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Guide to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library, 1891-1994

Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library - Duke Digital Collections Digitized Content
Selected items from this collection have been digitized and are available in: Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library - Duke Digital Collections.

Collection Overview

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library spans the years 1891 through the 1990s, with the bulk of the collection originating in the 1950s and later. The collection documents over a hundred years of outdoor advertising primarily in the United States, plus some international campaigns from several other continents. The Slide Library is a large collection, almost entirely comprised of slides of billboards, exhibiting a grand range of graphic artistry, advertising campaigns, and marketing strategies. A smaller group of images supports the ad collection with views of artwork, billboard construction and other related images. In addition to over 62,000 slides, there are a few early glass slides, as well as transparencies, a small number of paper files, and six audiocassettes accompanying slide presentations. Many images were submitted by outdoor advertising companies over a number of years to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) as entries in annual national competitions to determine the best poster designs. The OAAA currently sponsors the OBIE Awards, which were preceded by awards programs under various names and sponsorships starting in the early 1930s. The award is modeled after the ancient Egyptian obelisk, considered by many the earliest form of outdoor advertising. Indeed much of the collection can be seen as evidence of this awards program although only the Award Nominees Series contains slides labeled as such. Other slides probably were transferred to OAAA when companies cleaned out their back files, though the precise sources of many items are unknown. The slides were maintained at OAAA primarily as a large supply of creative examples for member companies. Researchers interested in the following subjects may find the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library especially helpful: the outdoor advertising medium itself, advertising awards, advertising design, billboard construction, and commercial art, as well as the many outdoor advertising companies, advertisers, and advertising campaigns represented.

The images, designed to attract mass audiences, depict part of American society's history - a history of consumer attitudes and desires. The collection is therefore a valuable tool in formulating not only a pictorial development of the outdoor advertising industry but of societal norms and opinions. The ads speak to the creativity of artists and designers, but they also convey a rich story of how these creators saw society at large, especially in the United States. Perhaps more importantly, ads reveal how corporations and designers felt America wanted to see itself. Such visual richness underlies the primary goals of selling goods and services and promoting ideas for the public good. There are thousands of product advertisements but also many public service ads, political issue ads, and even Happy Birthday greetings in the collection. Billboards are one direct link from corporate America, various interest groups, and their advertising specialists to consumers; and a succinct one-sided conversation designed to spur them to action.

In contrast to other types of advertising, outdoor ads were designed with the fast-moving traveler in mind. The collection documents well the evolution of the billboard's attempt to reach those on the move, especially drivers. With careful thought to what would quickly provoke interest, advertisers presented a huge range of thought from text-free images of abstract artwork to direct discourse (e.g. Vote for Nixon). Because posters were displayed for only limited time periods, and because their physical size makes them impractical to store, photography is the primary method of capturing billboard images. Most billboard photos - whether print or slide - were created to document the work of the company which posted them for their business use.

Within the Slide Library, the creative output of many outdoor advertising companies is documented, although particular creators of many of the ads are unknown. Foster and Kleiser is well represented in the collection. Other companies named in the collection include Naegele, Pacific, Turner, Eller, Donnelly, Columbus, General Outdoor, Patrick, Gannett, Lamar, United, and many others. Thousands of national campaigns are represented, but many local ads are present as well. Outdoor formats range from 19th century posters to “multi-vision” boards that automatically change views with the use of three-sided boards. Most images are of actual billboards, posters, and other outdoor advertising formats in the field, while a sizable portion are just images of the ad design itself with a plain background. There are some slides of stock posters ( “Your brand name here” ) and other forms of outdoor advertising such as bus cards, street furniture, and truck side advertising. The vast majority of the advertisements are in English.

The first three series make up the bulk of the collection: the Award Nominees Series, the Chronological Series, and the Topical Series (by far the largest of the three). These series are made up almost completely of slides showing advertisements, usually in billboard format. All series are described further within the container list. The only other series with a sizable number of advertisements is the International Posters Series. This is where the largest concentration of international ads is found, although there are a few scattered within the other main series. Ads may also be found scattered throughout the Presentations and Presentation Slides Series.

Several additional small series contain images of related content, providing support and context to the advertisements. These include the Construction and Creation Series, the Artwork Series, the Street Scenes and Approaches Series, and the Other Outdoor Advertising Related Images Series. The Presentations and Presentation Slides Series adds insight by showing some of the internal conversation between directors and trainees, advertisers and advertising creators, and more.

The most direct route to locate any identified ad is through the Resource for Outdoor Advertising Description (ROAD) database, available in early 2003. Information about most slides in the collection has been added to this database. Researchers will be able to search for specific attributes of ads such as brand or company name, product type, and headline, as well as other types of information including slide number, date, collection name, image type, image color, outdoor advertising type, and special notes. Many database records also contain a searchable field with the outdoor advertising company's name (posting company), a field indicating if the billboard is in a rural or urban setting, information on the presence of women, children, ethnic individuals, or famous people in the ad, and the billboard's geographic location. Various slide series were entered into the database differently. Multiple searches may be required for comprehensive searching. For more information, consult Research Services Staff (special-collections@duke.edu).

For more contextual information, use this collection in conjunction with the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Records, especially that collection's Physical Structure Series, and Photographs, Slides, and Negatives Series. Closely related collections in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library include the John Brennan Outdoor Advertising Survey Reports, the John Paver Papers, the John Browning Papers, the Duplex Advertising Co. Records, the H.E. Fisk Collection of War Effort Mobilization Campaigns, the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Records, the Outdoor Advertising Poster Design Collection, the Garrett Orr Papers, the R.C. Maxwell Company Records, the Howard Scott Papers, and the Strobridge Lithographing Company Advertisements.

Descriptive Summary

Collection Number
RL.00965
Title
Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library
Date
1891-1994
Creator
Outdoor Advertising Association of America
Extent
27 Linear Feet, 62,933 Items
Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Language
English.

Arrangement

Though seemingly well-defined on paper, the fluidity of these categories becomes obvious when facing thousands of diverse and often vague advertisements. If an initial search in one category does not bear fruit, try a related category. The best way to find any particular advertisement is via the ROAD database, available in early 2003. In cases where more than one product was featured in an ad, usually the most prominent item dictated category placement.

Amusement and Entertainment

This category includes ads for the following:

Bars, Casinos, Concerts, Country Clubs, Live productions (e.g. theater), Lotteries, Museums, Motion pictures, Movies, Night clubs, Race tracks, Sporting events, Teams (sports), Theaters, Theme parks, Venues (concert or event venues), Zoos.

Generally, advertisements for hotels, resorts, national parks, and whole geographic areas ("See Florida!") as tourist destinations were placed in Transportation and Travel (T and T), but there is overlap with T and T. Look in both categories for a comprehensive search. Products in the Amusement and Entertainment category are generally final destinations, as opposed to means of travel. Most television show advertisements were placed in the Media category since the network was most often a prominent part of the advertisement, but some may also be found here. Most recordings can be found in the Consumer Goods and Services category.

Apparel

This category includes ads for the following:

Clothing brands, Fashion accessories, Footwear (shoes), Jewelry

If searching for a particular apparel brand name, search this category along with "Retail," as it was often difficult to tell if a name on a billboard referred to a brand of clothing or an entire clothing store. Zippers were usually placed in the Consumer Goods category. Ads for watches may be found in Apparel or Consumer Goods and Services.

Automotive

This category includes ads for the following:

Auto parts, Auto parts stores, Auto service, Auto dealers, Auto leasing, Auto manufacturers, Motor oil, Motorcycles, Motorcycle products, RVs, Tires, Tractors

This category includes advertisements for almost anything related to cars, except gasoline. Auto parts stores are usually included here, not under Retail. Gasoline and gas stations were placed under Transportation and Travel (T and T). Ads showing both motor oil and gasoline (and/or car service) were put in the category of the item most prominent. A search for all gas stations should be completed in both this category and T and T. Often an ad advertised both car products and gasoline, or just the brand name was presented (Texaco - provides oil, gas, and car service). Sometimes it was unclear whether an ad was for an automotive or a household radiator and so both the Automotive and Consumer Goods and Services categories should be checked for those items. To search for a particular car dealer, look through subgroups of that dealer?s manufacturer within this category.

Beverages

This category includes ads for the following:

Alcoholic beverages, Non-alcoholic beverages

This category includes ads for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages including mixers, coffee, buttermilk, and milk. Evaporated milk is most often found in the Food and Restaurants category. For a comprehensive search of all beverages, also check the Food and Restaurants category.

Business and Technology

This category includes ads for the following:

Agricultural products, Armed forces, Banks, Builders, Business to business services, Computers, Credit cards, Financial service organizations, Freight services, Government organizations, Health care, Insurance, Manufacturing equipment, Office products, Office space, Real estate, Schools, Software, Telecommunications, Telemarketing firms, Utilities

General office supplies usually went into the Consumer Goods and Services category. Flooring and wallpaper (as well as other items used both by builders and average consumers) should be searched both in this category and in Consumer Goods and Services. Ads for lotteries can usually be found within the Amusement and Entertainment category. Car dealer financing is usually found in the Automotive category. Outdoor advertising is usually found in the Media category. Many ads featuring major appliances are without a brand name - these are probably for a utility company and were placed here. For this reason, however, some utility-sponsored ads may also be found in the Consumer Goods category. Search both this category and Consumer Goods for animal feed. Government-sponsored ads can be found in this category but if sponsorship was questionable, ads may have been put into Public Service, Consumer Goods, or some other category according to the nature of the ad. This category contains the largest variety of materials. Check other categories to complete a comprehensive search. Schools were sometimes put into the Public Services category as a non-profit and sometimes placed here.

Consumer Goods and Services

This category includes ads for the following:

Appliances, Books, Cemeteries, Dry cleaners, Electronics, Florists, Furniture, Gum, Gyms and Health clubs, Funeral services, Health and Beauty products, Hobby and craft items, Household products, Office supplies, Over-the-counter medicines, Pet food and supplies, Recordings (albums, CDs), Repair services, Sporting goods, Tobacco products, Toys and games, Undertakers, Vitamins

Household products include zippers, most flooring, and wallpaper. Office supplies were placed here but other office products are in Business and Technology. Services were also placed here including funeral homes, and dry cleaners. Cable Service ads can usually be found in the Media category. Search for watches in this and the Apparel category. Cars, motor oil, car-related products, RVs, and motorcycles can be found mostly in the Automotive category. Gasoline can be found in the Transportation and Travel category. Sometimes it was unclear whether an ad was for an automotive or a household radiator and so both the Automotive and Consumer Goods and Services categories should be checked for those items.

Food and Restaurants

This category includes ads for the following:

Candy, Confectionery, Food, Food services, Ingredients, Prepared foods, Produce

Gum, pet food, and tobacco products were most often placed in Consumer Goods and Services, although some may still be found here. Beverages, including coffee and milk, can usually be found in their own Beverages category. Grocery store and supermarket ads are usually found within the Retail category.

Media

This category includes ads for the following:

Advertising, Cable television, Direct mail, Internet services, Magazines, Newspapers, Outdoor advertising, Radio stations, Television stations, Yellow Pages

Ads for recordings (albums, CDs, etc.) and books were usually placed in the Consumer Goods and Services category.

Public Service

This category includes advertising created for a charitable cause or by a non-profit organization. Government organizations are normally listed under Business and Technology, but government sponsorship of an ad was often difficult to discern. Check this category and Business and Technology for a more comprehensive search. Political campaign and issue ads can usually be found here. Some Public Service-type ads were actually placed under the sponsor?s usual category, if the sponsor?s name was an obvious part of the ad. For instance an ad saying “Don't Drink and Drive, courtesy of Fred's Funerals” may have been placed under Consumer Goods and Services. Schools were sometimes put into the Public Service category as a non-profit and sometimes placed in Business and Technology.

Retail

This category includes ads for the following:

Convenience stores, Department stores, Discount stores, Drug stores, Grocery stores, Malls, Pet stores, Other Retail stores, Shopping centers, Variety stores

Some ads featuring clothing lines may have been placed here by mistake since it was often difficult to tell whether a name referred to the clothing brand or a store name. Some of these ads also feature an individual product or products carried by the retail store. If the item seemed prominent in the ad, the slide may have been indexed under Consumer Goods or Food and Restaurants. For auto parts store ads, search this category as well as the Automotive category.

Transportation and Travel

This category includes ads for the following:

Airlines, Bus lines, Cruise ships, Gasoline, Gasoline stations, Hotels, National parks, Public transportation, Resorts, Trains, Travel/Tourism services

Since gas stations but not car service are included in this category, search both this and the Automotive category for an ad featuring a company that sold gas and provided auto service. This category also overlaps a great deal with the Amusement and Entertainment category - search both categories for a comprehensive search.

Restrictions on Access & Use

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

warning Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. There may be a 48-hour delay in obtaining these materials.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

Contents of the Collection

1. Award Nominees Series, 1965-1968, 1983-1987 and undated

These slides (labeled with "SLA" prefix) were submitted to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) specifically as nominees for the national award program, most recently known as the OBIE awards. Member companies and advertisers submitted what they felt to be their best work for this national competition. The first National Contest and Exhibit of Outdoor Advertising Art was presented by the Outdoor Advertising Department of the Ad Council of the Chicago Association of Commerce in 1930. Later, sponsorship appears to have been provided by the Art Directors Club of Chicago, and perhaps other industry organizations. The Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA) was involved starting in 1965 until its merger with the OAAA, which continues "the OBIE" awards competition today. The OBIE award is patterned from the ancient Egyptian “obelisk,” considered by many to be the earliest form of outdoor advertising. Award categories varied by year but early groupings often included Posters, Painted Bulletins, Campaigns, and Public Service (Kerwin H. Fulton medal award). Later, the number of categories grew to include emerging formats such as transit advertising and product type categories.

The competition has been known by a variety of names in the collection including the National Competition, the Outdoor Advertising Competition, and later, the OBIEs. Winners were published in a serial, issued also under several different names: Advertising Outdoors, 100 Best Posters, Poster Annual, Outdoor Annual, National Competition of Outdoor Advertising Art, Outdoor Advertising Competition, and OBIE Awards (consult Duke's online catalog). These publications indicate that ads posted in one calendar year were usually eligible for the award presented the following year (recent winners can be found on OAAA's website: www.oaaa.org). Unfortunately, labeling within the collection and publications was unclear as to whether a specified year is a posting date or an award year. Years given in the list below are taken from original slide sleeves and containers. For more information on national outdoor advertising awards, consult the publications listed above, the online catalog, and Rubenstein Library Research Services Staff.

While a sizable series, only a relatively small portion of many decades of national competition nominees are represented here. It has not been determined with certainty whether the outdoor industry sponsored any awards from 1973 to 1982, but the OBIE award was not awarded during that time. This may explain most of the gap in slides from 1969 through 1982. Some transparencies also are included in this series. Labeled yellow slips were found attached to original slide sleeves, perhaps referring to slides removed at one point. Information on these slips was transferred to acid-free paper and clipped to the new archival sleeve. Some images are marked as being winners in a particular category, but most slides or sleeves have no such marking. Old notebook designations (A-1, A-2...) were maintained on the slide sleeves. Old notebooks were listed in the preliminary boxlist as follows: A-1: 33rd-35th National Competition (1965-1967); A-2: 1984; A-3: 1984; A-4: 1985; A-5: 1985; A-6: 1986; A-7: 1986; A-8: 1986; A-9: 1987; A-10: 1987; A-11: 1987; A-12: Various Designs and Awards. Hard copies of old boxlists may be found in this repository's inventory drawers.

Slides are arranged by award competition dates and were numbered in that order, all with the prefix "SLA." In this series only, slides inserted after most had already been numbered were assigned a number with an alphabetical suffix so all slides following would not have to be renumbered.

Selected items from this series have been digitized and are available in: ROAD 2.0 Image Gallery

Items from this series have been described in a searchable online database: ROAD Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions

1965: 33rd National Competition of Outdoor Advertising Art
Box AW1
SLA0001-SLA0086
Box AW1
1966: 34th National Competition of Outdoor Advertising Art
SLA0087-SLA0164
Box AW1
1967: 35th National Competition of Outdoor Advertising Art
SLA0165-SLA0261
Box AW1
1968: 36th Outdoor Advertising Competition
SLA0262-SLA0277
Box AW1
1983/84: OBIE Award Competition
SLA0278-SLA0327
Box AW1
1983/84: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW2
SLA0328-SLA0824(A-J)
Box AW2
1985: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW3
SLA0825-SLA1469
Box AW3
1985: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW4
SLA1470-SLA1524
Box AW4
1985/86: OBIE Award Competition
SLA1525-SLA2046
Box AW4
1985/86: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW5
SLA2047-SLA2545(A-L)
Box AW5
1986/87: OBIE Award Competition
SLA2546-SLA2677
Box AW5
1986/87: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW6
SLA2678-SLA3279(A-L)
Box AW6
1986/87: OBIE Award Competition
Box AW7
SLA3280-SLA3575
Box AW7
Miscellaneous Nominees
SLA3576-SLA3975
Box AW7

2. Chronological Series, 1891-1994 and undated

The Chronological Series slides ("SLD" and "SLG" slides) are roughly in chronological order within each box. The earlier images have a higher concentration of poster advertisements as opposed to billboards. The series is almost completely made up of advertisement slides, but there are also some street scenes and a few other slides that could be tied to a specific era.

1891-1950
Box CH1
SLD0001-SLD0740
Box CH1
1946-1957
Box CH2
SLD0741-SLD1420
Box CH2
1950-1960s
Box CH3
SLD1421-SLD2100
Box CH3
1951-1956
Box CH4
SLD2101-SLD2860
Box CH4
1951-1960
Box CH5
SLD2861-SLD3660
Box CH5
1952-1960
Box CH6
SLD3661-SLD4520
Box CH6
1955-1962
Box CH7
SLD4521-SLD5440
Box CH7
1950-1962
Box CH8
SLD5441-SLD6240
Box CH8
1960-1963
Box CH9
SLD6241-SLD7080
Box CH9
1961-1963
Box CH10
SLD7081-SLD7780
Box CH10
1959-1963
Box CH11
SLD7781-SLD8620
Box CH11
1961-1964
Box CH12
SLD8621-SLD9460
Box CH12
1964
Box CH13
SLD9461-SLD9999
Box CH13
SLG0001-SLG0281
Box CH13
1964-1965
Box CH14
SLG0282-SLG1096
Box CH14
1965-1970
Box CH15
SLG1097-SLG1777
Box CH15
1965-1970
Box CH16
SLG1781-SLG2520
Box CH16
1966-1984(no slides for the date span 1976-1983)
Box CH17
SLG2521-SLG3380
Box CH17
1971-1989(no slides for the date span 1986-1988)
Box CH18
SLG3381-SLG4160
Box CH18
1981-1987
Box CH19
SLG4161-SLG4860
Box CH19
1987-1988
Box CH20
SLG4861-SLG5520
Box CH20
1988-1989
Box CH21
SLG5521-SLG6400
Box CH21
1989-1990
Box CH22
SLG6401-SLG7300
Box CH22
1990-1992
Box CH23
SLG7301-SLG8280
Box CH23
1992-1993
Box CH24
SLG8281-SLG9180
Box CH24
1993-1994
Box CH25
SLG9181-SLG9880
Box CH25

3. Topical Series, undated

The Topical Series is the largest group of advertisement slides in the collection and is organized by product or service type. It has been maintained in two separate but similar subseries, the second being the larger of the two. To provide meaningful organizational categories for sometimes vague products, issues, and services, each category within each subseries is in effect one of three things, (1) a product type (food, cars, etc.), (2) a sponsoring organization (armed forces, liquor stores, etc.), or (3) an ad type (public service, political ads, etc.). Read through the entire list to target a search before browsing through boxes. Advertisements are often arranged into subgroups and then alphabetically by brand name within the groups listed below. For the second subseries, see category descriptions appended to this document before searching. A large percentage of the slides are undated but range from at least 1940 through 1988. There are probably earlier images in this series as well that could not be dated precisely.

Subseries I

The first subseries (Subseries I, "SLP" and "SLQ" slides) is roughly organized into groups according to product types listed below. Some of the “Miscellaneous” groupings are extensive and should be consulted in a comprehensive search. These slides have been maintained in their original order. Topics may appear in more than one box.

SLP0001-SLP0740
Box TP1
US Armed Forces
Box TP1
Boys Scouts
Box TP1
Ad Council, Public Service
Box TP1
Alcoholic Beverages (non-beer)
Box TP1
SLP0741-SLP1540
Box TP2
Alcoholic Beverages (non-beer) continued
Box TP2
Liquor Stores
Box TP2
Beer (roughly in alphabetical order by brand name)
A-Falstaff
Box TP2
SLP1541-SLP2360
Box TP3
Beer continued
Falstaff - Pearl
Box TP3
SLP2361-SLP3140
Box TP4
Beer continued
Pearl - Wiedemann's
Box TP4
Miscellaneous brands
Box TP4
SLP3141-SLP3840
Box TP5
Beer continued
Miscellaneous brands
Box TP5
Alcoholic Beverages (non-beer)
Box TP5
Automotive/Motorcycles (roughly in alphabetical order by manufacturer/dealer)
American Motors - Ford
Box TP5
SLP3841-SLP4600
Box TP6
Automotive/Motorcycles continued
Ford - Honda
Box TP6
Miscellaneous
Box TP6
Hyundai - Yugo
Box TP6
Miscellaneous
Box TP6
SLP4601-SLP5180
Box TP7
Automotive/Motorcycles continued
Car Parts and Service
Box TP7
Tires
Box TP7
Car Parts
Box TP7
Car Rental
Box TP7
Financial Services (primarily banks/insurance roughly in alphabetical order)
Ahmanson Mortgage - First National Bank
Box TP7
SLP5181-SLP5780
Box TP8
Financial Services continued
First National Bank - Pittsburgh National
Box TP8
Watertown - Zions
Box TP8
Pittsburgh National - Zions
Box TP8
Credit Cards
Box TP8
Miscellaneous financial
Box TP8
Non-alcoholic Beverages (esp. soft drinks including mixers; roughly in alphabetical order)
AandW - Coca-Cola
Box TP8
SLP5781-SLP6460
Box TP9
Non-alcoholic Beverages continued
Coca-Cola - 7-Up
Box TP9
Miscellaneous
Box TP9
Juice and Coffee
Box TP9
Tobacco (primarily cigarettes roughly in alphabetical order)
Basic - Kent
Box TP9
SLP6461-SLP7080
Box TP10
Tobacco continued
Kent - Winston
Box TP10
Amusement Parks/Farms
Box TP10
Books
Box TP10
Miscellaneous (especially products pertaining to entertainment including publications, gasoline, casinos, electronics, retail, alcohol, books, record albums, television shows, celebrity/concert appearances, movies, mouthwash, circuses, fairs, miniature golf, lottery, magazines, museums, and symphonies)
Box TP10
Newspapers
Box TP10
Pet Shops
Box TP10
Animal Parks/Exhibits
Box TP10
Sporting Goods, Events, and Teams
Box TP10
Playhouses, Studios, and Zoos
Box TP10
Movies
Box TP10
Radio and Television Stations/Shows
Box TP10
SLP7081-SLP7700
Box TP11
Radio and Television Stations/Shows continued
Box TP11
Pet/Animal Feed
Box TP11
Food
Bakery Items
Box TP11
Bread
Box TP11
Butter
Box TP11
Buttermilk
Box TP11
Candy, Snacks, and Gum
Box TP11
SLP7701-SLP8320
Box TP12
Food continued
Candy, Snacks, and Gum
Box TP12
Cereal and Breakfast Foods
Box TP12
Cheese Products
Box TP12
Eggs
Box TP12
Flour
Box TP12
Fruit
Box TP12
Ice Cream and Popsicles
Box TP12
Jelly and Baby Food
Box TP12
Ketchup (catsup)
Box TP12
Margarine
Box TP12
Mayonnaise
Box TP12
Meat, Fish Products, and Rice
Box TP12
SLP8321-SLP9040
Box TP13
Food continued
Meat, Fish Products, and Rice
Box TP13
Milk/Dairy Products
Box TP13
Mustard
Box TP13
Nuts
Box TP13
Peanut butter
Box TP13
Pickles
Box TP13
Potato Chips, Crackers, and Snack Foods
Box TP13
Salad Dressing
Box TP13
Potato Chips
Box TP13
Salt
Box TP13
Sour Cream
Box TP13
Sugar
Box TP13
SLP9041-SLP9660
Box TP14
Food continued
Sugar
Box TP14
Vegetables
Box TP14
Jell-O Products
Box TP14
Heinz Products
Box TP14
Shortening
Box TP14
Miscellaneous
Box TP14
Aluminum Foil
Box TP14
Gasoline and Automotive (primarily gasoline/oil; roughly alphabetical by brand; includes some auto parts and service)
Amoco - Hancock
Box TP14
SLP9661-SLP9999
Box TP15
Gasoline and Automotive continued
Hancock - Shell
Box TP15
SLQ0001-SLQ0300
Gasoline and Automotive continued
Shell - Signal
Box TP15
SLQ0301-SLQ1000
Box TP16
Gasoline and Automotive continued
Shell - Union 76 (includes Standard/Chevron)
Box TP16
Miscellaneous
Box TP16
Pain and Cold Medicine
Box TP16
Oral/Personal Hygiene
Box TP16
Eyewear
Box TP16
Hair and Skin Products
Box TP16
Dental and Medical
Box TP16
Miscellaneous Personal Products and Retail (Includes medicines, bath, health, and beauty products, pharmacies, beauty salons, and sunscreen)
Box TP16
SLQ1001-SLQ1620
Box TP17
Miscellaneous Personal Products and Retail continued
Box TP17
Restaurants (roughly alphabetical)
Acapulco - Der Wienerschnitzel
Box TP17
Ice Cream Shops
Box TP17
Allenhurst - Zim's
Box TP17
Apparel, Apparel Stores and other Retail (roughly alphabetical; includes some watches, cosmetics, electronics, shopping centers, and other department store consumer goods purchases)
Anell's - Robinson's
Box TP17
SLQ1621-SLQ2320
Box TP18
Apparel, Apparel Stores, and other Retail continued
Robinson's - Zayre
Box TP18
Miscellaneous
Box TP18
Footwear
Box TP18
Miscellaneous
Box TP18
Grocery Stores (roughly in alphabetical order)
AG Stores - Winn Dixie
Box TP18
Airlines (roughly in alphabetical order)
Alaska Airlines - Western Airlines
Box TP18
SLQ2321-SLQ2980
Box TP19
Airlines continued
Western Airlines - World Airways
Box TP19
Transportation and Travel (Includes public transportation, bicycles, mopeds, travel agencies, cruises, vacation destinations, commerce/convention destinations, resorts, miscellaneous attractions, and shopping centers)
Box TP19
Hotels
Box TP19
Moving and Storage
Box TP19
Utility Companies (often ads featuring appliances)
Box TP19
Heating and Air Conditioning
Box TP19
Electronics and Appliances
Box TP19
Photographic Equipment
Box TP19
Laundry Detergent and Dry Cleaning
Box TP19
Household Cleaners
Box TP19
Hosiery, Footwear, and Apparel
Box TP19
Florists
Box TP19
SLQ2981-SLQ3597
Box TP20
Florists continued
Box TP20
Construction and Home Improvement (Includes building materials, floor and wall coverings, decorators, furniture stores, and mattresses)
Box TP20
Insurance
Box TP20
Lawn Care
Box TP20
Metals (Includes Aluminum, Steel Buildings)
Box TP20
Data Processing and Printers
Box TP20
Paper Products (Includes napkins, tissues, wax paper, and toilet tissue)
Box TP20
Paint
Box TP20
Plumbing
Box TP20
Political Ads
Box TP20
Real Estate
Box TP20
Campers
Box TP20
Miscellaneous (Includes massage school, zippers, and trading stamps)
Box TP20
Yellow Pages
Box TP20
Subseries II

These slides were grouped into industry standard categories. Please see category descriptions at the end of this document to facilitate your search. Often, like materials are further grouped within these categories. For ads where identity of the product was unclear, a small Product Unclear category was created at the end of this subseries. This subseries contains slide numbers with the following prefixes: SLS, SLT, SLU, SLV, SLW, SLX, SLY, SLZ, SLJ, SLK, and SLL.

Apparel
Box TP21
SLS0001-SLS0274
Box TP21
Retail
SLS0275-SLS0693
Box TP21
Retail
Box TP22
SLS0694-SLS1353
Box TP22
Retail
Box TP23
SLS1354-SLS1413
Box TP23
Retail / Apparel
SLS1414-SLS1649
Box TP23
Business and Technology
SLT0001-SLT0280
Box TP23
Business and Technology
Box TP24
SLT0281-SLT0980
Box TP24
Business and Technology
Box TP25
SLT0981-SLT1640
Box TP25
Business and Technology
Box TP26
SLT1641-SLT2340
Box TP26
Business and Technology
Box TP27
SLT2341-SLT2754
Box TP27
Amusement and Entertainment
SLU0001-SLU0140
Box TP27
Amusement and Entertainment
Box TP28
SLU0141-SLU0820
Box TP28
Transportation and Travel
Box TP29
SLV0001-SLV0500
Box TP29
Transportation and Travel
Box TP30
SLV0501-SLV1200
Box TP30
Transportation and Travel
Box TP31
SLV1201-SLV1526
Box TP31
Automotive
SLW0001-SLW0280
Box TP31
Automotive
Box TP32
SLW0281-SLW0980
Box TP32
Automotive
Box TP33
SLW0981-SLW1620
Box TP33
Automotive
Box TP34
SLW1621-SLW1845
Box TP34
Consumer Goods and Services
SLX0001-SLX0380
Box TP34
Consumer Goods and Services
Box TP35
SLX0381-SLX1020
Box TP35
Consumer Goods and Services
Box TP36
SLX1021-SLX1660
Box TP36
Consumer Goods and Services
Box TP37
SLX1661-SLX2072
Box TP37
Beverages
SLY0001-SLY0080
Box TP37
Beverages
Box TP38
SLY0081-SLY0560
Box TP38
Beverages
Box TP39
SLY0561-SLY1020
Box TP39
Beverages
Box TP40
SLY1021-SLY1427
Box TP40
Beverages
Box TP41
SLY1428-SLY1947
Box TP41
Beverages
Box TP42
SLY1948-SLY2467
Box TP42
Beverages
Box TP43
SLY2468-SLY2967
Box TP43
Beverages
Box TP44
SLY2968-SLY3332
Box TP44
Food and Restaurants
SLZ0001-SLZ0100
Box TP44
Food and Restaurants
Box TP45
SLZ0101-SLZ0720
Box TP45
Food and Restaurants
Box TP46
SLZ0721-SLZ1375
Box TP46
Public Service
Box TP47
SLJ0001-SLJ0544
Box TP47
Media
Box TP48
SLK0001-SLK0660
Box TP48
Media
Box TP49
SLK0661-SLK1113
Box TP49
Product Unclear
SLL0001-SLL0117
Box TP49

4. International Posters Series, 1925-1983, bulk mid-late 1960s, especially 1969

Presumably, some of the ads in this series ("SLM" slides) were submitted for an International category of the OBIE awards program, a category added in more recent years. They are often in a smaller poster format to accommodate larger pedestrian audiences abroad. Some products featured include alcoholic beverages, concerts, cheese, travel, London transportation, beverages, museum exhibitions, festivals, ice cream, newspapers, and the Moscow Olympics. The slides are arranged by slide number.

SLM0001-SLM0621
Box TT1

5. Construction and Creation Series, 1950s-1980s and undated

This small series ("SLE" slides) provides perhaps the most context for the creative process. More than just the finished product, these slide images show ads at every stage of creation from idea boards to finishing touches. Most slides show images of people working on billboards, but there are also graphics showing billboard dimensions or various billboard types, photo images of workrooms, workers at worktables, workers with equipment doing actual construction, cranes hanging large billboard segments, photos of props used to put together an image, shots of billboards at various stages of completion, close shots of trim pieces, and more. The slides are arranged by slide number.

Selected items from this series have been digitized and are available in: ROAD 2.0 Image Gallery

Items from this series have been described in a searchable online database: ROAD Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions

SLE0001-SLE0135
Box TT2

6. Artwork Series, 1956-1973 and undated

This series contains slide images of original artwork ("SLF" slides), usually not in any advertisement format. Artwork was sometimes submitted to OAAA as part of the OBIE Awards program. Many of these slides are labeled with the artist's name such as graphic artist and painter, Luis Gordillo. Other names found in this part of the collection include Eric Lanneau, Luis Perez Minguez, T. Mixta, Boix, A. Heras, E. Borduas, Robert Burns, F.C.B. Cadell, R. McG. Coventry, G.D. Davison, John Duncan, Crawhall, George Henry, J.W. Herald, Hornel, Leslie Hunter, W.Y. MacGregor, J.Q. Pringle, Claude Breeze, Ivan Eyre, Alex Coville, and Opura Benazon. Slides are arranged by slide number.

Selected items from this series have been digitized and are available in: ROAD 2.0 Image Gallery

Items from this series have been described in a searchable online database: ROAD Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions

SLF0001-SLF0208
Box TT2

7. Street Scenes and Approaches Series, 1930s-1980s and undated

This series ("SLH" slides) contains slides with images of street scenes, often showing long approaches to billboard sites. There are examples of outdoor advertising present, but views are from a distance. These images were used in planning and preparation for construction or to show sites to prospective clients. This series reveals the most outdoor context of time and place for the advertising. While most shots in other series are close-ups of billboards, these photo images almost always show a wider scene. Slides are arranged by slide number.

SLH0001-0131
Box TT2

8. Other Outdoor Advertising Related Images Series, ca. 1910-1985 and undated

This small series ("SLN" slides) contains slides with images that did not easily fit into other categories. It includes slides of the 1975 Miss America and other campaigns designed to test or prove how well people could remember information from the outdoor medium. Various pieces of art are included, as well as a mock-up of a Signs of the Times publication cover; photographs related to a consumer survey; group portraits from industry meetings, some from as early as the 1910s; print advertisements; and portraits of advertising executives including Burr Robbins. Slides are arranged by slide number.

SLN0001-SLN0091
Box TT2

9. Presentations and Presentation Slides Series, 1960s-1980s and undated

This series contains slides organized for individual presentations, several with scripts included. The presentations at the start of the series are the most complete. As the list continues, the presentations become less complete (e.g. lacking slides, transcripts, etc.), until only loose slides from presentations are present. The intact presentations at the start of the series were created for a variety of audiences by outdoor executives often as training devices or sales tools for prospective clients. A number of the presentations were put together by the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, the marketing arm of the industry. The scripts and slides provide a mix of information not found in other series, including an introduction to the medium, comparisons to other advertising media, and history of the industry.

Included are some historical images from the early days of outdoor advertising, but the series mostly contains mid to late 20th century images including billboard construction; shots of the creative process; labeled charts indicating the standard billboard sizes; statistics on cost, reach, frequency, and readership; and much more information about the medium in general. Though not indexed in the ROAD database, there are many images of outdoor advertising used as examples in the presentations. Some slides relate to specific companies or campaigns such as Kraft, specific markets such as Birmingham, or certain product types such as insurance or magazines. Many of the loose slides are grouped into at least partial presentations. Three of the scripted presentations have audiocassette recordings included in box PR13. There are duplicate slides in some presentations and so presumably, many were created and used in various presentations according to the need at the time. For database control purposes, individual "SLB" numbers were assigned to whole presentations.

Selected items from this series have been digitized and are available in: ROAD 2.0 Image Gallery

Items from this series have been described in a searchable online database: ROAD Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions

Presentations:
Box PR1
Outdoor Goes to College (SLB0001)

Audio recording of script included in box PR13.

Box PR1
It Pays to be Creative (Institute of Outdoor Advertising [IOA]) (SLB0002)

This presentation is aimed at new creative directors and discusses among other things what makes a good design and how to sell it. Audio recording of script included in box PR13.

Box PR1
Media Insurance (IOA) (SLB0003)
(3 folders)

This presentation seems designed to sell the medium to potential advertisers. Audio recording of script included in box PR13.

Box PR1
Profiles of Outdoor Advertising Readers (Outdoor Advertising Incorporated [OAI]) (SLB0004)
Box PR2
Working Women (Donnelly Adv.) (SLB0005)
Box PR2
Be It Ever So Humble, There?s No Place Like Out-of-Home (IOA) (SLB0006)
Box PR2
A Presentation on Geometrics (Center for Advertising Services, 1976) (SLB0007)
Box PR2
Dialogue Presentation (IOA) (SLB0008)
Box PR2
The Giant (IOA) (SLB0009)
Box PR2
Outdoor for Retailers (SLB0010)
Box PR2
Kraft (SLB0011)
Box PR2
Common Sense (SLB0012)
Box PR3
What?s New Under the Sun (SLB0013)
Box PR3
Miss America ( IOA, [1975?]) (SLB0014)

This presentation features slides of a campaign that tested awareness. The industry used ads with Miss America's name (Shirley Cothran) and subsequent testing as proof of outdoor advertising effectiveness.

Box PR3
IOA Membership (IOA) (SLB0015)
Box PR3
Inflation (IOA) (SLB0016)
Box PR3
Target Group Index (SLB0017)
Box PR3
Best Painted Bulletin Displays - Master General Foods and duplicates (IOA) (SLB0018)
Box PR3
Cole Creative Presentation (SLB0019)
Box PR3
Garrett Orr Presentation (SLB0020)
Box PR3
Take a Look at Birmingham (SLB0021)
Box PR4
Planning an Outdoor Program, Outdoor Seminar, Toronto, Ontario, 10/16/65 (SLB0022)
Box PR4
Presentation to Food Market Institute, 3/25/78 (SLB0023)
Box PR4
Outdoor for Passenger Cars (SLB0024)
Box PR4
Wall-Dog Era and Story of Outdoor Advertising (scripts only) (SLB0025)
Box PR4
Various Presentations (SLB0026 and SLB0027)
(2 folders)
Box PR4
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR5
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR6
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR7
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR8
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR9
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR10
Miscellaneous presentation slides
Box PR11
Glass Presentation Slides

These slides are encased in glass. Most appear to be a part of a presentation by Outdoor Advertising Incorporated including images of ads for 7-Up and Budweiser (Anheuser Busch). There is also a wide variety of street signs, spectaculars, and other signs.

Box PR12
Presentation Scripts on Audiocassette (master and use copies):
Box PR13
Outdoor Goes to College
Box PR13
It Pays to be Creative, F and K (IOA)
Box PR13
Media Insurance, F and K (IOA)
Box PR13

Historical Note

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library was created by officials in the Outdoor Advertising Association of America ( OAAA) and member organizations. OAAA is the primary professional and trade association representing the outdoor advertising industry, and was founded to promote outdoor advertising interests in the U.S. OAAA members own and operate billboards, street furniture, transit, or other outdoor advertising displays. Members also include service providers to the industry, users of the outdoor medium and others supporting its goals.

Chronology

Date Event(s)
1891 OAAA was founded as the Associated Bill Posters' Association of the US and Canada (ABPA).
1901 Outdoor advertising company Foster and Kleiser opened for business in Portland and Seattle; the company later was known as Patrick Media, then Eller, then Clear Channel.
1906 ABPA changed its name to Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of the United States and Canada.
ca. 1910 Association set national standards for outdoor advertising and established the numbers of panels to be sold in each market.
1912 Association changed its name to the Poster Advertising Association, Inc. (PAA).
1912-1913 PAA established an Education Committee to encourage public service advertising donations.
1916 The National Outdoor Advertising Bureau was formed to inspect showings and to conduct the outdoor advertising portion of ad agency business.
1920 The Art Directors Club was organized, establishing standards for commercial arts through competitions and the identification of categories of commercial art.
1925 PAA and the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association merged to become OAAA. The Fulton Group and the Cusack Co. combined to become the General Outdoor Advertising Company.
1930 First National Contest and Exhibit of Outdoor Advertising Art was held under the auspices of the Outdoor Advertising Department of the Advertising Council of the Chicago Association of Commerce.
1941-1942 Advertising Council (initially, during WWII, the War Advertising Council) founded as a non-profit organization to coordinate selected public service campaigns.
1946 Raymond Loewy poster panel adopted as new 24-sheet structure for billboards.
1962 The first modern "multivision" painted bulletin displayed in Sacramento, Calif. Triangular sections permitted display of three different designs on a single unit.
1990s Digital technology affected creation of advertising designs and display. Painted boards were replaced by computer-generated formats.

Subject Headings

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Provenance

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library was transferred to the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library from Fairleigh Dickinson University in 1996.

Processing of this collection was supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Processing Information

There was already some arrangement to the collection when it came to Duke University, and this is reflected in the choice of series maintained. The Topical Series, Subseries II, was created at Duke out of the many slides that arrived unsorted. Product categories in this subseries are those used by the industry itself. A few subgroups within Topical Series, Subseries I are labeled “Miscellaneous.” Some of these miscellaneous groups are extensive and should not be overlooked in a comprehensive search.

The collection contains a few negatives and loose transparencies, especially in the Award Nominees Series. These were sleeved and interfiled with the slides. Information from most of the slides in the collection was entered into the Resource for Outdoor Advertising Description (ROAD) database (available in early 2003). An "SL" number was assigned to an individual slide and placed on the slide itself, while also being used as the database record number. Certain letter combinations are restricted to certain series, but they do not necessarily match the first letter of a corresponding series or subseries. Approximate dates found on slides were usually included in the database, but many dates could not be confirmed. Gaps were left in some slide sleeves to show divisions between groups of slides that originally were banded or boxed together. Older boxlists with old notebook designations may also be found in this repository. Old slide notebook designations were maintained on the new slide sleeves and in the ROAD database. Box number prefixes (e.g. CH, TP) indicate particular series except in the case of the small series at the end of the collection, all placed together in boxes labeled "TT1" and "TT2."

Processed by Lisa C. Chandek-Stark and Lynn Pritcher.

Completed April 2002

Encoded by Lisa C. Chandek-Stark