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Guide to the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers, 1917-2004 and undated

Abstract

Pioneering African American surgeon who was chief of surgery at Lincoln Hospital, clinical professor of surgery at Duke University, founder of Licoln Community Health Center, director of student health at North Carolina Central University, and vice president and medical director for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, all in Durham, N.C.

Spanning the period of 1917 to 2004, the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers contain files related to Watts's education, family, community activities, centered in Durham, N.C., and his career as a surgeon, administrator, and trustee on several boards. There is material on the formation in 1901 of Lincoln Hospital, a medical care facility for African Americans in Durham, N.C.. and other items on the early 20th century history of Durham, but the bulk of the papers relate to the later half of the 20th century. Formats primarily consist of correspondence, reports, notes, speeches, photographs, and print materials. It is organized into the following series: Community Relations, Personal Files, Photographic Materials, and Professional Files. Material in the Medical Records Series have been separated and are currently closed to use. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

Descriptive Summary

Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University
Creator
Watts, Charles DeWitt.
Title
Charles DeWitt Watts papers 1917-2004 and undated
Language of Material
English
Extent
13.6 Linear Feet, Approximately 7249 Items
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Library's online catalog.

Collection Overview

Spanning the dates 1917 to 2004, the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers contain files related to Watts's education, family, community activities, centered in Durham, N.C., and his career as a surgeon, administrator, and trustee on several boards. The bulk of the material dates from 1970 to 2000. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, reports, notes, speeches, photographs, and print materials, and is organized into the following series: Community Relations, Personal Files, Photographic Materials, and Professional Files. Material containing personally-identifiable medical information in the Medical Records Series has been separated from the other professional files and is currently closed to use.

Largest in the collection is the Professional Files Series, which primarily contains administrative documents related to Watts's career as a doctor, surgeon, and medical administrator for various private practices, hospitals, boards, and professional societies. Of particular note are files related to Watt's mentor, Dr. Charles Drew, the history of Lincoln Hospital, and the establishment of the Lincoln Community Health Center in 1970. The folders in the Medical Records Series have been segregated and are currently closed to use. The Community Relations Series concerns Watts's professional life outside of medicine, containing files related to his membership in churches and fraternal organizations, non-medically-related boards on which he served, his work with Durham, N.C. organizations, his interest in race relations, and honors awarded him. Also included are the papers of Constance Watts (wife), Lyda Merrick (mother-in-law), and Margaret Smith (a nurse in his office). Of special interest is a scrapbook about the Negro Braille Magazine (now the Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind), founded by Mrs. Merrick.

Some professional correspondence is also intermixed in the Personal Files Series, which contains papers related to Watts's family, friends, finances, education, and alumni activities. Of particular note is a transcript of Watts's oral history. Containing both professional and personal content, the Photographic Materials Series contains photographs, slides, and negatives. The bulk consists of portraits and snapshots of the Watts family. Of particular note are early photographs of Lincoln Hospital nursing students and staff members.

Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

Administrative Information

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

warning Access Restrictions

Collection is restricted. Medical records are currently closed to use.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in Duke University's Library Service Center. The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

warning Use Restrictions

The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

Contents of the Collection

Contains papers related to Watts's membership in churches and fraternal organizations, non-medically-related boards on which he served, his work with Durham, N.C. organizations, his interest in race relations, and honors awarded to him. Materials include photographs, correspondence, notes, programs, speeches, programs, clippings, print materials, and a commemorative plaque. Also included are the papers of Constance Watts (wife), Lyda Merrick (mother-in-law), and Margaret Smith (a nurse in his office). Of special interest are materials related to the Negro Braille Magazine (now the Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind), founded by Mrs. Merrick. Arranged alphabetically.

Alpha Tau Boulé, Sigma Pi Phi, 1969-1982
(3 folders)
Box 1
African Methodist Episcopal church, 1978
Box 1
African Methodist Episcopal Church Review article on Watts, 2001
Box 1
Charles D. Watts Award, 2001 May
Box 1
City of Medicine Award, 1999
Box 1
Duke University honors, 1991-2002
Box 1
Moore Award, 2002
Box 1
St. Paul's College honorary degree, 1984
Box 1
Shaw University Award for Outstanding Community Leadership, 1991 Nov. 21
Box 1
Black colleges, 1970-1973
Box 1
Chi Delta Mu, 1962-1968
Box 1
Daughters of Dorcus Club, 1992 Sept. 12
Box 1
Durham Council on Human Relations, 1964-1965
Box 1
Durham schools report, 1980 Feb.
Box 1
First Congregational Church, Atlanta GA, 1985-1994
Box 1
Hayti Development Corporation, 1985
Box 1
John Avery Boys and Girls Club, 1994
Box 1
Johnson, Charles, 1997
Box 1
A Matter of Law: A Memoir of Struggle in the Cause of Equal Rights manuscript by Robert L. Carter, 2004
(2 folders)
Box 2
McKissick, Floyd, 1991
Box 2
Miller, Helen S., 1982
Box 2
Minority Community Resources Conference, 1958 Jan. 15
Box 2
NAACP, 1980-1981
Box 2
NAACP, 2000 Oct. 28
Box 2
National Association of Urban Bankers oratorical competition, 1997
Box 2
The Negro and the Poor in America materials sent by The North Carolina Fund, 1968
Box 2
North Carolina School of Science and Math, 1995-2001
Box 2
Palmer Memorial Institute, 1953 June
Box 2
Palmer Memorial Institute, 1965-1968
(2 folders)
Box 2
Daughters of Dorcus, 1948-1949
Box 2
Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind, 1987 June
Box 2
Negro Braille Magazine correspondence and clippings, 1976-1981
Box 2
North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, 1970-1984
Box 2
Photographs, clippings, and correspondence, 1948-1985

Box 2
Correspondence, 1973
Box 3
Nurse practitioner program, 1977-1979
Box 3
United Holy Church, 1977-1982
Box 3
Young People's Holy Association Union, 1974-1979
(2 folders)
Box 3
Durham-Orange County Medical Auxiliary Historical Committee, 1978
Box 3
United Fund budget book, 1966
(2 folders)
Box 3
Up the Hill, Jack & Jill of America, Inc., nos. 15-17, 1962-1964

(2 folders)
Box 3
Premedical Education for Negroes, Charles W. Buggs, 1949
Box 4
Prison health care, 1978
Box 4
Race relations articles, 1989-2000
Box 4
Rotary Club introduction of Josephine Dobbs Clement, c. 1990
Box 4
Rotary Club pamphlets, 1969-1973
Box 4
Rotary Club scholarships, 1992-1995
Box 4
Sanders, Charles, 1995
Box 4
Seattle Urban League materials, 1959
Box 4
Southeast Durham Recreation and Youth Activities, 1972 Aug.
Box 4
United Negro College Fund, 1980
Box 4
Young Black Males in Jeopardy report, 1988
Box 4
Lyda Merrick scrapbook, 1954-1981
Box OV1
Calendar of African American History, The Power Within: The Legacy of Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, 1993
Box OV2
Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind, 1989 Dec.
Box OV2
Scrapbook for Alpha Phi Alpha Award of Honor to Dr. Clyde Donnell, 1960
Box OV2

Houses papers related to Watts's family, friends, finances, education, and alumni activities, in the form of correspondence, clippings, memorabilia, speeches, programs, memorial pamphlets, photographs, and oral history transcripts. Some professional correspondence is also intermixed. Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Appointment letters, certificates, awards, educational records, and clippings, 1939-1996
(2 folders)
Box 4
Armstrong, Wiley Thurber (Dr.), 1981
Box 4
Biographical sketch, awards, family, 1974-1996
Box 4
Bruce, William Jr. (Dr.), 2001
Box 4
Clement, Kenneth W. (Dr.) and Dolores, 1974, 2002
Box 4
Clement, William A. and Josephine, 1985-2001
Box 4
Clippings, correspondence, CVs, 1978-2003
(7 folders)
Box 4
Clippings, wedding and memorial pamphlets, lists, 1978-1999
Box 4
Correspondence, speeches, certificates, 1952-1982
(3 folders)
Box 5
Curry, Charles L. (Dr.), 1994-1999
Box 5
Daniel, John T. (Dr.), 1989
Box 5
Deerfield Academy, 1971-1973
Box 5
Donnell, Clyde (Dr.), 1994
Box 5
Estate planning, undated
Box 5
50th anniversary, awards, genealogy research, 1985-1997
Box 5
Gipson, Bernard F. Sr. (Dr.), 1982
Box 5
Glenview Memorial Park, Inc. financial statements, 1969-1979
Box 5
Hawes, Ernest, 1983-1985
Box 5
Hawes and Spaulding families, 1987-2001
Box 5
Hemphill, Wini Watts, 1989
Box 5
Hill, Deborah Chase Watts, 1971-1993
Box 5
Hill, Shana Blake, 1996-1999
Box 5
Howard alumni materials, 1950-2003
(4 folders)
Box 5
Howard Alumni Achievement Award, 1999
Box 6
Howard Charter Day, 1993
Box 6
Interview transcript, undated
Box 6
Interview for Black Health Manpower, 1985-1986
Box 6
Johnson-Thompson, Marian C. (Dr.), 1987-1998
Box 6
McDougald, Richard Lewis, 1944
Box 6
Merrick, Constance, 1939
Box 6
Merrick family history, 1990
Box 6
Merrick heirs property tax, 2003
Box 6
Merrick/Moore families cemetery lots, 1999
Box 6
Moore, Aaron McDuffie (Dr.), 1980, 1999
Box 6
Moore, Cottie S., 1950
Box 6
Morehouse alumni materials, 1951-2002
(5 folders)
Box 6
Morehouse commencement program, 1938
Box 6
Morehouse School of Medicine catalog, 1990
Box 6
Morehouse Triangle Club, 1988-1993
Box 6
Morehouse yearbook, 1938
Box 6
Mother of the Year, 1985
Box 6
Passport, 1983
Box 6
Rental properties, 1976-2001
(3 folders)
Box 7
Retirement notebook, 1987-1991
Box 7
Reunion and commencement programs, 1978-1987
Box 7
Schiebel, H. Max (Dr.), 1999
Box 7
Smith, Annick, 1963-1977
Box 7
Southview Cemetery Association, 1992-1993
Box 7
Southview Cemetery financials, 1977 June 30
Box 7
Speeches, 1986-1992 and undated
(2 folders)
Box 7
Spellman College, 1988
Box 7
Sullivan, Louis (Dr.), 1995
Box 7
Trip notes, 1983
Box 7
Watts, Albert H., 1977-2002
(2 folders)
Box 7
Watts, Carrie E., 1987
Box 7
Watts, Charles DeWitt Jr., 1973-1994
Box 7
Watts, Lewis G., 1964
Box 7
Welch, C. Eileen Watts, 1990-1996
Box 7
Yancy, Asa G. (Dr.), 1990
Box 7
Family trip scrapbook, 1957-1962

Contains memorabilia, photographs, and negatives from a Watts family cross-country trip.

Box OV3

Contains prints, slides, and negatives related to Watts's personal and professional life. The bulk of the material are portraits and snapshots of the Watts, Merrick, and Moore families. Of particular note are early photographs of Lincoln Hospital nursing students and staff members. Additional photographs are located in the Community Relations and Personal Files series. Arranged alphabetically.

Daughters of Dorcus, YWCA, c. 1965
Box 7
Drew, Charles (Dr.), undated
(2 folders)
Box 7
Events and family, 1992
Box 7
Lincoln Hospital, c. 1910?-1945
Box 7
Lincoln Hospital history slides, undated
Box 7
North Carolina Mutual, 1960-2004
Box 7
Teaching slides, undated
Box 7
Watts, Merrick, and Moore families, 1917-1945
Box 7
Watts family, 1945-1970
Box 7
Watts family, 1970-2004
Box 7
E.R. Merrick portrait, c. 1930
Box OV2
Watts family portrait, c. 1963
Box OV2

Contains files related to Watts's career as a doctor, surgeon, and medical administrator for various private practices, hospitals, boards, and professional societies. Topics include minority healthcare, minority physicians, healthcare cost containment, national health insurance, substance abuse, and child sexual abuse. Of particular note are files related to the history of Lincoln Hospital, the establishment of the Lincoln Clinic, and to Watts's mentor, Dr. Charles Drew. Materials include budgets, planning documents, correspondence, reports, memos, pamphlets, meeting materials, printed materials, policies, grant proposals, event programs, financial statements, CVs, and notes on medical procedures. Files are grouped by the following topics and then arranged chronologically: Durham County General Hospital, Howard University, Lincoln Hospital/Clinic, North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Co., and Professional Societies and Task Forces. Files that fall outside of these groupings are arranged alphabetically at the end of the series. Some additional professional files can be found in the Personal Files Series.

Relationship with Lincoln Clinic, grants, long-range planning, 1973-1975
Box 8
Hunter, David P., 1975
Box 8
Duke Affiliation Committee, 1976
Box 8
Medical staff bylaws, safety manual, 1978-1979
Box 8
Department of Surgery memos, 1978-1979
Box 8
Bulletin, 1981
Box 8
Policies, reports, and memos, 1981-1983
Box 8
Moore, Donald T., 1991
Box 8
Associated Health Services, Inc., 1994
Box 8
Health care report, undated
Box 8
HMO research, memos, progress reports, 1974-1976
Box 8
Mutual of Omaha policy, 1975
Box 8
College of Medicine Report, 1975
Box 8
Board of Trustees, Hospital Advisory Board, 1975-1979
Box 8
Board of Trustees, 1977-1978
Box 8
Toward Equal Educational Opportunity: Affirmative Admissions Programs at Law and Medical Schools, 1978 June
Box 8
Syphax, Burke (Dr.), 1978-1995
Box 8
Pamphlets, 1980-1986
Box 8
Annual report, 1984
Box 9
Cobb, William Montague (Dr.), 1984
Box 9
Presidential Search Committee, 1989-1991
Box 9
Student Affairs Committee, 1990 Sept. 21
Box 9
Letters to Dr. Russell Miller, 1991-1992
Box 9
Hospital Board, 1992
Box 9
Medical Association meeting, 1993
Box 9
Board meetings, 1993
Box 9
Caspa Harris v. Howard University, 1996
Box 9
Self-Study Report, 1999 Feb.
Box 9
Statement to U.S. House of Representatives, 2000 Mar. 16
Box 9
Howard University Medical Alumni Association Executive Board meetings, 2001-2003
(6 folders)
Box 9
Postgraduate Clinic Symposia, 1953-1956
Box 10
Study Committee, 1956
Box 10
School of Nursing, 1956-1977, 1989
(2 folders)
Box 10
Staff, 1960-1964
Box 10
Correspondence and reports, 1960-1968
Box 10
Housing project, 1963
Box 10
Health center project, 1963-1977
Box 10
Reports, proposals, minutes, 1965-1968
Box 10
History, 1965-1999, with copy of 1899 letter
(7 folders)
Box 10
Trustee materials, correspondence, clippings, 1966-1968
(2 folders)
Box 10
Community health center proposal, 1970
(2 folders)
Box 10
Planning, correspondence, 1970-1980
Box 11
Board minutes, reports, correspondence, 1971-1977, 1994
Box 11
Progress report, 1972
Box 11
Reports, memos, schedules, 1973-1979
(2 folders)
Box 11
Annual public meeting, 1975 Apr. 13
Box 11
Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 1980
Box 11
Lincoln Apartments financial reports, 1982-1990, 1999-2003
(2 folders)
Box 11
Report by Rudolph S. Jackson, 1986
Box 11
Grant support, 1987
Box 11
Hospital governing board conference 1989 July 15
Box 11
Continuation request, 1993
Box 11
Board materials, lease, bylaws, speech, 1994
Box 11
Pamphlets, 1958 and undated
Box 12
The Weekly Review, 1960 Jan. 15
Box 12
Report on kidney disease, 1970
Box 12
Clippings, correspondence, speeches, event programs, 1966-2000
(5 folders)
Box 12
Financial reports, minutes, evaluations, 1974-1975
Box 12
Substance abuse research, 1974-1980
(2 folders)
Box 12
Atlanta University Center, 1978
Box 12
Wheeler, John Hervey, 1978 Oct. 28
Box 12
Life Insurers Conference response to Elizabeth Laporte Report, 1979 Mar. 9
Box 12
Speeches, North Carolina Mutual history, reports, 1983-1988
(2 folders)
Box 12
Spaulding, Asa T., 1986
Box 12
Medical Department, 1985-1987
(2 folders)
Box 13
Smoking cessation project, 1985-1998
(3 folders)
Box 13
Founders Day, 1987-1996
(3 folders)
Box 13
The Whetstone, 1986, 1988, 1997
Box 13
Board materials, 1990-1996
(3 folders)
Box 13
Luncheon for Dr. Kenneth Olden, 1991 Oct. 23
Box 13
Massey invitation, 2000-2001
Box 13
Congressional Black Caucus, undated
Box 13
Alpha Omega Alpha, 1983-1984, 2003
Box 13
American Cancer Society, 1993
Box 13
American Board of Surgery, 1949-1965
Box 13
American College of Surgeons, 1954-2002
(2 folders)
Box 13
American Medical Association, 1976-1983
(2 folders)
Box 14
American Society for Microbiology, 1998 May 18
Box 14
Directories and rosters, c. 1976
Box 14
Durham Academy of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy, 1990
Box 14
Durham-Orange County Medical Society, 1974-1984
(4 folders)
Box 14
Institute of Medicine, 1978-2003
(4 folders)
Box 14
HMO Task Force, 1974-1976
Box 14
Healthcare cost materials, 1979-1986
(2 folders)
Box 15
National Medical Association, 1977-1991
(3 folders)
Box 15
North Carolina Central University Nursing Program Advisory Board, 1984-1992
(2 folders)
Box 15
North Carolina Health Insurance Advisory Board, 1963-1979
(2 folders)
Box 15
North Carolina Medical Society, 1975-1990
(2 folders)
Box 15
Medicaid Cost Containment Commission, 1977-1978
Box 15
Minority Cancer Control Research Advisory Board, 1991
Box 15
Old North State Medical Society, 1960-1988
(2 folders)
Box 15
Society of Black Academic Surgeons, 1989-1991
(3 folders)
Box 16
Triangle Hospice Steering Committee, 1992-1993
Box 16
UNC School of Public Health Board of Advisors, 1986-1987
(2 folders)
Box 16
Birchett, Mark G., undated
Box 16
Capital Health Systems Agency, 1974-1979
(5 of 7 folders)
Box 16
Capital Health Systems Agency, 1974-1979
(2 of 7 folders)
Box 17
Carr Agyapong, D., 1995
Box 17
Citron, David S., 1980
Box 17
CVs, 1977-1993
Box 17
Drew, Charles (Dr.): speeches, events, research, articles, 1945-2001
(6 folders)
Box 17
Drew, Charles (Dr.): Watts oral history transcript for American Red Cross project, 2001-2002
Box 17
Drug Enforcement Administration registration, 1981-1992
Box 17
Duke University Medical Center, 1976-1984
(2 folders)
Box 17
Durham Ambulatory Surgical Center, 1984-1993
(5 folders)
Box 18
Malpractice suit, 1973-1974
Box 18
Medical Associates, Inc., 1964, 1986-1987, 2000
(3 folders)
Box 18
North Carolina hospital discharge data, 2000 June
Box 18
Notes, lectures, and articles on surgical procedures, 1953-1994
(8 of 20 folders)
Box 18
Notes, lectures, and articles on surgical procedures, 1953-1994
(12 of 20 folders)
Box 19
Residency records, 1945-1949
Box 19
Spellman, Mitchell (Dr.), 1970-1974
Box 19
Stead, Eugene Jr. (Dr.), 1999
Box 19
Swift, LeRoy, 1982
Box 19

Contains medical records with personally-identifiable information separated from the rest of the collection. Of particular note is a record of surgeries performed by Dr. Watts, beginning with his residency in 1945. Folders reflect the title of the parallel folder in the main collection from which the records were pulled.

[Medical records are currently closed to use. Please contact a reference archivist for information regarding access to these materials.]

Surgical record, 1945-1968
Box 20
Surgical record for American College of Surgeons, 1954
Box 20
Lincoln Hospital staff, 1960-1964
Box 20
Lincoln Hospital correspondence and reports, 1960-1968
Box 20
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, 1978
Box 20
Diverticular disease, 1980
Box 20

Oversize Material

Miscellaneous
Oversize Folder 1

Historical Note

Born in Atlanta, Georgia on September 21, 1917, Charles DeWitt Watts was a pioneering African American surgeon. Watts graduated from Morehouse College with a degree in mathematics in 1938. He received his medical degree in 1943 from Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C., where he was mentored by Dr. Charles R. Drew, a pioneer of blood collection and plasma processing. Watts completed his surgical training at Freedman's Hospital in Washington, D.C. from 1943-1948 and worked at Howard as instructor of surgery and director of the cancer clinic from 1948-1949.

In 1945, Watts married Constance Merrick Watts, the granddaughter of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company founders, John Merrick and Dr. A.M. Moore. They had four children. In 1950, the Watts family returned to Constance's hometown of Durham, North Carolina, where Watts set up a private practice and joined the staff of Lincoln Hospital. He was the first African American to be certified by a surgical specialty board in North Carolina. During his medical career, he served as Director of Student Health at North Carolina Central University (1952-1960), Chief of Surgery at Lincoln Hospital (1965-1976), Attending Surgeon at Watts Hospital (1968-1976) and Durham County General Hospital (1976-1987), and Adjunct Clinical Professor of Surgery at Duke. He retired from private practice in 1988 but continued to consult and teach.

Watts worked for civil rights and quality medical care for Durham residents. He was one of the founders and served on the Board of Durham County General Hospital (now Durham Regional Hospital), the first desegregated hospital in Durham. When Lincoln Hospital closed its doors after the opening of Durham Regional, Watts was instrumental in turning it into the Lincoln Community Health Center, an outpatient clinic dedicated to serving Durham residents regardless of income; he served as its first Medical Director for a year until Dr. Evie Schmidt was hired as its permanent head. Watts also served as Vice-President and Medical Director of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company from 1960-1988. From 1978-1993, he was a trustee of Howard University, where he oversaw the university's medical enterprise and engineered the Board's governance reform. In 2002, Duke University Medical School created the Charles Watts Travel Award to help fund faculty and student travel to study culturally specific issues. Charles DeWitt Watts passed away in Durham on July 12, 2004 at the age of 86.

Subject Headings

Related Material

  • Lincoln Hospital Records, (David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University)
  • North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives, (David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University)

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Charles DeWitt Watts Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University

Provenance

The Charles DeWitt Watts Papers were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library as a gift in 2005, 2008, and 2013.

Processing Information

Processed by Meghan Lyon and Elizabeth Shesko, December 2008 and April 2011.

Encoded by Meghan Lyon, Paula Jeannet Mangiafico, and Elizabeth Shesko, December 2008 and April 2011.

Accessions 2005-0050, 2008-0312, and 2013-0170 were merged into one collection, described in this finding aid.

Finding aid updated to include addition by Alice Poffinberger, February 2014.

Descriptive sources and standards used to create this inventory: DACS, EAD, NCEAD guidelines, and our local Style Guide.

This finding aid is NCEAD compliant.