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Guide to the Carl Menger Papers, 1857-1985

Abstract

Carl Menger was an economic theorist and professor.

Chiefly notebooks, notes, teaching materials, correspondence, biographical and personal material, and printed material (7500 items, 10 lin. ft; dated 1857-1985), relating to Menger's academic career, 1867-1920. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics, and on his first major work, Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre.. Includes extensive material about money, the gold standard, and capital theory. Other topics include economic principles, jurisprudence, credit, property, philosophy, the nature of science, methodology, interest, research on political economy, and the classification of knowledge. Family papers relate to Anton and Max Menger. Letters to Menger are primarily from colleagues of the Austrian school of economists, especially Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk, Johannes Conrad, Eugen von Philippovich, Emil Sax, and Friedrich Wieser, concerning professional matters. Other correspondents include Friedrich A. von Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Oskar Morganstern, Richard Schuller, Joseph Alois Schumpeter, and Knut Wicksell. The addition (02-220) (150 items, 0.40 linear ft.; dated 1855-1921 and n.d.) comprises letters, notes, postcards, and calling cards from Menger's brothers Anton and Max Menger as well as from distinguished Austrian, German, and other writers, artists, philosophers, jurists, historians, and politicians. Correspondents include Arthur Schnitzler, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Theodor Gomperz, Friedrich Jodl, Karl Kraus, and Otto Weininger. Materials in this accession are unprocessed.

Descriptive Summary

Title
Carl Menger papers, 1857-1985
Creator
Menger, Carl, 1840-1921
Extent
10 linear feet
Repository
Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library Durham, North Carolina 27708-0185
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the library's online catalog.
Language
English.

Collection Overview

The Carl Menger Papers span the years 1857 to 1985. Although the collection includes material from Menger's early professional life as well as some items from his brothers, Anton and Max, and his son, Karl, it is primarily composed of manuscripts and correspondence, 1867-1920, relating to his mature academic career. The contents are extremely dense and complex; they are also essential to an understanding of the mind of Carl Menger. Not only do the papers reflect Menger's mind, but they also document his own methods of work. He was a copious note-taker and read voraciously. He kept bound notebooks with reflections and excerpts from his current reading, especially in the early years when he was constructing the Grundsätze. Later he made notes and revisions on loose sheets, having some of them copied into a clear hand, and on those sheets, too, he made revisions. Menger also wrote directly in the printed text. For example, his papers include two copies of the Grundsätze (a third similar copy is in the Hitotsubashi University Library with the rest of Menger's library) with blank pages interleaved with pages of text. In each of these successively Menger made extensive notes and changes. Although it is frequently impossible to date his manuscripts precisely, one can get a sense of the development of his thought from this sort of progression with the help in some cases of holographic evidence.

The collection has been organized into series which reflect both Menger's style of work and his major areas of research. The series include: research notebooks; manuscripts and notes on economic principles, money, and methodology; teaching materials; correspondence; biographical and personal materials; related family materials; miscellany; and printed matter.

Menger's work on political economy and on the nature of his subject and its appropriate research method typify changes in the intellectual frontier in fin-de-siecle Vienna, and Europe as a whole. Some of Menger's most explicit thoughts on these subjects are evident in his lecture notes. Although he taught for over thirty years, the collection contains only a small amount of material from this aspect of his career. What one discerns from the lecture notes, however, is a personal sense of the teacher, and his high degree of moral commitment to his work. Menger clearly thought it important to articulate his thoughts on the distinction between political economy and jurisprudence--since that was the faculty in which he taught--and the method and aims of the discipline.

The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics. The series on general economic principles contains material relating to his first major work, the Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre, which he published in 1871. Despite the lack of a full-length coherent manuscript for this book, his background work can be discerned from a set of extensive notebooks he kept. These contain extracts of works Menger read, as well as his reactions and reflections. The range of works shows familiarity with classical authors, particularly Aristotle and Plato, through to his own contemporaries. He showed special interest in writers on law, political economy, and theories of knowledge, such as Grotius, Malthus, J. S. Mill, Ricardo, J. B. Say, Roscher, Descartes, Francis Bacon, Locke, Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Savigny. Many of the notebooks date from the late 1860s and thus, in the absence of more explicit information from Menger about his development, serve the function of intellectual diaries. Early versions of the actual manuscript of the Grundsätze exist in fragmentary form, mostly heavily revised. A table of contents, dated 1870, provides a useful comparison for later revisions and schemas.

The collection contains extensive materials on the subjects of money, the gold standard, and capital theory. The work on money, which is some of the best ordered in the collection, Menger produced as an article for the second edition of the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften in 1990, with substantial revisions for the third edition in 1909. Yet even after the latter edition, Menger continued to make changes and notations. His work on monetary reform grew out of an appointment to an Austrian state commission on currency and the use of a single or double bullion standard. Newsclippings of the reports have been maintained in the printed matter series.

Although not direct concerns in the Grundsätze, capital and interest received much attention from Menger, particularly in his refutation of his colleague Eugen Bohm-Bawerk's work of 1885, Geschichte und Kritik der Kapitalzinstheorien. Holographic evidence suggests that after dealing with this subject extensively in the late 1880s, Menger did not return to it again until the second decade of the twentieth century, when he was no longer teaching. At that point he resumed his considerations of capital and interest but looked additionally at credit and property.

The series in the collection which seems most opaque and less easily classified by subject deals with Menger's speculations and theories about the goals and methods of research, specifically for political economy, and the classification of knowledge. The appearance of the Untersuchungen über die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere in 1883 provoked sharp criticism from Gustav Schmoller, representing the younger German Historical School. Their dispute came to be known as the Methodenstreit. In the following year, Menger replied to Schmoller with his Irrtimer des Historismus in der Deutschen Nationalokonomie. After this, Menger published no further major works, although he continued to produce articles and book reviews for many years. His notes and manuscripts indicate that his research came to an end only with his death.

Menger's professional contacts with respected colleagues such as Emil Sax, Eugen Philippovich, and Bohm-Bawerk demonstrate that although he refused to publish further, he did not work in isolation. The incoming correspondence shows a lively exchange of information about university teaching and politics, news of the profession, and current research. Letters also refer frequently to works of others in the profession. Few drafts of Menger's own letters exist in the collection. A large proportion of these seem to be addressed to Bohm-Bawerk.

Administrative Information

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warning Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in the papers of Carl Menger are reserved to his heirs under the provisions of U.S. copyright law (Title 17, U.S.C.).

Contents of the Collection

Contain excerpts from works on political economy, definitions of economic terms, philosophy, and the nature of science. Many entries are Menger's notes from readings, but approximately one-third are his own musings and reactions. Not all notebooks are dated, but they fall into two periods, one in the late 1860s, the second in the 1910s. Arranged chronologically.

Nos. 1-4 (Notebooks, 1867-1868)
Box 1
Nos. 5-9
Box 1
Nos. 10-14
Box 1
Nos. 15, A, B. 16, 17A
Box 1
Nos. 17B-20, 3 unmarked
Box 1
Geflandügelte Worte, ca. 1867-1868
Box 2
Excerpts to 1899
Box 2
Unmarked, 1870
Box 2
5 Notebooks
Box 2
6 Notebooks, c. 1909-1918
Box 2
4 Notebooks, 1917
Box 2
6 Notebooks, 1918-1920
Box 2
8 Notebooks, 1903, 1917-1919
Box 3
4 Notebooks, 1902-1919, 1919/1920
Box 3

Copious revisions of the Grundsätze (unpublished during Menger's lifetime), arranged according to topic in roughly the same order as presented in the first edition of the Grundsätze; some notes from Karl Menger along with sections he chose to include in the posthumous second edition of the Grundsätze. Other topics covered extensively in this series are capital and interest, particularly in relation to Böhm-Bawerk's theories, and ownership and property.

Excerpts from English works; Sonnenfels and others
Box 3
Misc. Notes
Box 3
Excerpte
Box 4
Theoretisches Repertorium, 1867
Box 4
Grundsätze, table of contents, 1870
Box 4
Einleitung. Zusammenhandangende aber nicht abgeschlossene Darstellung der theor. 1889
Box 4
Einleitung I
Box 4
Gandüter Wesen
Box 4
Gandüter
Box 4
Oekon. Gandüter
Box 4
Arten der Gandüter
Box 5
Ad Gut (Grundsätze, Ch. 2)
Box 5
Gut
Box 5
Wirtschaft, ca. 1888
Box 5
Complicationen der menschlichen Wirtschaft
Box 5
Gangbarkeit; Wirtschaft und Gandüter
Box 5
Wirtschaft
Box 5
Wirtschaft
Box 5
Subjekte der Wirtschaft
Box 5
Wirtschaft, 1907. Includes material on Bedürfnisse.
Box 5
Wirtschaft, 1906-1907. Also, material for introduction to a 2nd edition. Dates from c. 1899
Box 5
Wirtschaft; includes material on etymology, Gandüter, and an introduction to a 2nd edition.
Box 6
Volkswirtschaft
Box 6
Vermögen
Box 6
Notes on goods and needs, includes material from 1st edition and Karl Menger's notes for 2nd edition.
Box 6
Notes on value, human demand, needs
Box 6
Bedürfnisse
Box 6
Misc. notes on needs, c. 1912-1916
Box 6
Bedürfnisse, 1918
Box 6
Bedürfnisse, 1907 [1898-1910]
(2 folders)
Box 7
Bedürfnisse, 1907
Box 7
Wert der: (1) Grundstücke und Bodennutzungen; (2) Arbeitsleistung
Box 7
Wert (Problemestellung der Productivität des Capitals)
Box 7
Ad subjektive Wertlehre
Box 7
Wert
Box 7
Wert; Tausch
Box 7
Tauschhandel
Box 7
Theorie der Preises
Box 7
Notes on monopoly (prices)
Box 8
Freihandel und Schutzzoll, 1908
Box 8
Diverses [ad Preislehre], 1908
Box 8
Waare
Box 8
Münze; Scheidemünze; Urkundengeld
Box 8
[Einkommen]: Die Problemestellung
Box 8
Einkommen
Box 8
Einkommen/Wert
Box 8
Erwerbswirtschaft und Aufwandswirtschaft
Box 8
Kritik der Smith'schen Einkommens Analyze
Box 8
Capitalseinkommen
Box 8
Capitalbegriffe
Box 8
On Capital
Box 8
Capital: Erspartes Einkommen
Box 8
Misc. notes on etymology of terms, capital and interest
Box 8
Notes on exchange, capital, etc. [on back of R.R. map of Central Europe]
Box 8
On: Vermögen, Capital, Einkommen
Box 8
On origin of term, capital; Wert; Vermögen
Box 8
Capital: Gegen Böhm
Box 8
On Böhm-Bawerk's theories: transcripts by A. Zlabinger
Box 8
Typescript on capital
Box 8
On Capital
Box 8
Capital
Box 9
Böhms Capitalzinstheorie
Box 9
Material on Böhm, including a draft obituary notice
Box 9
Material on Zinslehre,1879
Box 9
Notes on interest
Box 9
Notes on production and interest
Box 9
Theorie des Vermögenertrages, 1901
Box 9
On property and ownership
Box 9
Gemein-Eigentum
Box 9
Besitz-Eigentum
Box 9
Grund Eigentum
Box 9
Kritik ad Lotz, c. 1890s-1910s
Box 9

Contains revisions to Menger's article on money in the second and third editions of the Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. This section is arranged roughly in the order of the second edition article. Where possible folders have been labeled to indicate where the material would belong in either or both editions. Some of these manuscripts were used by Menger's son Karl in the second edition of the Grundsätze. There are also several folders on monetary reform, especially from Mengers's service on an Austrian government commission to reform the currency and evaluate its relation to bullion standards.

Geld, section 5-14 translated by A. Zlabinger
Box 9
Transcripts of manuscripts by A. Zlabinger
Box 9
Miscellaneous notes,
(2 folders)
Box 10
Diverses ad Geld
Box 10
Excerpts on money
Box 10
Ueber die Natur und die Funktionen des Geldes
Box 10
Ueber die Entwicklung der Geldwirtschaft
Box 10
Geld, 2nd edition
Box 10
Geld, revisions to 2nd edition
Box 10
Aufgabe der Theorie des Geldes
Box 10
Gangbarkeit
Box 10
Bisherige Lösungsversuche [über die Erscheinung des Geldes]
Box 10
Entstehung des Geldes, 3 und 4. Aufl.
Box 11
Ob Geld Ware [sei]
Box 11
Juristische Geldlehre, revisions to 2nd ed. sec. X; 3rd ed., sec. II
Box 11
Entstehung des Edelmetallgeldes
Box 11
Vervollkommnung des Metallgeldes...;ad Münze;Scheidemünze (2nd ed., sect. III; 3rd ed., sec. IV)
Box 11
Währung (2nd ed., sect. IV)
Box 11
Beeinflussung des Geldwertes durch den Staat
Box 11
Einfluss des Staates
Box 11
Funktionen des Geldes (2nd ed., sect. V-VII; 3rd ed., sec. VI-IX)
Box 12
Preismesser (2nd ed., sect. VIII; 3rd ed., sect. X)
Box 12
Das Geld als Massstab des Tauschwertes, pt. 1 (2nd ed., sec. IX; 3rd ed., sec. XI)
Box 12
Das Geld als Massstab des Tauschwertes, pt. 2 (2nd ed., sect. IX; 3rd ed., sec. XI)
Box 12
Massstab des Tauschwertes; Entstehung des Irrthums, 1909
Box 12
Miscellaneous notes, 1911-1915 with transcriptions by A. Zlabinger (concerns Tauschwert)
Box 12
Begriff des Geldes, (2nd ed., sec. X; 3rd ed., sec. XII-XIII)
Box 12
Bedarf an Geld, (2nd ed., sec. XI; 3rd ed., sec. XIV)
Box 13
Differenzierung des Geldes
Box 13
"Wertscalen"
Box 13
Miscellaneous Notes
Box 13
Neue Parthien
Box 13
Currency Reform, 1892
Box 13
Currency Reform, clippings
Box 13
Currency Reform
Box 13
Currency Report Notes
Box 13

Includes lecture notes from several semesters and one folder of student papers on the term "capital". Arranged chronologically.

Seminararbeiten über Kapitalbegriff, etc.
Box 13
Lectures ( Die Theorie und Praxis des Bankwesens. Erste Vortrag), 1872
Box 13
Lectures, c. 1884-1894(114, 115, 481)
Box 13

Notes and revisions for the Untersuchungen, material on the ensuing Methodenstreit, G. Schmoller, and Menger's subsequent refutation, Irrtimer; notes for the article on the Klassifikation der Wissenschaften and material refuting Wundt; many general notes and partial manuscripts, apparently for a book on methodology and the aims of research which would have included material on the inductive vs. deductive method and the importance of theory in research. Arranged topically.

Material on Irrthümer
Box 14
Schmoller
Box 14
Franz. Nationaloekonomie
Box 14
Notes on Classical Economics
Box 14
Untersuchungen, 1 p.
Box 14
Die Frage über die Methode... from Juridicheski Westrik No. 12 (1884): 581
Box 14
Methode, 1876
Box 14
Methode Material
(2 folders)
Box 14
Diverses ad Methode pt. 1
Box 14
Diverses [ad] Methode pt. 2
Box 15
Typed transcript of plan for work on method and other notes
Box 15
Ad Methode
Box 15
Misc. Notes
Box 15
Grundrichtungen der Forschung
Box 15
Etymologie/Philosophie
Box 15
Schema für eine Classification der Wissenschaften überhaupt
Box 15
Notes on Classification der Wissenschaften
Box 15
Classification der Wirtschaft. Wissenschaften includes material on Erkenntnisziele der Forschung and die realistische Richtung der Forschung
Box 15
Classification der Wissenschaften, c. 1892-1894
Box 15
Printed work on plants, 11 pp., concerned with classification
Box 16
Verständnis und Voraussicht
Box 16
"Gegen Wundts Auffassung der Wissenschaft"
(2 folders)
Box 16
"Mathematik: Ideele Richtung," c. 1898
Box 16
Erkenntnisziele/Richtungen der Forschung,
(2 folders)
Box 16
Material on directions of research, with special attention to "Deduction," 1890s
Box 16
On Induction
Box 17
"Induction," ca. 1899
Box 17
"Ueber Wesen der Methoden..." [Induction/Deduction]
Box 17
"Empirismus in der deutschen Nationaloekonomie" [late 1890s]
(2 folders)
Box 17
"1. Empirische Gesetze; 2. Arten"
Box 17
"Material ad Unzulänglichkeit des Empirismus"
Box 17
"Empirismus, Realismus, Positivismus in deutscher Nat. Oek."
Box 17
"Realistische Richtung..."
Box 18
"Ob exacte realistische Theorien auf Geb. d. Tat. Erscheinungen mogl?" [c. 1890s]
Box 18
"Realismus"
Box 18
Realistische auch idealistische Richtung der ideologischen Forschung"
Box 18
"Theorie...Realismus..." On Logik,
(2 folders)
Box 18
Kritik von Wundts Logik"
Box 19
"Causalität," c. 1905-1914
Box 19
"Willensfreiheit; Ethik," c. 1904-1910
Box 19
Notes on free will; self consciousness, c. 1912- 1914
Box 19
Notes on role of value judgments in Wissenschaft
Box 19
Moral im Handel, scattered pp. and notes
Box 19
Notes on philosophical topics, c. 1907-1913
Box 19
Notes on philosophical topics, c. 1910s
(3 folders)
Box 19
Notes on philosophical topics, c. 1910s
Box 20

Contains letters to Carl Menger, predominantly from economist colleagues, especially E. Böhm-Bawerk, J. Conrad, E. Philippovich, E. Sax, and F. Wieser, concerning professional matters. Menger's drafts are in the minority; most seem to be to E. Böhm-Bawerk. Several letters concern early professional matters, Menger's association with Rudolf, the crown prince of Austria, and his appointment at the University of Vienna. The series also includes letters to Karl Menger from economists such as F. Hayek. L. Mises, O. Morgenstern, R. Schuller, J. Schumpeter, K. Wicksell, and R. Zuckerkandl. They date primarily from the 1920s and 1930s, with a few dating from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. Matters covered include Karl Menger's publication of the second edition of his father's Grundsätze and his later work on the Austrian School.

Carl Menger, 1863-1884
Box 20
Carl Menger, 1885-1888
Box 20
Carl Menger, 1889-1920 and undated
Box 20
Karl Menger, 1914-1985 and undated
Box 20
Anton Menger, 19??
Box 20

Contains a biographical sketch by F. Hayek which appeared in volume one of the Collected Works of Carl Menger (Series of Reprints of Scarce Tracts in Economic and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, 1934) and various lists for a curriculum vitae of Menger. A valuable but short (48 leaves) diary which Menger kept from l875 to 1893/4 lists major events since his birth in 1840, but deals primarily with Menger's health, his appointments as a journalist, employment in the press section of the Austrian prime minister's office, his association with Crown Prince Rudolf, university politics, and academic research. A folder contains notices of celebrations for Menger's seventieth and seventy-fifth birthdays, and obituaries. There is one undated postcard/photograph of Menger and a friend fishing.

Diary, 1875-1894 (with information from 1840)
Box 21
Diary transcriptions and notes on Carl Menger's life by Karl Menger, 12 pp. and 1 blue notebook
Box 21
1. Iron Cross, III class, 1876
Box 21
2. "Correspondant," Institut de France, 1894;2 letters of congratulation
Box 21
3. "Correspondant," La Société de statistique de France, 1897
Box 21
4. Certificate of Admission, Regia Lynceorum Academia, 1899
Box 21
5. Honorary president for 1901, Institut international de Sociologie, 1900
Box 21
6. Requests for C. Menger to accept other positions; 1 envelope, 2 sheets
Box 21
Miscellaneous information, dates, etc.
Box 21
News Clippings, Articles in honor of Menger's 60th, 70th and 75th birthday, his retirement (1903), and on the occasion of his death
Box 21
Commemoration of Menger on his 70th birthday (R. Zuckerkandl)
Box 21
Introduction for the Collected Works of Carl Menger(London School of Economics and Political Science) by F. Hayek
Box 21
1. Carl Menger?
Box 21
2. "Daughter of Dr. Perin" 1911
Box 21
3. Carl Menger and friend, undated
Box 21

Contains "Railways and Financial Institutions," possibly associated with one of the Mengers; a tribute to Anton Menger by K. Grandüberg; various articles by Anton Menger; a diary, 1861-70, and obituaries of Max Menger; an article by Karl Menger.

Menger (?): Railways and Financial Institutions
Box 22
Anton Menger: Sein Leben und Lebenswerk (K. Grünberg); Das Recht auf den vollen Arbeitsertrag; Neue Sittenlehre;Ueber die sozialen Aufgaben der Rechtswissenschaft
Box 22
Anton Menger: Volkspolitik
Box 22
Anton Menger (?): Rede beim Antritte des Rectorats,1874
Box 22
Max Menger: Diary, 1861-1870
Box 22
Max Menger: Die Reform der directen Steuern in Oesterreich
Box 22
Max Menger: Obituaries
Box 22
Karl Menger: The Logic of the Laws of Return (reprint)
Box 23
1. Italien...Flugmalerei (R. Vasari);
Box 23
2. On Equilibrium in Graham's Model of World Trade... (L. McKenzie)
Box 23
3. Pluralist Approach to the Philosophy of History (K. Popper)
Box 23
4. Educational Theatre and UNESCO (H. Schnitzler);
Box 23
5. Introduction, Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation (by Karl Popper)
Box 23
6. Derivation of Bond Pricing Formula
Box 23
Karl Menger: Recht und Logik (F. Paradies)
Box 23
Karl Menger: Miscellaneous News Clippings
Box 23
Karl Menger: Miscellaneous recollections, 1 partial page.
Box 23

Includes notes; bibliographical references on topics other than economics or methodology; and partial catalog of Carl Menger's library arranged alphabetically.

Bill for Neue Freie Presse, 1909
Box 23
Early Writings
Box 23
Writings
Box 23
Entwurf der Statuten für die Redehalle
Box 23
Printed description of university life, after 1903
Box 23
Notes on Prague Univ. Student Associations
Box 23
Bibliographical References
Box 23
Catalog of Carl Menger's Library
Box 23
List of materials in the Vienna Univ. Library not in Menger's personal library, 1869
Box 23
"Von alten Büchern. Antiquarische Bücher und Antiquare"
Box 23
Notes on Austrian Politics by Crown Prince Rudolf
Box 23
Notes on Progressive Income Tax
Box 23
Miscellaneous Notes, Carl Menger and Karl Menger (?)
Box 23
"Sonnenfels"
Box 23

Includes books and articles by Menger, many with his annotations; some proofs of items in press; reviews of Menger's works; articles sent to him by other authors; clippings on the Austrian university students' uprisings; and news clippings concerning articles by Menger and others.

News Clippings: Reviews by Carl Menger
Box 24
News Clippings: Articles by Carl Menger
Box 24
News Clippings: Reviews of Carl Manger's Works
Box 24
News Clipping Copies: Reviews Concerning Menger
Box 24
News Clippings: Articles by Carl Menger on universities and their reform
Box 24
News Clippings: Miscellaneous
Box 24
News Clippings: Reviews of Grundsätze, 2nd ed.
Box 24
Grundsätze, copies 1 and 2
(2 folders)
Box 24
Grundsätze, unnumbered copy
Box 24
Grundsätze, unnumbered copy
Box 25
Grundsätze, 2nd ed., Handexemplar
Box 25
Grundsätze, 2nd ed., galley proofs for pp. 87-91, 99-101
Box 25
Untersuchungen with Menger's annotations
Box 25
Untersuchungen
(2 folders)
Box 25
Untersuchungen, bound in signatures with blank leaves. Used by F. Hayek in preparing a 2nd ed., nos. I-II, 1-10, 12-14
Box 25
Untersuchungen, bound in signatures with blank leaves. Used by F. Hayek in preparing a 2nd ed., nos. 15-19
Box 26
Irrthümer des Historismus with revisions by Karl Menger
Box 26
"Zur Kritik der Politischen Oekonomie," 2 copies
Box 26
"Zur Theorie des Kapitals," 2 copies in German; 1 translation in French
Box 26
"Grundzüge einer Klassifikation der Wirtschaftswissenchaften"
Box 26
On the Origin of Money
Box 26
Ein Gesetz gegen Kartelle
Box 26
Geld, 1900 (2nd ed. of Handwörterbuch,), 3 copies
Box 26
Geld, 1909 (3rd ed. of Handwörterbuch), 6 copies
Box 26
Geld, 1909 (3rd ed. of Handwörterbuch), 5 copies
Box 26
1. Beiträge zur Währungsfrage...
Box 26
2. Das Goldagio und der heutige Stand der Valutareform
Box 26
3. Der Uebergang zur Goldwährung
Box 26
4. Die Valutaregulierung in Oesterreich-Ungarn (incomplete)
Box 26
1. Das Selbstbewusstsein (T. Lipps) (incomplete)
Box 26
2. On geistige Arbeit (incomplete)
Box 26
1. Zins (Böhm-Bawerk)
Box 26
2. Preis (Zuckerkandl)
Box 26
3. Sostarnyia chasti i metody politicheskoi ekonomii (A. A. Isaeva)
Box 26
1. Fundamentals of Austrian Economics (T. C. Taylor)
Box 26
2. Menger on Ricardo (K. Yagi)
Box 26
3. Böhm-Bawerk's First Interest Theory (K. Yagi)
Box 26
4. Review of Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics (Jaffé)
Box 26
1. Austrian Marginalism and Mathematical Economics (galley proofs; 1 English copy; 1 German copy; 1 German summary)
Box 26
2. Program from One Hundred Years of Carl Menger's 'Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre,' 2 copies
Box 26
Printed Matter: Die Schillerzeit (contribution by Menger, among others, to commemoration of Schiller, 1905)
Box Sec. A OV12
Printed Matter: Review of Böhm-Bawerk's Positive Theorie des Kapitals
Box Sec. A OV12
Biographical Materials: Honors. Election to Societas Regia Edinensis, 1895.
Box Sec. A OV12
Biographical Materials: Application for Habilitation, 1871
Box Sec. A OV12
Miscellaneous: Notes on Austrian Student Rising
Box Sec. A OV12

Historical Note

DateEvent(s)
1840, February 23Born, Neu Sandec, Galicia (then in the Austrian part of Poland)
1863-1871Editorial and reporting posts on the Lemberger Zeitung, then on the Wiener Zeitung
1867Doctorate in jurisprudence, University of Cracow
1871Publication of Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre
1872-76Habilitation and appointment as professor extraordinarius, University of Vienna
1876-78Tutor and traveling companion to Archduke Rudolf, Austrian crown prince
1879Full professorship, University of Vienna
1883Publication of Untersuchungen über die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere, which precipitated the Methodenstreit with the younger German Historical School
1884Publication of Irrtimer des Historismus in der Deutschen Nationalkonomie, Menger's reply to criticism by Gustav Schmoller
1892Joined the Austrian state commission on currency reform and the evaluation of a bullion standard
1903Retired prematurely from his active professorship to devote himself entirely to research
1921Died in Vienna
1923Publication of a second edition of the Grundsätze edited by Menger's son Karl

Carl Menger was born in 1840 in Neu Sandec, Galicia, of well-to-do titled parents. His life followed a path typical for someone in a family of similar social and intellectual standing. His work as journalist, tutor to the crown prince, and professor marked his role as part of a flowering European intellectual elite.

After attending Gymnasium, he matriculated at the universities of Vienna and Prague, leaving school in 1863 for a position on the staff of the Lemberger Zeitung. He continued to hold a number of other reporting and editorial posts over the course of the next dozen years, ending with the Wiener Zeitung. The list of Menger's contributions to the press in later years attests to the ties he retained in this area.

In the meantime, Menger received his doctorate in jurisprudence from the University of Cracow and began his work on political economy. By 1871 he had begun the process of publication and simultaneously applied for full instatement on the law faculty at the University of Vienna. In his diary, Menger noted it was not without some difficulty that he achieved this goal in July of 1872. For the next several years he taught finance and political economy to an increasing number of students, both in seminars and lectures, while also contributing to the Wiener Zeitung.

In the fall of 1876, Menger was approached with a request to become tutor in political economy and statistics to the Crown Prince of Austria. The ensuing association lasted until the death of the prince in 1889 and brought the talented young economist in contact with politically and socially influential people throughout Europe and England. He made two tours with Crown Prince Rudolf, one throughout Europe, and a second to the British Isles. Menger's contact with the prince lessened after their travels and after the prince had successfully completed his examinations, but from Menger's diary entries it is clear he continued to benefit from this royal association, particularly in the area of university appointments.

With the exception of the short hiatus of a few semesters with the crown prince, Menger taught until 1903, when he retired early in order to devote himself entirely to research. He spent the majority of his professional academic career in Vienna, a city acknowledged as one of the premier cultural centers on the continent. His writings, like his background, are a window upon the mind and concerns of the late-nineteenth-century intellectual. Far from having a focused and narrow concern with a particular aspect of economics, Menger sought to define the discipline and science of (non-mathematical) economics and to place it within the broader context of intellectual inquiry. Although the last several decades of Menger's life may be quickly described as involved in teaching and research, comprehending the quality and quantity of his life's work presents a great challenge to contemporary researchers.

Subject Headings

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Carl Menger Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Provenance

The papers of Carl Menger (1840-1921), economic theorist and professor, were donated to Duke University in 1987 by his granddaughter, Eve L. Menger.

Processing Information

Encoded by Alvin Pollock

The original order of this collection is completely lost. Karl Menger had possession of the papers immediately after his father's death in 1921. He used much of the material now in the series on economic principles and some of the material from the series on money for the publication of a second edition of his father's best-known work, the Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre. A number of years later Friedrich v. Hayek ordered a number of the folders containing notes and manuscripts. His numbers are visible on the outside upper left corner of a number of the hard-cover folders. From time to time he also made notes about the content of a particular folder, but none of these notes is extensive. In the 1970s, Albert Zlabinger was permitted access to some of the papers, primarily the material on money. His careful work and notations allow for the reconstruction of the development of Menger's article on money for the Handw"rterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, and its subsequent revisions.

Carl Menger did not date all, or even most, of his work, and because he made frequent emendations to his own notes and text, dating is hazardous at best. For this reason, all loose manuscript material has been arranged topically. Almost all material belonging to a particular folder, however, has been kept together. Original folders have been retained.

The only materials which lent themselves to something approximating original order are the bound notebooks which Menger himself numbered. Correspondence has been arranged chronologically.

The majority of the paper in this collection has an extremely high acid content, although it is not overly brittle. Many sheets are crumpled badly, especially at the edges, but little text has been lost. All newspaper clippings have been photocopied on acid-free paper.