# Guide to the Karl Menger Papers, 1872-2000

## Abstract

Collection includes correspondence, notebooks, research and teaching notes, drafts of unpublished and published works, teaching materials, student theses, printed materials, and a few photographs. Mathematical subjects include curves theory, algebra, geometry, and the philosophy of mathematics. Many letters are from notable scientists; those written to Menger during World War II often comment on the hardships of colleagues still in Europe. Includes biographical materials relating to Karl Menger and to his father, the Austrian economist Carl Menger, and materials related to the history of the Vienna Circle (1920s-1930s), a group of scholars concerned with philosophy and science. Notebooks relate to Menger's early work as a student, and later notes on mathematical theory. Printed items include many European and American scientific reprints, textbooks, study manuals, and school publications.

## Descriptive Summary

- Collection Number
- RL.00888
- Title
- Karl Menger papers
- Date
- 1872-2000
- Creator
- Menger, Karl, 1902-1985
- Extent
- 49.0 linear feet, 29,500 items
- Repository
- David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
- Language
- English and German.

## Collection Overview

Collection includes correspondence, notebooks, research and teaching notes, drafts of unpublished and published works, teaching materials, student theses, printed materials, and a few photographs. Mathematical subjects include curves theory, algebra, geometry, and the philosophy of mathematics. Many letters are from notable scientists; those written to Menger during World War II often comment on the hardships of colleagues still in Europe. Includes biographical materials relating to Karl Menger and to his father, the Austrian economist Carl Menger, and materials related to the history of the Vienna Circle (1920s-1930s), a group of scholars concerned with philosophy and science. Notebooks relate to Menger's early work as a student, and later notes on mathematical theory. Printed items include many European and American scientific reprints, textbooks, study manuals, and school publications.

## Restrictions on Access & Use

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

### Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

### Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

## Contents of the Collection

**1.** Correspondence Series, 1918-1984

The Correspondence Series has been arranged alphabetically by correspondent, with notes whenever possible indentifying individual correspondents and topics addressed in the letters.

American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Real projective geometry, hyperbolic geometry, Boolean algebra

Topic(s): Publication of Menger's "The Foundations of Geometry"

Russian mathematician/topologist.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; some correspondence between Alexandroff and Hurewicz

Hungarian mathematician.

Topic(s): Dimension theory, combinatorial (algebraic) topology, calculus of variations, metric geometry; Brouwer, Urysohn; routine exchanges

Austrian mathematician; student of Karl Menger and member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Calculus of variations, metric geometry; projective geometry; computer languages, progamming; routine exchanges; paper comments. Later correspondence in English

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Author communiques, rejection letters

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Author communiques, rejection letters; invitation to lecture

Polish-American mathematician.

Topic(s): Dimension theory, topology, theory of functions; routine exchanges

American economist; 1972 Nobel Prize Winner in Economics.

Topic(s): Arrow asks for K.M.'s input concerning the history of general equilibrium theory; Arrow's response to Menger's congratulations concerning Nobel Prize

Other correspondents with last name beginning with A. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: Mortimer J. Adler (thanks for reprint of "The New Logic"); Pier A. Abetti (routine exchanges); Lars V. Ahlfors (concerning K.M.'s notational suggestions); F. Axamit (routine exchange); Gordon Allen, M.D. (concerning K.M.'s notational suggestions); from K.M. to Richard T. Arnold (recommendation letter for Dr. Thomas Erber); Edward S. Allen (question about implication of "Moral, Wille,..."; Salvador Adora (routine exchange, thanks for financial help)

Spanish mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; theory of functions, metric geometry

German mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; theory of curves, dimension theory

Austro-Hungarian neurologist.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges (handwriting illegible)

Dutch mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges, thanks for reprints

American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Affine geometry, projective gemetry, lattice theory; history of dimension theory; routine exchanges; some correspondence between Garrett Birkhoff and H. Freudenthal

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; some corespondence between George Birkhoff and Gottfried Haberler

American linguist.

Topic(s): Projective geometry; routine exchanges, thanks for reprints

American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Metric geometry, topology, calculus of variations; routine exchanges; discussion, planning of co-authored book ("Studies in Geometry," 1970)

Polish philosopher and logician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; modal logic, a formal-logical approach to ethical problems; Lukasiewicz

Danish mathematician; brother of Niels Bohr.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges

American physicist, 1946 Nobel Prize Winner in Physics. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Probabilistic analysis; Menger's Calculus textbook; routine exchanges, thanks for reprints

Dutch mathematician and philosopher.

Topic(s): Lengthy correspondence in German starting before and extending beyond Menger's time in Amsterdam as Brouwer's assistant.

Other correspondents with last name beginning with B. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: German philosopher, logician, and mathematician Oskar Becker (routine exchange); (Ludwig?) Bieberbach (postcard, routine exchange); (Otto?) Blumenthal (routine exchange); Karol Borsuk (paper submission? routine exchange); Paolo Bonetti (rejection letter from "Scientia"; Ruth Buschke (routine exchange); Émile Bréhier (newsletter from Neuvième Congrès International de Philosophie); Enea Bortolotti (routine exchange); Thomas J. Barry (publicity director for Notre Dame, request for photograph); G. van den Barren (? routine exchange); H.E. Bray (methods of proof in vector analysis); Egon Brunswick (probabilistic geometry); Reinhold Baer (projective geometry); Sister M. Francis Borgia, S.S.N.D. (proof of the sextuple theorem); H.L. Blackwell (from Menger, regarding probabilistic geometry, request for data); J.C. Boyce (incoming and outgoing correspondence regarding Menger's work at Argonne National Laboratory); Richard L. Baran (thanks for reprints); Stephen Baker (routine exchange); A.S.W. Borinski (regarding manusript sent by Borinski); Frederick Bock (request for correction of translated passage); Elizabeth Boyer (draft sent); Paul Bernays (comments on Menger's work?); Artur Bergmann (communication of mathematical results); Peter Benzin (request for comments ?); Donald R. Byrkit (request for help filling adjunct position at U. of West Florida); S. Bilinski (thanks for reprints); Leon Bernstein (routine exchange); William Bettelheim (regarding Carnap?); Margarete Boos (regarding Boos' attempt to write a biography of C. Menger); Father Baggio (correction of proof); Manuel Blum (automata theory)

German-American philosopher; member of Vienna Circle. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; Rockefeller Foundation funding; Carnap's work on logical syntax, principle of tolerance

Czech mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; request for Menger to guest lecture; Mathematical Colloquium; topology, set-theoretic geometry, calculus of variations

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Reprint of Menger's "Kurventheorie"

Alfred Cowles 3rd.

Topic(s): Third Annual (1937) Cowles Commission Resarch Conference in Economics and Statistics

Other correspondents with last name beginning with C.

Including: Julian L. Coolidge (class scheduling for Menger's visiting semester at Harvard, 1930-31); Haskell B. Curry (request for letter of recommendation; reprints sent by Curry; mathematical logic); Alonzo Church (request for comments on Church's bibliography published in Journal of Symbolic Logic); Morris R. Cohen (regarding Rosenwald Foundation funding); H.S.M. Coxeter (routine exchanges, thanks for reprints; Coxeter's review of Abbott, Coxeter's comments on Menger's "Self-dual Postulates"); Rev. John J. Cavanaugh, C.S.C. (Notre Dame business; public lectures); Edwin Comfort (routine exchanges, reprints sent to Menger; AMS refereeing process); Alexander R. Craw (regarding reference to Menger in lecture by W.H. Huggins; routine exchanges); Thomas Cornides (reprints sent to Menger, routine exchanges); Robert S. Cohen (contract agreements); Harvey Cohn (mathematics education, pedagogy); Leslie Coghlan (request for reprints)

Dutch mathematician.

Topic(s): Constructivity, set theory; Brouwer's work on continuum

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Dawson's proposed biography of Gödel

Author of "Kurt Gödel: Ein Mathematischer Mythos."

Topic(s): Gödel; DePauli-Schimanovich's book on Gödel

Other correspondents with last name beginning with D.

Including: Francois Divisia (routine exchange, lapsed correspondence; Econometric Society); Franz Deuticke (billing); William F. Dollar (possible purchase of Menger's philosophical library by Assumption University of Windsor, Canada); George B. Dantzig (reprints); Thomas R.A. Davis (request for evaluation of former research assistant); R.M. Dicker (offprints sent, thanks for offprints received); Leon M. Despres (financial matters); Ronald G. Douglas (routine exchange)

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; publication in English of a summary of Menger's early work; invitation to Rice Institute; dimension theory; publication matters

Other correspondents with last name beginning with E.

Including: Paul Ehrenfest (routine exchange); Dimitry Egoroff (dimension theory); Howard S. Ellis (gold / monetary policy); B.Eckmann (request for Menger to lecture to Mathematical Colloquium of Zurich); Jack M. Elkin (mathematics education, pedagogy); Albert C. English (mathematics education, pedagogy); Florence L. Elder (thank you for visiting lecture)

German mathematician.

Topic(s): Dimension theory; Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik

Austrian philosopher; member of the Vienna Circle.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges, Gödel, Wittgenstein, Russell, Vienna Circle

Spanish mathematician.

Topic(s): Reprints, routine exchanges

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; I.I.T. business

German-Israeli mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; set theory, dimension theory, constructivity

Austrian physicist, mathematician, and philosopher; member of the Vienna Circle.

Topic(s): Suggested book for HUP on foundations of mathematics; program for "Kongress der Naturphilosophen"

French mathematician.

Topic(s): Calculus of variations, probabilistic geometry; recommendation by Frechet of Menger for Fullbright Fellowship

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Correspondence with publisher regarding geometry textbook co-written with Leonard Blumenthal

Other correspondents with last name beginning with F.

Including: Robert Friedman (foundations of math, intuitionism, routine exchanges); Felix Frankel (routine exchanges, state of science and mathematics in Moscow ca. 1929, theory of curves); Leopold Fejér (routine exchanges); Ragnar Frisch (routine exchanges, request for Menger's writings on social-scientific applications of mathematics and logic); Simion Stoilow (regarding Hans Hahn); Ky Fan (routine exchanges, metric geometry); Robert Feys (routine exchanges, probability theory, modal logic); Paul Finsler (routine exchanges, thanks for reprints, invitation to Zurich Mathematical Colloquium); Herbert Amasa Forrester (copy of report sent to Menger); Henry George Forder (routine exchanges); Don C. Ferguson (request for Menger to review and evaluate Ferguson's "functional notation" for calculus); William J. Frascella (addressed to Marvin G. Mundt regarding history of analysis course); Alois Fritsch (routine exchanges); Solomon Feferman (thanks for reprints, John Dawson's biography of Kurt Gödel)

Topic(s): Correspondence regarding Menger's Calculus textbook

Austrian-American logician, mathematician, and philosopher; associate of the Vienna Circle and member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges, mathematical logic, set theory, continuum hypothesis; Gödel's comments on Menger's work; request for news regarding Mathematical Colloquium; offer to bring Gödel to Notre Dame; Menger's Calculus textbook; mathematics pedagogy; Menger's request for Gödel's reminiscences of Vienna Circle; the extent of Wittgenstein's comprehension of Gödel's incompleteness theorems

Other correspondents with last name beginning with G. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: Marcel Grossman (from Menger regarding metric geometry, postcard from Grossman to Menger); Harry Merrill Gehman (thanks for reprints; notification of Menger's appointment to American Association for the Advancement of Science); Heinrich Grell (invitation from Menger to speak to Mathematical Colloquium; post vist follow-up from Grell to Menger); Heinrich Gomperz (routine exchanges); Gerhard Gentzen (request for reprint); M. Gorce (request for reprint); Frau Gräfin (regarding translation of Menger's book); Lawrence M. Graves (routine exchanges, rejection letter from Bulletin of the AMS); Godofredo Garcia (routine exchanges); S. Grunzweig (routine exchanges); J. Trevino Garcia (request for reprints); Charles David Gorman (request for letter of recommendation); L.E. Grinter (request for Menger to join University of Florida faculty); Ferdinand Gonseth (invitation for Menger to attend meeting of International Congress for Philosophy of Science); Thomas L. Gilbert (critical comments on Menger's "What are Variables and Constants?"); Ralph J. Godzicki (communication of student praise of Menger); Dan Gottl (routine exchanges); James H. Bowden (to Martin Gardiner regarding Unexpected Hanging Paradox); Eugene T. Gadol (publication of Schilck volume); V. Grafe (routine exchanges); Roy Gunderson (request for letters of recommendation); Eugene Gehrig (thanks for reprints)

Austrian-American economist

Topic(s): Comments on Carl Menger biography; thanks for reprints, Schumpeter, Birkhoff, Wassily Leontief, Böhm-Bawerk, Morgenstern; routine exchanges

Austrian mathematician; Menger's teacher and founding member of the Vienna Circle.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; Brouwer, Urysohn, Birkhoff; set theory, geometry, topology (Hahn's handwriting mostly illegible)

Topic(s): Metric geometry, definition of convexivity, combinatorics; routine exchanges

American physicist.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges, request for reprints; Legendre transformation; relationship between Newton's first two laws of motion

German mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; theory of non-orientable manifolds

American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): "New math" movement, Max Beberman, mathematics education / pedagogy; routine exchanges

Austro-British economist and philosopher, 1974 Nobel Prize Winner in Economics. Folder includes some early correspondence between Hayek and J.M. Keynes.

Topic(s): Correspondence between Hayek and Keynes concerns a potential position at the Bank of International Settlements and the possibility of Keynes recommending Hayek for such a position (Keynes treats Hayek's request cordially, but is rather non-committal), and a possible subscription by the Royal Economic Society to Carl Menger's Collected Works (which Hayek edited ?). Correspondence between Hayek and K. Menger addresses Wittgenstein (and Hayek's relationship with the latter); routine exchanges; Hayek raises the possibility that he and Menger were distantly related. Hayek offers comments on a biography of Carl Menger that Menger seems to have written at some point (?)

First President of Illinois Institute of Technology; later President of the Ford Foundation. Some outgoing correspondence

Topic(s): Routine exchanges from Heald; letters from Menger concern mathematics education / pedagogy; some plea for funding from Ford Foundation for Menger's mathematics education project.

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Resuest for Menger to lecture at Caltech, summer 1931, and at American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Denver, June 1937.

Viennese publishing company. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Licensing of Carl Menger's Grundsätze and Die Irrtümer; Menger's contribution to a monograph about Gödel.

Polish mathematician.

Topic(s): Metric geometry, dimension theory, set theory; Brouwer-Menger controversy; Urysohn, Alexandroff, Schreier, Kuratowski, Redeimeister; routine exchanges

Other correspondents with last name beginning with H. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: Wilhelm (?) Hummel (dimension theory, set theory); Edmund Husserl (postcard, routine exchanges); Arend Heyting (thanks for reprints, Brouwer); Felix Hausdorff (thanks for reprints, Brouwer-Menger controversy); Lothar Heffter (illegible); T. Hirano (foundations of mathematics, Herman Weyl, Gödel); T.H. Hildebradt (thanks for warm treatment at Notre Dame conference, Green's theorem); Victor F. Hess (routine exchanges, Gert Müller); Lilly Hahn (Hans Hahn, routine exchanges); M. Herfeld (Emil Kauder, Carl Menger, Crown Prince Rudolph, Menger's paper about Carl and Rudolph); Car; G. Hempel (regarding whether Princeton's math department ever used one of Menger's texts, thanks for reprints, mathematical eduction / pedagogy); Edward F. Haskell (sent reprints, Marston Morse, geometry); George B. Headley (mathematics education / pedagogy); M.E. Hartzler (thanks for reprints, comments, applied statistics, routine exchanges); Martial (?) Honnell (mathematics education / pedagogy, electrical engineering, Laplace transformations); Father Henry (?) (1960 summer institute on mathematics education (?), theory of planar order); Albert Hardwick (Associate Editor Charles E. Merrill Books, routine exchanges); Nikolaus Hofreiter (routine exchanges, approval of University of Vienna Fulbright proposal); Dietmar Hübler (projective geometry); Maurice Heiss (?) (Riemannian geometry); J.B. Harkin (routine exchanges, printing of book, Marquette project update); Adolf Hübner (routine exchanges); Rudolf Haller (routine exchanges, Holder-Pichler-Tempsky); F. Henmuller (?) (planar geometry ?)

American game theorist.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; request for advice; comments on paper; differential games

American mathematician; author of book on history of dimension theory. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Johnson's book on history of dimension theory; Brouwer-Menger-Urysohn priority controversy

Topic(s): Thank you to Menger for willingness to contribute to special issue dedicated to his work, correspondence regarding same

Other correspondents with last name beginning with J.

Including: Vojtěch Jarník (comments on Menger's "Dimensionstheorie"); Easley S. Jones (request for reading suggestions regarding theory of abstract groups; John C. Jordan (mathematical / statistical meteorology); Ralph Duncan James (revisions to Menger's paper "Gulliver's Return to the Land Without One, Two, Three"); Frederick H. Jackson (rejection of appeal for Carnegie funding); Bjarni Jonsson (lattice theory); Larry Johnson (Everiste Galois, nutrition, routine exchanges)

Austrian-American philosopher; member of the Vienna Circle.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; Brouwer, Vienna Circle; social science methodology; thanks for copy of book (probably "Moral, Wille Und Weltgestaltung")

Polish mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; curve theory, set theory, dimension theory; Hurwicz, Urysohn, Brouwer, Alexandroff, Nöbeling, Ayres, R.L. Moore, Kuratowski, Borsuk, Aronzsajn, Hahn, Schreier; comments on papers

Polish mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; curve theory, set theory, dimension theory, topology; Urysohn, Brouwer, Alexandroff, Knaster, Wilder, Hahn, Sierpinski, Nöbeling, Gödel; 1960 invitation for Menger to visit Poland

Other correspondents with last name beginning with K.

Including: M. Kiseljak (routine exchanges); A. Koselt (routine exchanges, handwriting illegibile); J.R. Kline (routine exchanges, request for reprints); H. Kinneth (curve theory; Dénes Kőnig (graph theory, curve theory); W.D. Kupradze (exchange of reprints); Julius Kraft ("Moral, Wille und Weltgestaltung"); Dick Kayser (routine exchanges); Howard K. (?) (routine exchanges); Ann Kontny (routine exchanges); Morton R. Kenner (1960 Sumer Institute for Teachers of Mathematics); Paul Kelly (thanks for reprints, job offer to UCSB); Richard Kessler (routine eschanges, compliments for course taught by Menger, "Kessler's equation"); Virginia Kafka (proofs, theorems); Erwin Kreyszig (routine exchanges); Hans (?) Kopfermann (regarding Menger's manuscript "Weierstrass Analytic Functions and Riemann Surfaces"); R.G. Keats (routine exchanges); Hedi Kuranda (from Menger, routine exchanges); Robert Kowalski (routine exchanges); Burt Kaufman (Comprehensive School Mathematics Program); Eckehart Kohler (routine exchanges, Gödel, Schimanovich, Carnap, Dingler, Wittgenstein, methodological tolerance); Rudolf Kirchschlaeger (80th birthday wishes); postcard from (? handwriting illegible) (routine exchanges); K. Kunngui (partial letter); Marianne Kuranda (routine exchanges); C.J.K. (?) (Notre Dame engineering qualifying exams)

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Invitation to lecture; routine exchanges; Nöbeling's result concerning deformation of homeopathic n-dimensional sets in 2n+2 dimensional space; rejection letter from Annals of Mathematics

American engineer.

Topic(s): Request for letter of recommendation; routine exchanges; request for reprints

Other correspondents with last name beginning with L.

Including: R.G. Lubben (routine exchanges); Edgar Ovell Lovett (visitng appointment to Rice Institute); Adölf Lindenbaum (offprints sent); letter from (? handwriting illegible) (offprints received / sent); P. Lévy (routine exchanges); Adrienne Lipson (discussion of results, computer program for 3 functor results); John B. Lennes (invitation to lecture); Werner Leinfellner (symposiums on Wittgenstein and Vienna Circle); Eric F. Lype (routine exchanges, 80th birthday wishes); J. Marianne Littau (communication of recent mathematical results); May Ling (photographs)

Polish-American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): From Menger: complaint for not receiving credit for discovering, defining, and proving universlaity of Menger sponge in Mandelbroit's book "Fractals." From Mandelbroit: apologies and correction.

Austrian mathematician

Topic(s): Projective geometry; handwritten copy of Mayer's "Der grosse durchmesser koveklaieller (?) Polygone"

Polish mathematician.

Topic(s): Dimension theory; invitation to lecture; routine exchanges

British philosopher; editor of Vienna Circle Collection.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; correspondence regarding Vienna Circle Collection; Boltzmann, Wittgenstein, Hahn

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; dimension theory, set theory; Hurwicz, Blumenthal, Wald, Gödel; Brouwer-Menger-Urysohn controversy; possible book on philosophy of mathematics; Menger's philosophical library; comments on unidentified papers

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Thanks for reprints, reprints sent to Menger; curve theory; routine exchanges; invitation to lecture at U. of Texas during Menger's visit to Rice Institute

Austrian economist; founder (with John von Neumann) of game theory; member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; thanks for reprints; potential resarch contract for Menger; Emil Kauder; Morgenstern encourages Menger to re-commence work on his mathematical ethics à la "Moral, Wille und Weltgestaltung" and to get Menger's Petersburg Paradox paper translated into English; Menger's research project on social groups and relations

American philosopher.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; request to meet while Morris visits Vienna; invitation to Menger to attend Chicago Logic of Science Disucssion Group

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; thanks for reprints; Blumenthal, Veblen, Gödel; metric geometry,calculus of variations; acceptance of invitation to lecture at Notre Dame; copy of correspondence from Morse to Gordon Bowles, Executive Secretary, Conference Board of Associated Research Coucils, regarding Menger; submission of manuscript to Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society; thanks for copy of "Calculus"; correspondence with Edward Haskell regarding Menger

Dutch philosopher.

Topic(s): Neurath, Carnap; Vienna Circle Collection, correspondence regarding Menger's contribution to VCC and partcipation as Advisory Board member; routine exchanges

Other correspondents with last name beginning with M.

Including: H.M. Miller (Rockefeller Foundation administrator regarding fellowship for Nöbeling); Yukio Mimura (routine exchanges); H. Marsh (?) (routine exchanges); Paul Montes (routine exchanges); Richard von Mises (Wald, foundations of probability theory); H. Mark (Philipp Gross); Kazuo K. Midutani (mathematical economics); G.H. (?) MIller (response to invitation to visit Notre Dame); Andrzej Mostowski (routine exchanges, Tarski, Polish exposition of Gödel's incompleteness theorems); Ho Kee Minn (routine exchanges); Edward F. Moody, Jr. (rejection from Wiley & Sons of "Calculus: A Modern Approach"); Warren Sturgis McCulloch (thanks for reprints, neurophysiology); Heinrich Meyer (partial letter, set theory, differential calculus, group theory, function theory, Bridgman); Russell Meyers, M.D. (comments on Menger's "Why Johnny Hates Math" and "New Approach to Teaching Intermediate Mathematics"); Fritz Machlup (routine exchanges, possible gift of Menger's collection of photographs [of economists?] to Johns Hopkins); Daniel M. McMaster (correspondence from Lawrence J. Green, S.J. regarding geometry exhibition at Chicago Museum of Science and Industry); W.H. Meyer (regarding mathematics currciulum of California public high schools); Edwin Marcuski (?) (response to invitation to conference); Maximilian Mintz (thanks for reprints, routine exchanges); Kenneth O. May (thanks for Menger's offer to write something on theory of curves; routine exchanges); M.A. McKiernan (calculus of variations, mauscript of McKiernan's "Sufficiency of Parameter Invariance Conditions in Areal and Higher Order Kawaguchi Spaces); William M. Myers (request for suggestion of candidates for position at University of Montana); Saunders Mac Lane (routine exchanges); Marvin G. Mundt (routine exchanges); Klaus Mudersbach (routine exchanges, thanks for reprints, definition); Phil Marcus (reprints sent); Eva Menger (daughter) (routine exchanges); Kirsten Menger (-Anderson, granddaughter) (routine exchanges); Dr. Mahavier (?) (from Menger, routine exchanges, discussion of formula); Karl S. Menger, Jr. (son) (routine exchanges)

Hungarian mathematician, physicist, and economist; founder (with Oskar Morgenstern) of game theory.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; reprints sent, thanks for reprints

American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Correspondence regarding Menger's proposed article for Scientific American; comments on Menger's "mathematics primer" ("Why Johnny Hates Math"?)

German mathematician; member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; mathematical colloquium; geometry, topology, analysis, curve theory, dimension theory, set theory, differential calculus; letter of recommendation written by Menger on Nöbeling's behalf; Wald, Urysohn, Reichenbach, Grell, Hahn, Alt, Hurwicz, Bieberbach, Flores, Veblen, A.N. Whitehead, F.K. Schmidt, Kurt Reidemeister, Čech

Other correspondents with last name beginning with N. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: Ernst Nagel, Otton Nikodym (routine exchanges, reprints); Otto Neurath (Encyclopedia of Unified Science); F.S. Norlan (?) (home rental); Ernest Nagel (comments on partial manuscript of Menger's "Mathematics and Common Sense"); Eric T. Nettel (routine exchanges); M.H.A. "Max" Newman (thanks for offprints, Bertrand Russell);

German publisher.

Topic(s): Comments on Menger's "Calculus", "Selected Papers"; routine exchanges

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): (Viennese ? Austrian ?) Akademie der Wissenschaften (Menger's deposit of "Point Set Theory III"); R. Gaston Dreyfus & Cie (account statement); Society for the Protection of Science and Learning (reference for Friedrich Waismann); Association for Symbolic Logic (invitation to join); Committee in Preparation for the 2nd International Topology Conference (committee business); Minerva Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung (receipt); British Society for the History of Science, Philosophy of Science Group (correspondence regarding accepted paper); Chicago Museum of Science and Industry (mathematics exhibit); The Saturday Review (science / mathematics education); Canadian Journal of Mathematics (rejection letter); British Society for Philosophy of Science, et al. (correspondence [stapled together] apparently concerning Menger's trip ca. 1960/61 to Britain, includes letters from Mary Hesse, Martin Fieldhouse, Gerd Buchdahl, G.N. Copley, P.H. Frost, M.H.A. "Max" Newman); Archiv der Mathematik (corrections to manuscript ?); The International Year Book and Statesmen's Who's Who (Menger's biographical entry in the 1963 Year Book); Institute for Advanced Studies - Vienna (list of guest professors); Association for the Advancement of Science, 133rd Meeting (abstract for Menger's talk on Mach); Illinois Institute of Technology, Public Relations Department (list of upcoming events); Ex Libris Buchhandlungsgesellschaft (order of Menger's "Basic Concepts of Mathematics"); Harper and Brother (from Menger, regarding "Calculus. The Elements"); Kürschners Deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender (form / request for information); Theory and Decision (rotuine exchanges); Duncker and Humboldt (publication rights to works of Carl Menger); University of Vienna (program from symposium on 100 years of Carl Menger's "Grundsätze"); Battelle, Seattle Resarch Center ("An Open Letter from a Group of Mathematicians to Mr. Emerson Elliott, the Acting Director of the National Institute of Education"); Oxford University Press (order / billing of Hicks-Weber's book "Carl Menger"); CBS International Publishing (request to quote from textbook); Synthese (style sheet); B.G. Teubner Verlag (publishing contract); American Catholic's Who's Who (Menger's entry); Johann Rotter Cemetary (grave sales / advertising ?); Ford Institute in Vienna (structure and scope of Institute); Whos' Who in America (Menger's entry in the 43rd edition); American Men of Science (Menger's entry in the 1970 edition); Little City (seasons greetings card)

Russian-Swiss mathematician.

Topic(s): Menger's "Geometrie und Wahrscheinlichkeit"; comments on paper

Other correspondents with last name beginning with O.

Including: Signature illegible (Lillruy Ogulral ?) (routine exchanges ?); Rufus Oldenburger (notes of Menger's seminar lecture, 1953 Sigma XI program); Benton Brooks Owen (request for reprint); Thomas H. Osgood (rejection letter from American Journal of Physics); Oystein Ore (rotuine exchanges); Bob Owendoff (vector analysis)

French mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; calculus of variations, topology, curve theory, dimension theory; Frechet, Brouwer, Wald, Bouligand

Albert H. Zlabinger; Carl Menger Library.

Topic(s): Correspondence regarding Carl Menger Library; routine exchanges; Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Lachmann

Austro-British philosopher.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; lattice theory; logical tolerance

Other correspondents with last name beginning with P. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: M. Parch (Brouwer, handwriting illegible); Emil L. Post (reprint sent, routine exchanges); Josef Priebuh (dimension theory); James Pierpont (routine exchanges, thanks for reprints); William T. Perry (routine exchanges, Gödel); Rozsa Peter (thanks for reprints); G. Baley Price (routine exchanges, Green's Theorem); Dan Pyke (complaint regarding Menger's classification as a citizen of German, rather than Austrian, extraction); Gerald B. Phelan (routine exchanges, Menger's "The New Logic"); Sister Mary Peleu (?) (routine exchanges); Chaim Perelman (routine exchanges); George Kimball Plochmann (routine exchages; invitation for Menger to speak at 1964 Western Division meeting of American Philosophical Association); James Pettigrew (routine exchanges, time worked on Menger's research project); William A. Pierce (Moulton Plane); Tony Patricelli (correspondence stapled together, includes letters from Menger, Joe Harkin, and an unnamed ("Ed") correspondent, mathematics teaching, Menger's pre-limit calculus text); Robert Park (Menger [and Blumenthal's] "Studies in Geometry"); Jonas Partridge (treatment of American Indians); Solomon Passy (Bulgarian translation of Menger's "Wittgenstein on Formulae and Variables"); Pryozelaki (? signature illegible) (thanks for reprints)

American philosopher and logician.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; praise for and comments upon Menger's attempt to reform calculus, and calculus textbook;

Publisher of Vienna Circle Collection.

Topic(s): Regarding publication Vienna Circle Collection, Menger's contributions and others

Other correspondents with last name beginning with R. Some outgoing correspondence.

Including: Bertrand Russell (routine exchanges, thanks for reprints, topology); Selby Robinson (request to work with Menger at University of Vienna, 1933-34, as a research assistant); Robert Reininger (routine exchanges); Tonio Rella (routine exchanges, Hahn); Alfred Rosenblatt (topology, mathematical astronomy, Godofredo Garcia, routine exchanges); R.G.D. Richardson (Menger's visit to New York); Hans Reichenbach (Carnap, possibility of a position for Menger in UCLA's math daepartment, thanks for reprints); A. Revuz (routine exchanges, Frechet); J.T. Rettaliata (routine exchanges, Howard Horvath); A. Rapoportz (?) (Menger's Calculus textbook, probabilistic geometry); Tibor Rado (routine exchanges, manuscript); Francois Rostand (routine exchanges, apologies for inability to respond positively to invitation); Gilbert Ryle (rejection letter); Professor Ryser (?) (from Menger, regarding commutative hypergroups); Nicolas Rashevsky (Robert Rosen's PhD defense); Frigyes Riesz (from Menger, regarding multivalued analytic functions); Robert Reichardt (Viennese Ford Institute lecture regarding street geometry (i.e., "taxicab geometry" ?); Gerald R. Rising (mathematics education); Stephen Regoczei (Waismann's "Introduction to Mathematical Thinking"); Marek Rochowski (request for comments); Gian-Carlo Rota (mathematical encyclopedia, some correspondence form Menger on same topic); Robert Rosenthal (query from U. of Chicago libraries of Carl Menger's papers); Ludwig Reich (1978 Symposium on Functional Equations); Haim Reingold (appeal to Carnegie Corporation on Menger's behalf); John F. Randolph (comment on note by J. Novak)

German economist, Director of Vienna Institute for Advanced Studies.

Topic(s): Invitation and acceptance to lecture at the Insitute for Advanced Studies Vienna

German-English translator of Menger's "Moral, Wille und Weltgestaltung". Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Regarding English translation of Menger's "Moral, Wille und Weltgestaltung"

Russian-American mathematician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Regarding algebra (superassociative sysmtes, multiplace functions); comments on publications; routine exchange

German philosopher and physicist; founding member of the Vienna Circle.

Topic(s): Routine exchange

Austrian mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; miscellaneous mathematical discussions; comments on university classes and publications

German mathematician.

Topic(s): Journal "Zeitschrift fuer Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik"; conference invitation

Mathematician; student of Karl Menger. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; miscellaneous mathematical discussions; comments on publications; includes some photocopies of publications by others

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Correspondance about a possible book publication

Mathematician; student of Karl Menger. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; miscellaneous mathematical discussions

American mathematician; colleague of Karl Menger at Illinois Institute of Technology.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; algebraic discussions

Viennese publishing house; some outgoing correspondence

Topic(s): Correspondance about the publication and English translation of Menger's "Moral, Wille und Weltgestaltung" and about the publcation of a memorial volume for Mortiy Schlick

Other correspondents with last name beginning with S. Some outgoing correspondence.

Polish logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

Topic(s): Invitation to Vienna; comments on a articles by Tarski and Menger

Austrian-American mathematician; member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium.

Topic(s): Abelian group; group theory; comments on manuscripts; routine exchange

Other correspondents with last name beginning with T. Some outgoing correspondence.

Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Unidentified correspondents, 3 folders: 1921-1949; 1950-1982; undated

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; business exchange

Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Routine exchanges; business exchange

Austro-Hungarian mathematician, decision theorist, econometrician, and geometer; member of Menger's Mathematical Colloquium.

Topic(s): Metric geometry; comments on papers; routine exchange; exchange about the Mathematical Colloquium; miscellaneous mathematical discussions

Austrian philosopher. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Exchange about a possible German publication of Menger's early writings on mathematics and philosophy

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Comments on papers; routine exchange

Other correspondents with last name beginning with W. Some outgoing correspondence.

American psychologist and logician. Some outgoing correspondence.

Topic(s): Copy of Piaget (1952); comments on papers; mathematical discussions

American mathematician.

Topic(s): Routine exchange; mathematical discussions

**2.** Writings and Research Series, 1921-1983 and undated

The Writings and Research Series includes drafts, proofs, notes, and published copies of Menger's books, articles, speeches, and other works, spanning his entire career. Files in each subseries are arranged chronologically by publication date.

Materials are written in German and English. Menger also used both German and English shorthand for his notes and writings, making translations difficult. A significant amount of unsorted material, largely consisting of loose pages with unidentified topics and writings, is filed in the Drafts and Proofs Subseries. Additionally, the Notebooks and Notes Series has a significant amount of material related to Menger's Writings and Research Series.

First printing (1952) and third printing (1961); incl. a magazine article about the exhibition with a photograph of Karl Menger; incl. draft titled "A Geometric Exhibition"

Draft, incomplete:; incl. "Remarks concerning my book Calculus"

2nd edition

Chapter I (1966) and Chapter II (1967); incl. copies with comments (Chapter I) and draft of Chapter II

Incomplete; incl. draft and comments

Drafts, edits

Drafts, edits

Drafts, edits

Published in "Neue Freie Presse," Vienna on November 17, 1921)

Published in 1929, incl. draft

Includes copy with comments

Includes comments and inserts

Ein Zerlegungssatz für rational- und irrational-dimensionale Mengen; Über die nirgends dichten Teilmengen des Rn; Über die Summe regulärer Kurven

Includes copy with comments

Preface and epilogue

Includes printed and early handwritten drafts

Includes comments

With Franz Alt

Marked as "incorrect", présentée par M. Élie Cartain

Includes copy with comments

Includes drafts with Helen Skala with comments

With Yves R. Simon, incl. a presentation draft

Présentée par M. Arnaud Denjoy

Includes copy with comments

With S. S. Shü; incl. draft and copy with comments

With Berthold Schweizer und Abe Sklar

Preface; incl. copy with comments

Includes draft and copy with comments

Includes draft and three copies with comments

With Martin Schultz, incl. draft with comment

Includes comments, draft returned from Journal

Draft of requested submission to "Die Presse: Unabhängige Zeitung für Österreich." Includes letter requesting Karl Menger write a recollection of his time spent studying there. Also includes a short biography of Menger to accompany the short text.

Includes commented draft (incomplete)

Includes a longer draft titled "Drei Bermerkungen zu Gedanken von Weierstrass"

Includes draft

Includes extract with comments and incomplete draft

With S. S. Shü; incl. comments

With S. S. Shü; incl. comments and draft

Two titles

With Appendices by J. and L. Frazin and R. Jindrich, incl. draft

Includes an incomplete copy with comments

Includes comments

With H. Ian Whitlock, Preliminary Report; incl. draft

Includes copies with comments and draft

Includes comments

From an Address to the Illinois Section of the Mathematical Association of America

Summary of Talks before the I.I.T. Mathematics Institute for Secondary School Students of High Ability

Conference on Self-Organizing Systems, Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Ill.

Presented at Valparaiso University, Indiana

Reviews of Heft 1, Heft 3 and Heft 6

Includes newspaper articles, orbituary, reports on presentations

A variety of newspaper clippings, photocopies, book reviews and articles relevant to Menger and his research.

Reports of a Mathematical Colloquium, Second Series, Issue 3 + 4

Interview by Werner Schimanovich and Peter Weibel

Proposal and final report

**3.** Writings by Others

Loosely arranged alphabetically.

Including János Aczél, Pawel S. Alexandroff, Nachman Aronszajn, Kenneth J. Arrow

Including Gustav Bergmann, Richard Bellman, Paul A. Benioff, Mary Katherine Bennett

Including Solomon Feferman, Maurice René Fréchet, Burton D. Fried, Philipp Furtwängler

Including Gottfried Haberler, Hans Hahn, Preston C. Hammer, Norwood Russel Hanson, Frank Harary, John C. Harsanyi, Friedrich August von Hayek

Including Stuart Kauffman, Mead C. Killion, Stephen C. Kleene, Leopold Kronecker, Harold William Kuhn

Including Donald Charles "Don" Lavoie, Werner Leinfellner, Kenneth O. Leland, Justus von Liebig, Robert Duncan Luce, Günther Ludwig, Wilhelmus Luxemburg

Including Hilda Menger, Karl Stephan Menger (Karl S. Menger, Jr.), Fredric M. Menger

Including Bodo Pareigis, Solomon Passy, Max Planck, Johannes Poinsot (John of St. Thomas), Karl Popper, Hilary Putnam

Including Haim Reingold, Marcel Riesz, Kurt W. Rothschild, Erzherzog Rudolf (Kronprinz von Österreich-Ungarn)

Including Werner Schimanovich, Jürgen Schmidt, Jan A. Schouten, Otto Schreier, Erwin Schrödinger, Berthold Schweizer

Including David Ramsay Steele, Stanley Smith Stevens, Erich W. Streissler, Karl Strubecker

Including Alfred Tarski, Olga Taussky-Todd, Edward O. Thorp, Gerhard Tintner

**4.** Notebooks and Notes

This series includes both bound volumes and loose pages of notes, largely kept by Menger (with one subseries of Notebooks by Others). The notebooks' topics are included when known, although Menger appears to have used his notebooks haphazardly and as-needed, resulting in several topics concurrently present in the same notebook.

Titles and topics include: "Kottler: Theorien der Materie," "Mechanik fester Körper," "Axiomatik des Wünschens," "Galoische Theorie," "Carathéodory: Variationsrechnung in Frank-Mises 2. Auf.," "Generelle Vereinbarkeit," "Distributivgesetz," "Theorie der Einheiten algebraischer Körper"

Folder 1

Titles and topics include: "Kombin. Topol.," "Hyperkomplexe Zahlen," "Transformationen & ihre Zusammensetzung," "Übertragung der elementaren Zahlentheorie," "Orthogonalsysteme," "Lense," "Lense II," "Zahlenkörper," "Logik, Erkenntnistheorie: ihre Bedeutung für die Philosophie," "Statistische Mechanik," "Plato"

Folder 2

Titles and topics include: "Der Körper K(i)," "regressiv und dominant," "Reidemeister," "Reidemeister II," "Geschid. Math: Transendenz von e & π," "Differentialgeometrie," "Mathem. Probleme," "Hyperkomplexe Zahlen"

Folder 3

One larger notebook comprised of smaller notebooks and loose notes. Topics and titles include: "Ex. Wissensch.," "Gleichmäßige Aufbringung im Aufbringerkreis," "Spenden und Zwangsabgaben"

Folder 4

One larger notebook comprised of smaller notebooks and loose notes. Topics and titles include: "Courant Hilbert: Methoden d. mathem. Physik," "Raum," "Vorgelegter Raum," "Positiv fastmetrischer Raum," "Eulersche Gleichung"

Titles and topics include: "Operation Methods," "3 valued 2 place sets," "History new and final for k=3,4 m=2," "n valued 2 place 3 place," "3- & 4-valued," "Tensor Calc," "Tensor," "Theory of Triples," "Complex Functions: A New Approach"

Folder 2

Titles and topics include: "Wald seq.," "Conchoid of Nicomedes," "Real analysis"

Folder 3

Titles and topics include: "Sierpinski's idea of weak dimension, etc.," "Topology of domain," "Limits, Theory of Limits"

Folder 4

Titles and topics include: "Carathéodory Theory," "Operators," "Diff. Eqs"

Folder 5

Miscellaneous notebooks in German and English shorthand. Untitled and undated.

Notebooks filled with Menger's personal notes from courses he took. Some dated, some undated. Titles and topics include: "Zentralprojektion (undated)," "Thirring: Thermodyn. (undated)," "Thirring: Kinetische Gastheorie (undated)," "Furtwängler: Gruppentheorie (1920-21)," "Furtwängler: Theorie der algebraischen Gleichungen (1920-21)," "Furtwängler: Zahlentheorie (1921)," "Furtwängler: Analytische Zahlentheorie (undated)"

Notebooks filled with Menger's notes for courses he taught. Some dated, some undated. Titles and topics include: "Analytische Geometrie (1935-36)," "Reelle Funktionen (1936-37)," "Farbenlehre (1936-37)," "Differentialgeometrie (1936-37)," "Reasons for teach. econ. (undated)"

One notebook dated 1917 containing collected quotes and ideas. A set of diaries numbered 1-3. Diary 1 begins December 15, 1918 and ends December 31, 1919. Diary 2 begins January 1, 1920 and ends December 31, 1921. Diary 3 covers parts of 1922.

A number of undated notebooks containing various recollections of Menger's life. Some of the writing is illegible or in an unknown shorthand. Years mentioned in the recollections include 1905, 1908, 1913, 1918, 1932, and 1934.

Notebooks filled with Hilda Axamit's student notes from courses taught by Karl Menger and Hans Hahn from 1933-1934.

A larger notebook containing several smaller notebooks written by Hans Hahn. Notebooks include: "Die Anfänge der Variationsrechnung (undated)," "Mengenfunktionen, Integration, Differentiation (taught in WS 1928/29 and SS 1929)," "Variationsrechnung (taught WS 1912/13 and SS 1913)," "Variationsrechnung (undated)," "Proseminar: [?] Spiele (undated)"

Photocopy of handwritten version of Otto Schreier's article "Über die Erweiterung von Gruppen." Perhaps part of his 1923 dissertation under Prof. Furtwängler.

Notebooks in unidentifed hands. Titles include: "Leuses Differentialgeometrie Teil II (SS 1923)," "Differentialgeometrie (presumably Teil I, but cover is missing)," "Differential und Integral [?] II (1930) (author's first name and last initial on first page but illegible)," On the Generalized Method of Summation (undated) (appears to be an English-German translation)," "Theorem: Zu jedem metrischen Quadrupel Q gibt es höchstens zwei Kügelflächen in die dasselbe einbettbar ist (penned by J. Groiß?)

**5.** Academia

The Academia Series includes materials from Menger's teaching and professional engagement, including lecture notes, syllabi, exams, and course handouts; work by his students; conference announcements and proceedings; and other reports and materials accumulated during his career as a professor.

Includes portions of Boston College Mathematical Series Co-op Unit Study Program by Stanley Bezuszka (1960-61) Course 1; Problem sets for the College Entrance Examination Board's Advanced Placement Exam in Mathematics; Part of an address to the Illinois Section of the Mathematical Association of America on teaching high school math by Karl Menger (May 10, 1958); Grant proposal to National Science Foundation for developing curriculum for Pre-Limit Calculus (1962); two short pieces by Karl Menger entitled "A New Approach to the Teaching of Intermediate Mathematics" and "Substitutive Function Algebra and the Calculus of Propositions"; test questions on half-sheets of paper sent to the Science Research Associates and the Professional Examination Service; numerous other publications and printed materials about teaching of mathematics in secondary and undergraduate education.

Notes and dissertation draft written by one of Menger's students, Eric Bajars.

**6.** Carl Menger Papers

The Carl Menger Series consists of files created and maintained by Karl Menger's father, the economist. The series includes correspondence, arranged alphabetically by correspondent, as well as writings and miscellany. Additional materials about Carl Menger can be found in the Carl Menger Papers, also held by the Rubenstein Library.

Several pieces by Carl Menger including a copy of Emil Kauder's edition of Menger's "Grundsätze" commissioned by the University of Hitotsubashi in Tokyo that shows Menger's notes alongside the published text.

Photocopies of information requested by Berthold Schweizer regarding Karl Menger and the V-12 Program. Provided by Angie Kindig at the Archives of the University of Notre Dame.

Miscellaneous clippings and keepsakes including student records, caricatures, and watercolor painting.

## Historical Note

**Biographical note**

Karl Menger (1902-1985) was an Austrian-American mathematician and professor, and was the son of economist Carl Menger.

#### Chronology

Date | Event(s) |
---|---|

1902 | Born in Vienna |

1920-1924 | Studied at the University of Vienna; Ph.D. in Mathematics |

1925-1927 | Docent at the University of Amsterdam |

1927-1936 | Professor of geometry at the University of Vienna. Member of the Vienna Circle. |

1930-1931 | Visiting lecturer at Harvard University and The Rice Institute |

1931-1937 | Founder of Ergebnisse eines Mathmatischen Kolloquiums |

1935 | Married Hilda Axamit |

1937-1946 | Professor of mathematics, University of Notre Dame. Founder of Reports of a Mathematical Colloquium, 2nd Series, and Notre Dame Mathematical Lectures |

1946-1971 | Professor of mathematics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago |

1951 | Visiting lecturer at the Sorbonne, Paris |

1961 | Guest lecturer at several European universities |

1964 | Visiting professor, University of Arizona and Ford Institute, Vienna |

1968 | Visiting professor, Middle East Technical Institute, Ankara |

1971 | Professor emeritus, IIT |

1975 | Austrian Cross of Honor for Science and Art First Class |

1983 | Doctorate of Humane Letters and Sciences, IIT |

1985 | Died in Highland Park, Illinois |

## Subject Headings

- Algebra
- Curves
- Economics -- History
- Economists -- Austria -- Biography
- Geometry
- Germany -- History -- 1918-1933
- Germany -- History -- 1933-1945
- Menger, Carl, 1840-1921
- Menger, Karl, 1902-1985
- Mathematicians -- Austria
- Mathematicians -- United States
- Mathematics -- Philosophy
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Higher)
- Philosophy and science
- Scientists -- Europe -- Correspondence
- University of Notre Dame
- Vienna circle -- History
- World War, 1939-1945 -- Europe -- Emigration and immigration

## Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Karl Menger Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

## Provenance

The Karl Menger Papers were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library as a gift in 1995.

## Processing Information

Initially processed by Keary Warner, August 1996; encoded by Walt Evans.

Reprocessed and enhanced by Scott Scheall, Reinhard Schumacher, and Janice Hansen in 2014.

Encoded by Meghan Lyon, October 2014.