Guide to the Hugh Mangum Photographs, circa 1890-1922 and undated
Hugh Mangum was an itinerant commercial portrait photographer from Durham, N.C. His family's home and his studio, converted from a tobacco packhouse, still stand at West Point on the Eno River, now a county park. The Hugh Mangum Photographs collection dates from approximately 1890 through 1922, and contains 689 glass plate negatives of portrait photographs taken by Hugh Mangum as he traveled a rail circuit through North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia and in photography studios he and partners established in Roanoke, Pulaski, and East Radford, Virginia. The images are composed chiefly of individual portraits and group portraits of residents in those areas - women, children, and men, either in a studio setting or outdoors. The majority are white but there are also hundreds of African American individuals. There are several scenes from Radford, Virginia, one of the communities where Mangum established a studio, as well as Warrenton (probably N.C.), and Christiansburg, Virginia. The collection also includes a set of selected prints made from the glass plate negatives, as well as set of 50 exhibit prints from 2012. Please note: the original glass plate negatives are closed to research use. Print and digital images are available for viewing. Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts.
- Collection Number
- Hugh Mangum photographs
- circa 1890-1922 and undated
- Mangum, Hugh, 1877-1922
- 4.5 linear feet, approximately 851 items
- David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
- Material in English
The Hugh Mangum Photographs collection dates from approximately 1890 through 1922, and contains 688 glass plate negatives and a selection of black and white prints, of portraits and scenes taken by Hugh Mangum, a Durham N.C. photographer. There is also a set of 25 exhibit prints and 25 smaller use prints from a 2012 Center for Documentary Studies exhibit curated by a Duke University student. The images were taken as Mangum traveled a rail circuit through North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. He also likely took some of these images in the photography studios he and partners established in Roanoke, Pulaski, and East Radford, Virginia. Communities marked on a few of the plates include Warrenton (probably North Carolina rather than Virginia), and Christiansburg, Virginia. Localities known to have been visited by Mangum in N.C. include Winston-Salem, High Point, Raleigh, Reidsville, Lexington, Durham, and Greensboro; in Virginia, Martinsville, East Radford, and Pulaski. From an annotated trunk lid found in the collection it seems he also visited Texas but it is unknown if any of the images in the collection were taken there.
The images are composed chiefly of individual portraits and group portraits of local residents, although there is at least one photo with its main focus a large brick building with a cupola. There are women, children, and men, either in a studio setting or outdoors; the majority are white but there is a substantial number of African Americans. There are buildings such as barns, schools, and houses often present in the group portraits, and in many cases there are dogs, chickens, cats, and horses. Sometimes the individual poses with a possession such as a bicycle or musical instrument. One image is of a train accident with a large group of bystanders. Often numbers are stamped or written on the plate. The library staff has assigned unique numbers to each image and plate. There are multiple images of Hugh Mangum and the Mangum and Carden families; see the glass plate negative notes below for more details.
Mangum photographs are distinctive for the level of comfort exhibited by his subjects in front of the camera. This ease in front of the camera is readily noted due to the large quantity of "penny picture camera" negatives in the collection that contain multiple images of numerous subjects. Often the first picture of a subject appears rather stiff and formal as in traditional nineteenth century photographs. In the second and subsequent pictures, the subject often visibly relaxes, assumes different poses, uses props, removes or adds a hat, and may smile broadly at the camera. This progressive transition in poses from formal to very informal is a hallmark of the Mangum collection. The collection may be of particular interest to researchers studying late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century fashion trends.
The glass plate negatives are closed to use, but researchers may use online digitized images which represent the entirety of the collection of negatives. In addition, the collection also makes available for research use original contact prints, contact sheets, one panoramic print, and print reproductions created for exhibition and other purposes.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
Arranged in the following series: Negatives, Prints, Artifacts, and Exhibit Prints. The glass plate negatives are arranged in size order. Number ranges for each size are not inclusive.
Original glass plate negatives are closed to patron use. Print and digital copies are available.
Collection may contain materials to which the Acknowledgment of Legal Responsibilities and Privacy Rights form applies. Patrons must sign this form before using this collection.
All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. Consequently, there may be a 24-hour delay in obtaining these materials.
Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.
The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
Albumen glass plate negatives contain images of individuals, small groups, and large groups. Often plates contain multiple images in rows, up to 12 per plate. Most of the individuals' names are unknown but some names have been determined through an ongoing collaboration with researchers and other individuals. Hugh Mangum has been identified in certain negatives: see the notes below. All the negatives have been digitized and are available on the website created for the Hugh Mangum images; please see the online images for more information about the general content of each negative. Also, an Excel database is available that offers limited information for each negative: size, composition (individual, small group, or large group), genders, presence of animals, and identification number.
Glass plate negatives are arranged in size order. NOTE: Number ranges for each size are not inclusive.
Notes on specific negatives from further investigations by researcher and processing archivist:
- N5: First column, second row reproduces a photo portrait of Hugh Mangum in an oval frame.
- N43: Hugh is in the top left corner.
- N209: Possibly Hugh's mother, Sally, or a sister. Martha Sumler, a Mangum descendant, possesses a very similar chair.
- N271: Hugh is in the picture on the right. The man is most likely one of Mangum's business partners. The woman is most likely his partner's wife.
- N314: Hugh with three girls, possibly his sisters.
- N478: Hugh Mangum in center of group on a bank outdoors, possibly sisters and a young male relative, circa 1890s. Some of these same girls appear to be in another image, N361, which portrays a large group of people, possibly many members of the Mangum family.
- N517: Fifth column photos are of Julia Carden, Hugh's sister-in-law (he married Annie Carden in 1906). Last column is Perry Carden, Julia and Annie's brother.
- N528: The Wharton Building in Radford, Va. Hugh established a studio in East Radford. This image also exists as a postcard. Radford area images were identified by the director of the Glencoe Museum in Radford.
- N537: Hugh is the man in the first column.
- N545 reveals the original mill at West Point on the Eno River in Durham, NC, in flood waters.
- N634: Hugh is in the top left corner.
- N647: First row is Hugh and Annie. Second row is Annie. Third row is Perry Carden, Annie's brother.
- N652: Hugh Mangum, self-portrait, circa 1910.
- N669: A view, circa 1900, of West Radford, Virginia. The large building in the foreground with the porch is the Radford Trust building, constructed around 1891.
- N671: The Carden family (parents of Annie) house in East Radford, Virginia.
- N674: La Belle Inn, a hotel in Radford, Virginia, circa 1890s, which once housed the State Normal School for Women. Demolished in 1935.
CLOSED: Because of their vulnerability, glass plate negatives are closed to research access. For viewing purposes patrons may use online digitized images or prints.
Fifty-three black and white prints were made of selected negatives and are housed in this series. A few are original contact prints; others are modern and most of these may have been made in support of the Durham County, NC, West Point on the Eno Mangum Photography Museum around the 1980s or later. Most prints are 8x10 inches but there are also smaller prints; there are also a few oversize prints which are housed separately, including an original panoramic photograph of school children. One modern unnumbered print is likely a self-portrait of Hugh Mangum with a top hat; also, print 271 features Mangum, probably with his three sisters, and print 314 Mangum with possibly a business partner and the partner's wife.
Consists of two boxes for dry plate negatives manufactured by companies based in Missouri. One box, 3.5x4.5, is empty; the other still holds five unused 5x7 inch glass plate negatives wrapped in black paper.
Consists of two sets of digital pigmented inkjet prints mastered by documentary photographer Bill Bamberger, for the 2012 Center for Documentary Studies exhibit on the photography of Hugh Mangum, Keep All You Wish: The Photographs of Hugh Mangum. The 25 prints (50 items total) were produced from the original glass plate negatives in the Mangum collection in the Rubenstein Library at Duke. The original negative numbers for these prints are: N53, N258, N269, N274, N305, N318, N361, N397, N399, N405, N410, N414, N419, N434, N467, N472, N480, N506, N520, N570, N644, N652, N657, N662, and "Chain Gang-BB." The exhibit was curated by Sarah Stacke as her final project for her Graduate Liberal Studies degree. One set of prints measures 8.5x11 inches and the prints are unmatted; the second set measure 11x14 inches and the prints are in 16x20 mats. Also included in the series is a CD of the 25 images that were edited in Photoshop by Bamberger; the files have been mounted to a library server and are available on request. The exhibit images with accompanying panel texts are also available online through the Duke Libraries Digital Exhibits website.
NOTE: The surface of digital prints is extremely fragile and should be protected. Please handle prints by the edges and refrain from touching the image.
[Electronic records have been migrated to a library server. To request access, please contact a reference archivist before coming to use this collection.]
Hugh Leonard Mangum was born on June 3, 1877 in downtown Durham, N.C., the son of Presley J. Mangum, an early postmaster of Durham and furniture maker, and Sally Mangum. In 1891, the Mangums bought the McCown house at West Point, then a rural community centering on a water mill on the Eno River, and used the home as a summer residence. In 1893, when Hugh Mangum was 16 years old, the Mangum family moved out to the Eno River community permanently. By the time he was 16, Hugh Mangum had taught himself photography. He was also an adept painter in oils and watercolor and could play the mandolin, accordion, and piano. Mangum studied art at Salem College in Winston-Salem, N.C. and studied hypnotism on his own.
From this time on, Mangum led a rambling life throughout the cities and rural areas of the Southeast, photographing blacks and whites, children at play, workers in the field, and scenes around his home by the Eno River. He traveled by train, sometimes on a manually-propelled handcar, on these picture-taking trips, returning often to his family's Durham, N.C. home on the Eno. Through the course of his travels Mangum set up many temporary studios as well as three permanent ones located in the Virginia communities of Roanoke, Pulaski, and East Radford. Ordinary people would walk in wherever Mangum set up his studios and have their pictures made. Mangum also maintained a darkroom at his family's home on the Eno in a packhouse building which has been restored and converted into the Hugh Mangum Museum of Photography. Mangum printed many of his negatives in the packhouse darkroom having exposed the negatives elsewhere, usually on location in his permanent of temporary studios. Mangum used Black Meadow Branch, a small tributary of the Eno, as a water source for chemical mixing and for washing his prints.
Mangum's family included his father, Presley and mother, Sally, and three sisters, one of whom was named Lula. Hugh married Annie Carden of East Radford in 1906 and they had a daughter. On March 12, 1922, at the age of 44, he died in Roanoke, Virginia during an influenza epidemic.
Mangum's original darkroom, a tobacco pack house on the Mangum farm at West Point on the Eno, was saved and restored by The Friends of West Point and opened in 1986 as The Hugh Mangum Museum of Photography. In addition to his darkroom, the museum contains Hugh Mangum's traveling trunk, a selection of vintage prints, prints made from Mangum original negatives in the 1980s by photographer David Page, and period photography equipment.
- Archive of Documentary Arts (Duke University)
- African Americans -- North Carolina -- Pictorial works
- African Americans -- Portraits
- Black-and-white photographs
- Carden family (Va.)
- Commercial portraiture -- History -- 19th century
- Commercial portraiture -- History -- 20th century
- Contact prints
- Contact sheets
- Durham (N.C.) -- Pictorial works
- Durham (N.C.) -- Social life and customs
- Glass plate negatives
- Mangum family (N.C.)
- Mangum, Hugh, 1877-1922
- Negatives (photographic)
- North Carolina -- Pictorial works
- North Carolina -- Social life and customs
- Panoramic prints
- Photographers -- North Carolina
- Photographers -- Virginia
- Photography -- North Carolina
- Portrait photographers -- North Carolina
- Portrait photographers -- Virginia
- Radford (Va.) -- Pictorial works
- Virginia -- Pictorial works
- Virginia -- Social life and customs
- Presley Jackson Mangum Family Papers (contains a photograph taken by Mangum - see Rubenstein card catalog (digitized online) for details) (Rubenstein Library)
- Michael Francis Blake Photographs, 1912-1934 (African American photographer from Charleston, S.C.; houses many portrait images of African Americans) (David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library)
[Identification of item], Hugh Mangum Photographs, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.
The Hugh Mangum Photographs were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library as a gift in 1986.
Processed by Karen Glynn and Peter Hymas, May 2006.
Encoded by Aaron Thornburg, May 2009; and by Kenneth Dasher, July 2009.
Updated by Paula Jeannet Mangiafico, October 2011.
Exhibit prints added to collection by Joanne Fairhurst, February 2013.
Accessions 1987-0137, 2006-0044, 2006-0123, and 2012-0057 were merged into one collection, described in this finding aid.