Guide to the William Mahone Papers, 1853-1895
The papers of William Mahone span the period 1853 to 1895, with the bulk of the material dating from 1876 to 1892. The collection consists of copies of letters written by Mahone to others, incoming letters to Mahone, subject files on a variety of topics, clippings, and scrapbooks, but primarily focuses on Mahone's railroad and political interests. There is a great deal of overlap of topics between the different series in the collection; thus information concerning Mahone's political and railroad interests is repeated in the different series.
Mahone's involvement in the railroad business dates from 1850 when he became the Assistant Engineer of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. While there is information about several of the railroads in which Mahone held positions, including both the Orange and Alexandria and the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroads, the bulk of the material concerning railroads is related to the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad (AMandO). There are both financial and legal papers concerning the AMandO after it ran into financial difficulties in 1873 following the economic panic of that year. Included is correspondence with two Englishmen, John Collinson, who helped Mahone finance a loan to buy the AMandO in 1870, and W. H. Chase, who tried to assist Mahone in saving the railroad. Controversies surrounding the consolidation of railroads in the United States and more particularly in Virginia during the mid to late 19th century are also well documented in the collection.
The bulk of the collection deals with Mahone's political interests and activities. The collection traces the rise of the Readjuster movement in Virginia in the late 1870s, due largely to the efforts of Mahone; Mahone's allegiance to the Republican Party once he was elected to the Senate in 1880; his efforts to build a well organized political machine in Virginia; and finally the loss of support both for Mahone and for the Republican Party in Virginia in the late 1880s.
A central issue in the Readjuster movement was the state's debt, which kept taxes at a high level and almost destroyed the new public school system. The readjusters insisted that the changed conditions of the post-bellum period necessitated the readjustment of the debt. Raising the spectre of class antagonism, Mahone was able to appeal to both poor whites and blacks in order to unite them in a movement of self-interest and reform. This led to the organization of the state-wide Readjuster Party in 1878.
The Readjuster Party won control of the Virginia legislature in 1879 and gained the governorship in 1881 with the election of William E. Cameron. The new party scaled down the debt in the Riddleberger Bill of 1882, enacted laws in social and economic arenas that were of interest to the masses, and, led by Mahone, apportioned governmental offices among the party's leaders. However, in 1883 and thereafter the Readjusters were unable to capture the state legislature or governorship again, although sometimes they lost only narrowly.
Clearly shown through the collection is Mahone's emphasis on organizing the cause of the Readjusters. The focus on organization, including the canvassing of voters before elections, is evident in Mahone's campaigns for the Senate in 1880 and 1886 and for governor of Virginia in 1889. Many of the papers deal with appointing canvassers, creating clubs that would encourage participation in the political process, targeting particular groups to be canvassed such as blacks and "mild" Democrats, making sure political speeches were made in the various precincts, and finding out who had not paid their head-tax and then arranging to have the tax paid. One key element was the Richmond Whig in which Mahone had a financial and editorial interest and which became the official organ of the Readjuster movement.
After Mahone was elected to the United States Senate, he had to choose whether his allegiance would be to the Democrats or Republicans. Once he had aligned himself with the Republicans, Virginia was sometimes viewed as having broken the Solid South, that is, Virginia was seen as one state in the South where Republicans could be elected. Both Virginia and Mahone served as role models for politicians in other southern states who wanted to foster the growth of the Republican Party.
While the collection primarily relates to local and state political matters in Virginia, there are scattered letters in the collection from other areas of the country where the Republican Party was being promoted. There are several letters from William M. Burwell from New Orleans, 1880 to 1884, asking for guidance and giving progress reports on the status of the Republican Party in Louisiana. A letter (1883, March 15) from James T. Beach, Secretary of the Missouri State Republican Committee, relates to his efforts to create a National Cooperative Organization. One of its goals was to secure equal civil and political rights for a free vote.
Mahone was appointed Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture in 1882 and served on the Committee on Naval Affairs, the Committee on Post-offices and Post-roads, and the Committee on Education and Labor. Evidence of his work on these committees is best shown in the Letterbooks, Correspondence, and Subject Files. It is in the appointment of persons to positions, however, where Mahone's influence is most clearly documented. Requests for patronage positions, particularly in the Post Office, dominate the constituent correspondence. Other letters requested that particular post offices be closed or opened.
Other departments to which persons sought appointment included the Government Printing Office, the Norfolk Navy Yard, the Navy Department, the Treasury Department, and the Internal Revenue Service. Included in both the Correspondence and the Subject Files (Politics: Appointments) series are recommendations, requests and petitions for persons seeking positions.
One incident documented in the collection is a riot that occurred in Danville, Va., on November 3, 1883, three days before the Virginia state elections. Under the Readjuster legislature, blacks held a number of governmental offices in Danville. The Democrats opposed the appointment of blacks and dubbed it "Mahoneism." It is difficult today to pinpoint the origin of the violence that occurred or trace its progress, but as a result of it, several blacks and whites died. Readjusters contended the uprising had been provoked by Democrats for campaign purposes. They also blamed their loss of a majority in the state legislature on the Danville Riot. The collection includes eyewitness accounts of the incident which are located in the Subject Files.
The collection also includes much information about voters and voting patterns down to the precinct level in Virginia during the 1880s. The files relating to election frauds, which date from 1882 to 1889, provide yet another perspective on voting concerns. These files contain standardized forms and letters reporting voting irregularities. The majority of the documented frauds are from 1889 when Mahone lost his bid for governor. There were some who believed that had voting irregularities not occurred, Mahone would have been elected governor in 1889.
The collection records the rise and fall of Mahone's political career in the 1880s, as well as developments and controversies within the Republican Party in Virginia during this period. In 1888 the Republican Party split into factions which led to rival state conventions and delegations to the national convention. The Mahone defeat of 1889 brought a check to Republican activity in Virginia and in 1893 the Republicans made no effort even to nominate candidates for the governorship or the legislature.
Political allies Mahone cultivated in Virginia are among the chief correspondents. They include Frank S. Blair, Stith Bolling, William E. Cameron, Abram Fulkerson, William Lamb, John E. Massey, John Paul, Harrison Holt Riddleberger, and John S. Wise.
There is very little personal material relating to Mahone or his family. There are a few letters from his son William Mahone, Jr., and in the Subject Files there are several folders of financial receipts representing items bought for the Mahone family.
A Duke University doctoral dissertation was written about Mahone in 1932 by Nelson Morehouse Blake entitled William Mahone of Virginia: Builder, Soldier and Insurgent. It was published in 1935 with the title William Mahone of Virginia, Soldier and Political Insurgent. There are additional Mahone papers in the Mahone-McGill Collection in the Rubenstein Library at the University of Virginia Library in Charlottesville, Virginia.
- Mahone, William, 1826-1895
- William Mahone Papers, 1853-1895
- Linear feet of shelf space occupied: 110.9, Approximate number of items: 100,000, Shelf Location: 24 A-F
- Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library Durham, North Carolina 27708-0185
- For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the library's online catalog.
This collection is open for research.
Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.
All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use.
Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.
The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
Letterpress books containing copies of Mahone's outgoing letters. Relating chiefly to political matters in Virginia, they concern local and state-wide issues, his work in organizing the Virginia Readjuster Party, his gubernatorial and senatorial campaigns, state conventions, the canvassing of voters before elections, and the appointment of personnel to various governmental offices.
Other letters deal with railroad policy. Financial matters related to his own railroad, the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio, are mentioned frequently, as are other financial and business interests of Mahone. There are two gaps in the time period covered: 1879, June 19 to 1882, September 1 and 1885, June 29 to September 3.
Most of the letterbooks contain alphabetical indexes in the front that list the people to whom Mahone was writing. The number beside each name corresponds to the page in the volume where Mahone's letter to that person can be found. In some cases the dates given on the outside of the letterbook are off by a day or so from the dates of letters actually in the letterbook. An effort has been made to specify on the container list the dates of letters actually found in the letterbook, even if they vary slightly from the dates on the cover. Letters are arranged chronologically within each letterbook.
This series consists almost entirely of letters sent to Mahone, although there are a few scattered letters from Mahone to others. The most prominently represented topics relate to local and state political matters in Virginia. Among them are the Virginia state debt; rise of the Readjuster movement; Mahone's gubernatorial and senatorial campaigns; canvassing of voters before elections; requests and recommendations for governmental positions; the use of clubs to encourage involvement in politics; and the schism which developed in the Republican Party in Virginia in the late 1880s.
Other subjects include railroad matters in Virginia, particularly as they concerned the financial issues surrounding the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad; the Richmond Whig; legislation relating to the taxation of various products such as whiskey and tobacco; and several correspondents' interest in having Mahone serve in Benjamin Harrison's cabinet.
Many of the letters are numbered on the back and list the name of the letter writer, the date of the letter, a brief summary of the letter's contents, and the place where the letter was written. This information is also preserved in the correspondence indexes. However, not all the correspondence for these years is covered by these volumes. See the description of the Correspondence Indexes below. The correspondence is arranged chronologically.
Indexes to the incoming correspondence to Mahone. Inside each volume correspondents' last names are listed alphabetically with a number or numbers beside each name. The numbers indicate what pages in the volumes represent that person's letters to Mahone. One of the volumes for 1881 has on the cover "general applications." Letter writers represented in this volume wrote to Mahone with requests for placement in various governmental positions. Another volume for 1881 indexes letters that are unrelated to position requests.
The following information is given about each letter noted by the index: 1) who the letter is from; 2) the date; 3) a number; 4) a brief summary; and 5) the place where the letter was written from. This information also appears on the back of the letters themselves. Some of the correspondence dating before 1879 and after 1888 also have this information, but the only indexes in the collection date from 1879 to 1888. One can therefore move easily between the correspondence indexes and the letters for these years. One of the volumes is undated, except for the month and day the letters were written. Volumes are arranged in chronological order.
The Subject File series is arranged alphabetically and primarily relates to Mahone's political and business interests. Many of the topical headings are further subdivided. Politics comprises the bulk of the series and includes the following major subdivisions:
Appointments, 1870-1890. Includes recommendations, requests, and petitions for people to be assigned to various governmental offices, the most extensive file of which pertains to local post-office positions in Virginia. Other offices and departments represented in this file include the Government Printing Office, the Norfolk Navy Yard and Navy Department, the Treasury Department, the Interior Department, the Internal Revenue Service, and judicial appointments.
Canvassing, 1880-1889. Contains lists of canvassers, groups to be canvassed, the number of registered voters by political party and often by race, the number of people who voted in previous elections, and the number of people who were delinquent in paying their head tax. This information is usually quite detailed and broken down to the precinct level.
Elections, 1879-1889. Includes lists of county and city electoral officials, information about election frauds, and election returns, the majority of the material being from 1889 when Mahone ran for governor.
Financial Papers, 1880-1890. Includes records of campaign expenses for several elections.
Virginia state conventions, lists of delegates to the state, Conservative (1877), Readjuster (1880, 1881) and Republican (1886, 1892) conventions.
Printed Material, 1867-1894. Primarily pamphlets and broadsides. Usually the broadsides relate to a particular candidate, meeting, or campaign issue, while the pamphlets concern a variety of issues. Highlighted in the pamphlets is information about the Republican national, state, and district conventions; tariff duties on various items such as sugar and woolens; the Virginia state debt; and the Readjuster movement.
Another major topic is Railroads. Included is information on several railroads in which Mahone had a financial interest. Among them are the Norfolk and Petersburg, the Orange and Alexandria, and the Virginia and Tennessee railroads. However, the bulk of these files concerns the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio (AMandO) Railroad which Mahone created in 1870. There are extensive files relating to the financial and legal issues surrounding the railroad which suffered an economic setback after the panic of 1873 and went into receivership about 1879. (The railroad was later sold and became known as the Norfolk and Western Railroad.) These files also contain maps of the routes of several railroads and other miscellaneous items pertaining to railroads in general.
Other topics found in the Subject Files include the Civil War (commissary papers from Mahone's Brigade, 1863 Jan. - Dec.); the Danville Riot,1883; Richmond Whig (financial records, 1875-1885); the Virginia Military Institute,1865-1881; the Roanoke Navigation Company,1880-1892; the American Reduction Company,1887-1888; and the Carolina Oil and Creosote Company,1886-1890.
Includes specifications for a fountain to be built in Mahone's honor, an obituary for Mahone's nine year old daughter, Elise, social invitations, unidentified photographs, architectural drawings, and a few other items.
Chiefly articles related to political issues and concerns in Virginia including the state debt and the rival political parties the Readjusters and Funders, many from the Richmond Whig. Also articles (1886) about John Goode of Virginia who was rejected by the United States Senate for Solicitor General of the United States and articles concerning Mahone in 1889 when he ran for governor of Virginia.
Forty-one scrapbooks primarily containing clippings but also including circular letters, broadsides, and a few handwritten notes. In the container listing, the dates that have been given on the cover of the scrapbooks are noted. However, the period covered by the scrapbooks does not always match the dates that appear on the scrapbooks' covers.All but three are stored in boxes. The three not in boxes are oversized and shelved immediately after the boxed scrapbooks. Loose items found in the scrapbooks were placed in folders and are filed in the boxes with the scrapbooks.
Topics primarily concern local and state political matters in Virginia, many relating to Mahone. Among the chief topics are the rise of the Readjuster movement and early efforts to organize the Readjusters into a state political party; the state debt; the free school system; Virginia state, district, and county conventions; canvassing voters; Mahone's election to the United States Senate in 1880; the Danville Riot in 1883; support for Mahone to be appointed to a post in Benjamin Harrison's cabinet; Mahone's gubernatorial race in 1889; and the schism which developed in the Virginia Republican Party in the late 1880s. Many of the broadsides announce political speeches.
To a lesser degree, materials about railroads are also included, particularly materials relating to the controversial consolidation of railroads in Virginia and the financial difficulties of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad.
|1826, Dec. 1||Born Monroe, Southhampton Co., Va.|
|1847||Graduated from Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Va.|
|1850||Became Assistant Engineer of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad|
|1852||Became Chief Engineer, Fredericksburg and Valley Plank Road Company|
|1855||Married Otelia Butler|
|1861||Became President and Chief Engineer of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad|
|1861||Commissioned Brigadier General in the Confederate Army|
|1863||Elected to the Virginia State Senate|
|1864||Commanded unit known as "Mahone's Brigade" at the Battle of the Petersburg Crater|
|1865||Simultaneously became President of both the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad and the South Side Railroad|
|1870||Created the privately owned Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio Railroad (AMandO)|
|1877||Defeated in seeking the Virginia Democratic gubernatorial nomination|
|1879||Organized and assumed leadership of the Readjuster Party in Virginia|
|1880||Elected to the United States Senate and pledged his allegiance to the Republican Party|
|1882||Became Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture|
|1886||Ran unsuccessfully for reelection to the United States Senate|
|1889||Ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Virginia on the Republican ticket|
|1895, Oct. 8||Died in Washington, D.C. Buried in Petersburg, Va., where the Daughters of the Confederacy erected a monument to him|
- Mahone, William, 1826-1895
- Electioneering-- Virginia.
- Elections-- Virginia.
- Debts, Public-- Virginia.
- Patronage, Political-- Virginia.
- Republican Party (Va.).
- Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad Company.
- Railroads-- Virginia.
- Blair, Frank Simpson, 1839-1899.
- Cameron, William Evelyn, 1842-1927
- Fulkerson, Abram.
- Gwynn, Walter, 1802-1882.
- Riddleberger, Harrison Holt, 1844-1890.
- Paul, John, l839-l901.
- Bolling, Stith.
- Wise, John S. (John Sargeant), 1846-1913.
- Lamb, William, 1835-1909.
- Voting-- Virginia.
[Identification of item], William Mahone Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University
The William Mahone Papers were placed on deposit in the Manuscript Department in 1930 and donated to Duke University in 1985 and 1986.
Processed by Janie C. Morris
Date Completed: 05/09/89
Last Updated: 04/11/2001
Encoded by Alvin Pollock, Stephen Miller, Mohammad Hutasuhut, and Ruth E. Bryan