Guide to the Allen Building Takeover Collection, 1969-2002
On February 13, 1969, Duke University students in the Afro-American Society occupied the the main administration building to bring attention to the needs of black students. These needs included an African American studies department, a black student union, and increased enrollment and financial support for black students. This and subsequent events became known as the Allen Building Takeover. The Allen Building Takeover Collection contains announcements, flyers, publications, correspondence, handouts, reports, transcripts, ephemera, clippings, a bibliography, WDBS radio broadcasts, oral histories, and photographs documenting Black Culture Week (Feb. 4-12, 1969), the Allen Building Takeover (Feb. 13, 1969), student demands, statements by Provost Marcus Hobbs and by Duke President Douglas Knight, student convocations and demonstrations both in support of and against the Takeover, and later events on the Duke campus and in Durham, N.C. In addition, the collection contains clippings and artwork related to remembering the Takeover, including the 2002 Allen Building lock-in. Major subjects include African American students and civil rights demonstrations. English.
- Record Group
- Allen Building Takeover collection
- Duke University. University Archives
- 1 linear feet
- David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
The collection features a variety of materials documenting the Allen Building Takeover at Duke University. The first series,Subject files, includes announcements, flyers, publications, correspondence, handouts, reports, transcripts, and ephemera relating to Black Culture Week (Feb. 4-12, 1969), the Allen Building Takeover (Feb. 13, 1969) and student demands, statements by Provost Marcus Hobbs and by Duke President Douglas Knight, student convocations and demonstrations both in support of and against the Takeover, and later events on the Duke campus and in Durham, N.C. Also included are clippings of newspaper and magazine coverage of the Takeover from the campus paperThe Chronicle, as well as local, state, and national media.
In addition, the collection contains clippings and artwork related to anniversaries and remembrance of the Takeover. Students created artwork in this collection while participating in the 2002 Allen Building lock-in, an event commemorating 1960s activism at Duke and an opportunity for students and administrators to discuss the racial climate on campus.
ThreeRelated collectionsdescribed with the Allen Building Takeover Collection consist of sound recordings and photographs. The first collection, WDBS Records, contains recordings of broadcast reports which aired on the campus radio station. These reports (Feb. 13-16, 1969) covered the Takeover, President Knight's response, and subsequent meetings, rallies, demonstrations, and speakers. The next related collection, Allen Building Takeover Oral History Collection, features oral history interviews conducted by Don Yannella for his 1985 senior honors thesis,Race Relations at Duke University and the Allen Building Takeover. The oral histories offer first-hand accounts of and reactions to the Takeover from Duke students, staff, administrators, and members of the Durham community. Finally, the Photograph Collection includes ten black and white photographs taken during and after the Takeover. Several other collections also contain information on the Allen Building Takeover. For a complete subject guide and bibliography of resources, please see theSubject files series.
Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.
Portions of the collection contain sensitive information. Patrons must sign a waiver concerning privacy rights.
Sound recordings might require the creation of a listening copy for use. Please contact University Archives staff before visiting to use these materials.
Copyright for Official University records is held by Duke University; all other copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Digitized materials from this collection are made available for use in research, teaching and private study. The digital reproductions have been made available through an evaluation of public domain status, permissions from the rights' holders, and authorization under the law including fair use as codified in 17 U.S.C. § 107. Although these materials are publicly accessible for these limited purposes, they may not all be in the public domain. Users are responsible for determining if permission for re-use is necessary and for obtaining such permission. Individuals who have concerns about online access to specific content should contact the Rubenstein Library.
The Subject files series contains a variety of resources relating to the Allen Building Takeover that have been collected by the University Archives staff for teaching and research. These materials are organized into three subseries: Primary documents, Media coverage, and Remembrance. Primary documents include flyers, publications, handouts, correspondence, reports, transcripts, and ephemera. The media coverage subseries features clippings and photocopied clippings from campus, local, state, and national newspapers and magazines. Both of these subseries contain materials from 1969, both during and after the Allen Building Takeover. The third subseries, Remembrance, features clippings relating to the anniversaries of the Takeover in 1989 and 1999, as well as artwork made by participants in the Allen Building Lock-in on April 5-6, 2002.
Ordered by date.
Documents include The Black Demands, Scenario for Campus Revolt, two requests that students leave the Allen Building peacefully made by Provost Marcus Hobbs, A Co-ordinating Council Response, and other materials.
Documents include A 3 day boycott of classes -- Friday, Saturday, and Monday ON STRIKE!! Statement by Dr. Douglas Knight for WDBS Radio, Saturday, February 15, 1969, and other materials.
Two letters describing the Allen Building Takeover and subsequent events. The letters were written by Oliver Ferguson and Jane Philpott, colleagues of Carl Anderson (1919-2003), a Duke English professor and administrator, who was in Sweden during the Takeover. At the time, Oliver Ferguson was a member of the Duke English department, and Jane Philpott was Acting Dean of the Woman's College.
Documents include Summary of Action of the Undergraduate Faculty Council and other materials.
Documents include Why Black Students Need Student Power...Why Black Students Cannot Get Student Power, memoranda and statements from Duke President Douglas M. Knight, Dilemma at Duke, minutes of the Academic Council, and other materials.
The trial was open to the Duke community, and the names of the students charged were made publicly available. These notes describe these open hearings, but not the private committee deliberations on punishment.
Note: One poster and one collage from 2002 Allen Building Lock-in stored in MC 8.
Two collections of sound recordings, the WDBS broadcast recordings and the Allen Building Takeover Oral History Collection, are directly related to the 1969 Allen Building Takeover. Both offer first-hand accounts of the events surrounding the Takeover and varied perspectives on these demonstrations within the Duke community. In addition, the University Archives Photograph Collection includes ten black and white photographs taken during and after the Takeover.
Several other collections also contain information on the Allen Building Takeover. For a complete subject guide and bibliography of resources, please see theSubject filesseries.
WDBS was founded at Duke University in 1950 as a student-run AM station sponsored by the student government. The station received an FM license in 1971. Due to financial difficulties, WDBS ended in 1983.
This group of broadcast recordings features reports about the Allen Building Takeover and subsequent events. While the cassette reference copies of these broadcasts are stored with the Allen Building Takeover Collection, the original reel to reel tapes of the broadcasts remain in the WDBS records.
The University Archives Photograph Collection consists of a variety of images of Duke University people, places, and activities. This collection features a folder of ten black and white photographs and one contact print from the Allen Building Takeover. Photographs depict students gathered outside the Allen Building, President Knight addressing the students, police using tear gas on the crowd, and the interior spaces of the Allen Building after the Takeover.
On the morning of February 13, 1969, between 50 and 75 black students entered the Allen Building and proceeded to barricade and occupy it. They renamed the building the Malcolm X Liberation School. The students issued a list of demands to the administration, [which included an accredited African-American Studies Department, a black dorm, a black student union, an increase in enrollment and financial support for black students, protection from police harassment, and better working conditions for non-academic staff of the University]. Provost Marcus Hobbs read a statement to the students at about 3:30 PM, urging them to leave the building within one hour to begin a peaceful discussion of the issues. Sometime after 5 o'clock, after a warning from Provost Hobbs that they would face legal ramifications for staying, the students decided to exit. Although the exit was peaceful, a large crowd of mostly white students had gathered outside the building during the day, and this crowd and the police became entangled. The police fired tear gas on the students.
Immediately following the police action, students met to discuss how to proceed. Many students and faculty were upset by the administration's support of the police action; other students and faculty felt that the takeover of the Allen Building was lawless and disruptive. Those who supported the Takeover called for a three day strike on campus and offered alternative classes. Students opposed to the Takeover urged fellow students to attend classes as normal. The administration attempted to calm the campus and address some of the demands posed by the Takeover participants. President Knight addressed Duke on the campus radio station, WDBS.
Afro-American Society and administration members met several times to begin forming an African-American Studies program. The two parties could not reach an agreement on what type of committee should oversee the program. On March 10, a group of students marched to downtown Durham along with students from other colleges to protest the situation. The next day, March 11, 1969, students again went to downtown Durham and marched with other students and Durham residents. The march turned violent, with store windows smashed and other damage to property. The mayor put a curfew on the city for several days.
Dozens of Duke's black students threatened to leave campus following the lack of agreement on the African-American Studies program. They instead planned to attend the Malcolm X Liberation University, a newly-developed school led by community activist Howard Fuller. However, the students soon reversed their decision and decided to remain at Duke University. On March 19, a University Hearing Committee found the students who had occupied the building guilty of violating university regulations. All defendants were sentenced to one year of probation.
[Written by Valerie Gillispie as part of the web exhibit,Campus Protest: Duke University, 1967-1969.]
- African American students -- North Carolina -- Durham
- African Americans -- North Carolina -- History -- 1964-
- African Americans -- North Carolina -- Durham -- Political activity
- African Americans -- North Carolina -- Durham -- Social conditions
- African American student movements
- College students, Black -- North Carolina
- Civil rights demonstrations
- Clippings (information artifacts)
- Duke University -- History
- Duke University -- Buildings -- History -- 20th century
- Duke University -- Students -- Social conditions
- Duke University -- Students -- Political activity
- Duke University -- Administration
- Duke University. Afro-American Society
- Duke University. University Archives
- Fliers (printed matter)
- Hobbs, Marcus E., 1909-
- Knight, Douglas M., 1921-2005
- Oral histories (document genre)
- Race relations
- Sound recordings
- Student participation in administration
- Students -- Political activity
- Students, Black -- North Carolina
- WDBS (Radio station : Durham, N.C.)
[Identification of item], Allen Building Takeover Collection, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.
The Allen Building Takeover Collection was received by the University Archives as a transfer in 1973-2002.
Processed by University Archives staff and Jill Katte, completed January 2004.
Historical note written by Valerie Gillispie as part of the web exhibit, Campus Protest: Duke University, 1967-1969.
Encoded by Jill Katte, January 2004
Updated by Molly Bragg, July 2011
Updated to include digital content by Noah Huffman, April 2013