 9
Financial records, 1930-1964
Box 10
International Recreation Association, 1956-1960
Box 10
Public Affairs Committee, 1954-1960
Box 10
Westchester County Civil Defense Council, 1941

(The file on the Civil Defense League includes correspondence with Helen Lansdowne Resor.) University teaching position, queries about, 1930)

Box 10

Includes clippings from "J.W.T. News," Advertising Age, The New York Times, and other publications.

Articles on JWT are filed together at the beginning of the series. Arrangement thereafter is alphabetical by individual or company.

J. Walter Thompson Company and obituaries
Box 10
A-C, 1945-1969
Box 10
D-G, 1944-1969
Box 10
H-L, 1946-1967
Box 10
M-O, 1946-1968
Box 10
P-R, 1947-1971
Box 10
S, 1946-1972
Box 10
T-Z, 1944-1972
Box 10

Contains photographs of staff members from J. Walter Thompson's domestic and international offices, photographs of clients and of some client's display windows, and slides of ads Henderson worked on during his years in the Cincinnati Office.

Antwerp, Belgium, 1949
Box 11
Chicago, 1934-1949
(2 folders)
Box 11
Cincinnati, 1927-1935
(5 folders)
Box 11
London, 1949-1950
(3 folders)
Box 11
Mexico, 1949
Box 11
New York, 1956-1958
Box 11
San Francisco, 1947
Box 11
Miscellaneous, 1934-1959
(9 folders)
Box 11
Cincinnati, 1947
Box 11
London, 1949
(3 folders)
Box 11
New York, 1952
(2 folders)
Box 11
Paris, 1949
Box 11
New York, 1943-1947
(5 folders)
Box 11
Stefenson, Edmund F., 1949
Box 11
Union Central Life Insurance Co., 1934
Box 11
London, 1949
Box 11
Cincinnati, 1933-1934
(2 folders)
Box 11
Advertisements (slides), 1920-
Box 11
Newspaper ads, tear sheets, 1923-1960
Box 12
Tearsheets, 1923-1960
(2 folders)
Box 12
Crosley Radio Corp., 1929-1930
Box 12
General Cigar, 1937
Box 12
Gruen Watch, undated
Box 12
Jergens, 1932-1934
Box 12
O-ke-doke beermats, 1930s
Box 12
U.S. Playing Card Co., 1937-1943
Box 12
Cartoons, by Howard Henderson, undated
(2 folders)
Box 12
Drawing of Howard Henderson, 1947
Box 12

Historical Note

DateEvent(s)
1895 July 16Born in Hingham, Mass.
1917Received AB from Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
1918Served in the US Naval Reserve Force as Yeoman First Class.
Discharged at end of the war.
1919Joined Charles Scribner and Sons as a bill collector
1919Joined the Charity Organization Society of New York City as a case worker.
1919 Sept. - 1920 JuneWas a Graduate student at Harvard Divinity School
1920Taught English at Purdue University, Ind.
1921Joined Watson Advertising Agency in Chicago as a Copywriter
1921 October 31Joined J. Walter Thompson Co. (JWT), Chicago office, as a member of the Research Department. Soon promoted to a position as copywriter.
1922 June 17Married Sarah Whitman
1923 NovemberTransferred to J. Walter Thompson Co. Cincinnati office; worked in the Copy and New Business departments.
1924-1935Served as a member of the City Charter Committee in Cincinnati; in 1935 elected Chairman of committee on Education.
1926-1929Lectured on Marketing and Advertising in the Evening School, College of Commerce, at the University of Cincinnati
1928 JanuaryBecame manager of JWT Cincinnati Office
1935Was Director of the Hamilton County Good Government League, Cincinnati; Member of the Civic Club of Cincinnati; Trustee of Cincinnati Better Business Bureau.
1936 January 1Elected Vice President and transferred to J. Walter Thompson Co., New York Office
1939-1943Was Director of Bronxville, NY, Community Chest;
1939Served as Civilian Defense World War II zone warden
1943Elected to Bronxville Board of Education; president 1947-1949.
1949-1960Was Director of Public Affairs Committee, a non--profit organization in New York City and publisher of Public Affairs Pamphlets.
1953, SeptemberBegan working part-time for JWT after a serious illness.
1955-56Worked as a consultant to the US Information Agency in Washington
1956-1960Director of International Recreation Association
1961 January 31Retired from the J. Walter Thompson Co.
1965 June 27Wife Sarah died
1966 July 15Married Leonore Turner
1977 AugustStruck by a car while visiting in Hingham, Mass.; never fully recovered from this accident.
1981 OctoberSecond wife Leonore died
1982 January 10Died in Ridgewood, NJ

Subject Headings

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], J. Walter Thompson Company. Howard Henderson Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Provenance

The Papers of Howard Henderson were transferred to the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library from the J. Walter Thompson Company in 1987.

Processing Information

Processed by: Katherine Hufstetler, Sabine Engel, Donna Longo DiMichele

Completed July, 1996

Encoded by Stephen Douglas Miller

Processing of this collection was supported in part by gifts from the J. Walter Thompson Company Fund and the John and Kelly Hartman Foundation.

This finding aid is NCEAD compliant.