As one of the largest advertising history collections in the world, the Hartman Center has built a reputation for its resources documenting advertising, sales and marketing. The Center maintains the records of several advertising agencies and trade organizations, the professional papers of a number of marketing executives, collections of advertising ephemera created by private collectors, and a growing library of related books and periodicals. Information about advertising and tobacco is contained throughout many of our collections and identified in the following guide. For more information, many of the Hartman Center finding aids are searchable on the web.
The Rubenstein Library holds a large number of books and pamphlets on tobacco's natural history, marketing and consumption as well as the papers of several tobacco plantations and growers. Tips for searching these more general documents may be found using the Additional Searching Information found at the end of this pathfinder.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Account Files Collection, 1885-1987
Material in this collection includes reports, memoranda, and printed material related to various clients of JWT. Tobacco clients include Liggett and Myers, American Tobacco, Lorillard, and the General Cigar Co. (which had the White Owl brand). Information on Liggett and Myers, dating between 1961-1979, includes a research report on “Lark and the Menthol Market” from 1966. Box 12 also includes information on a 1941 dance contest sponsored by Lorillard.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Advertising Vertical Files, 1950-1994
This collection contains subject files on a wide variety of advertising topics, and is primarily comprised of news clippings, articles and pamphlets. Tobacco-related material is found in three boxes: Box 13 provides information on advertising expenditures; Box 19 covers laws and regulations related to advertising; and, Box 31 includes articles on types of tobacco advertising.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Sidney Ralph Bernstein Company History Files, 1873 – 1964
In 1963, Sidney Ralph Bernstein, editor of Advertising Age, was tapped to write a history of the J. Walter Thompson Company. The collection contains research conducted by Bernstein for this history. Box 6 holds information on Liggett and Myers, including news briefs and internal company correspondence concerning the appointment of Compton Advertising, Inc. as the Company’s new ad agency. (access to some portions of the Sidney R. Bernstein Company Historical Files is restricted, and is clearly noted in the finding aid.)
J. Walter Thompson Company. John F. Devine Papers, 1952 – 1974
This collection focuses on John F. Devine’s activities first as administrator of the Radio/Television Department and then as a corporate executive in the New York office of JWT. The Clients Subseries includes information relating to specific tobacco-related programs and commercials, especially radio programming for General Cigar, Inc. Box 2 in this subseries documents General Cigar’s advertising strategy for Yankees baseball, and box 14 contains information on Liggett and Myers.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Domestic Advertisements Collection, 1875-2001
The Domestic Ads Collection consists of print advertisements, including magazine and newspaper clippings, negatives and a select number of outdoor advertising pieces. There are numerous ads for the White Owl Cigar Company from the late 1930s. Liggett and Myers is well represented; additionally, in box BB2, ads for Brown & Williamson (ca. 1977) are available.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Wallace W. Elton Papers, 1909 – 1990
This collection traces the career of Wallace Elton, an advertising executive and member of various advertising organizations, including the National Society of Art Directors, and the New York Art Director’s Club. Box 16 of the Client Series has two folders on the Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company, dated 1962 – 1963. These folders contain an assortment of items, but a main focus is the introduction of a new brand of cigarettes for Liggett and Myers. The second folder is similarly varied in contents. Memos and letters make up the majority of items, but the subject matter of these materials is less focused. The new "Lark" brand of cigarettes continues to be a focus, but there are also items addressing medical implications for cigarettes and advertising to young people, including teens and college students.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Howard Henderson Papers, 1867 – 1978
The Howard Henderson Papers document Henderson’s trajectory as an employee in the J. Walter Thompson Company, ultimately rising to the rank of Vice President. This collection includes several boxes relevant to tobacco marketing. The primary focus is Howard Henderson’s relationship with the General Cigar Company (boxes 4, 6 and 11). Box 4, in particular, provides insight concerning tobacco marketing via radio programming and includes correspondence between Henderson and radio news broadcasters Raymond Swing and Raymond Clapper (both Swing and Clapper anchored a news program for White Owl Radio in the 1940s). Copies of Raymond Swing’s news transcripts, as well as advertising scripts for Swing’s show, are available on JWT 16mm microfilm reels #175 and 176.
J. Walter Thompson Company. International Advertisements Collection, 1920s – 1990s
This collection provides examples of JWT’s numerous international print advertising campaigns, with some transparencies and photocopies of ads. Myriad tobacco-related products are available in this collection, especially in the Asia/Pacific Series, the Europe Series, the Latin American Series, and the Canada Series. The Asia/Pacific Series include examples of British and American Tobacco brand ads at a 1990 golf tournament and the 1984 Olympics.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Don Johnston Papers, 1964-1996
This collections documents Johnston’s career in various positions within JWT. Box 22 holds Don Johnston’s preparation notes for a meeting with R.J. Reynolds in 1980, well as a follow-up description of the meeting. Included are: information about R.J. Reynolds marketing strategies, JWT’s dealings with the company, and future action required based on regions in which Reynolds does business.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Bertram Metter Papers, 1908-2000
Creative Supervisor and Creative Director Bert Metter’s campaigns include those for cigarettes. The files in Box 10 cover many aspects of the marketing and production of the Eve cigarette brand, including the results of a recall of advertisements, copy (slogans) for the cigarettes, and several print ads for the brand. Box 12 contains significantly less information; however, the files here pertain to a proposal for a new “Health Lark” cigarette brand and marketing plans in several major cities.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Review Board Records, 1947-1976
Senior-level creative, account, and management personnel composed the Review Board. It provided guidance to account teams, which were assigned to manage advertising for particular clients, and ensured that client campaigns reflected the cumulative wisdom of the Company's most experienced employees. These records cover review board reports for a number of Liggett and Myers brands. These reports include: the meeting’s purpose, up to date marketing information, analysis of current advertising, sales trends for both the brand and competitive brands, and conclusions/recommendations for the future of the brand.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Dan Seymour Papers, 1951-1974
Dan Seymour began at JWT as Director of the Radio-Television Department, and progressed to Chairman of the Board in 1974. The tobacco-related documents in this collection date from the 1950s – 1960s. Contained here are marketing research and materials pertaining to the Liggett and Myers company. The Review Board files of Box 20 have a wealth of information on the long-term trends of marketing and illustrate the importance of brand identification. Boxes 40 and 41 contain a wide range of information including television commercial scripts, marketing strategies, well-documented sales figures and trends, and surveys and reports from a number of focus groups. Another point of particular interest can be found in box 41, outlining Liggett and Myers company’s marketing strategy in the wake of the Readers Digest article “Cancer by the carton,” (one of the first reports of the dangerous health effects of cigarettes).
J. Walter Thompson Company. Thomas Sutton Papers, 1965-1975
Thomas Sutton played a major role in JWT's international expansion and the establishment of global advertising markets. Correspondence and reports found in the Central and South American Office Files Series includes information on Liggett and Myers marketing in those areas.
J. Walter Thompson Company. Writings and Speeches, 1912-2000
These files consist primarily of speeches delivered by prominent JWT executives, spanning the years 1912 – 2000. Tobacco-related information is found within boxes 15 and 51. Box 15, in particular, includes a speech on the Potential Market for Wines and Cigars (1947).
Bates Worldwide, Inc. Records, 1934-2004
Bates Worldwide advertising agency ( "Bates" ) was established in 1940 by former executives of the Benton & Bowles agency. It grew to become one of the largest agencies in the U.S., until its closure in 2003. Eight separate series within this collection have information pertaining to tobacco marketing and advertising. The Client Files Series includes the global operations of marketing Brown & Williamson Tobacco brands in the latter part of the 20th century. Bates constructed marketing campaigns in mostly European markets, with this series focusing on the company’s merchandizing efforts and expanding the Brown & Williamson brands to non-tobacco related products.
The Clients Subseries of the Corporate Communications Department Series is of particular value. Box CC21 contains clippings, correspondence and articles from the 1980s through 2001, primarily generated by health organizations, news agencies, and the Brown & Williamson company itself. The Print Advertisement Subseries, within the Creative Department Series, dates between 1997-2002, and contains what individual offices within the Bates Worldwide Corporation considered to be their best work and submitted in competition within the company. Each file contains ‘Best of Bates’ contest entry forms and corresponding advertisements; these advertisements are constructed around the central tenet of the Bates Worldwide Corporation in that each ad presents an unique message for the brands advertised. These include British American Tobacco (BAT), their Lucky Strike brand, and Camel cigarettes.
D’Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB &B) Archives, 1929 – 1995
This collection documents the advertising agency records of three major ad agencies: D’Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB&B), Benton & Bowles (B&B), and D’Arcy-MacManus & Masius. Information relevant to tobacco advertising is available in the Benton & Bowles Series, the Advertisements Series and the Audiovisual Materials Series. In box 107 of the Advertisements Series is information regarding the placement of advertisements for Philip Morris in consumer and trade magazines. Other tobacco brands and corporations represented include: Pinkerton Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company, the Cigar Institute of America, Lorillard, and Kent. Audiovisual Materials are closed until reformatted for use.
Gotham, Inc. Records, 1973-1996
This collection contains primarily videotapes of commercials produced from 1973-1996 for Gotham’s clients. Tobacco related material is found primarily in the printed advertisements section (boxes 133-134), with a few ads for Lucky Strike, Carlton, Crown’s of London, Malibu and Misty cigarettes. A paper finding aid is available in the Reading Room.
Warwick Baker O’Neill Records, 1931-2001
The records of this New York based advertising agency collection contain television and radio advertisement storyboards (dated 1973-1987). Tobacco related storyboards are available for US Tobacco smokeless tobacco brands Skoal, Copenhagen, and House of Windsor Cigars. (Boxes 78 & 79).
Wells, Rich Greene
Founded by Mary Wells in 1966, this agency gained fame with its work for clients such as Braniff Airlines, Alka Seltzer, and New York State (“I Love NY”). Their work for Philip Morris dates from the late 1960s to 1990. Philip Morris is found in boxes 36 – 46 and 83-84. A paper finding aid is available in the Reading Room for further information.
John F. Hogan Papers, 1928-1992
John F. Hogan was a prominent advertising executive responsible for placing ads in conspicuous places, such as on the sides of buses. His papers span the years 1928 – 1992. Examples of car card advertisements for Winston Cigarettes may be found in the Oversize Materials subsection, folder 1.
David B. McCall Papers, 1939 – 1999
David B. McCall was an advertising executive and humanitarian who is recognized as the creator of the children’s educational television series, Schoolhouse Rock. Concerning tobacco, the David B. McCall Papers focus on the “tobacco advertising controversy” of the late 1980s. Box 6 of the papers contains excerpts from the House of Representatives investigation into tobacco use in the United States, including their final report on said investigation entitled “Tobacco Use in America.” Of particular interest is the investigation concerning product placement of tobacco brands in popular films, including Superman II and Licence to Kill. Box 24 includes several transcripts of “Up in Smoke: the Great Cigarette Debate,” a speech delivered by David McCall on several occasions between 1986 and 1989.
Garrett Orr Papers, circa 1873 – 1994
This collection traces the artistic output of Garrett Orr, a prolific graphic artist and billboard designer, and a director with Outdoor Advertising, Inc. Box 36 consists of billboard and poster designs for several major brands of cigarettes, such as Chesterfields and Lucky Strikes, as well as designs for smaller cigarette manufacturers (including Salem and L & M). Thematic elements vary by brand. The designs for Chesterfields, for instance, tout the advertising slogan “can’t draw anything but Kings” in conjunction with colorful, cartoon-style imagery. The ad designs for Salem are photographic.
Ben Rosen Papers, 1936-2006
Ben Rosen is an American graphic designer and visual communications consultant. Two series within this collection pertain to entirely different aspects of tobacco marketing. The Client Files Series (Box 32 & 33) focuses on the corporate and visual identity of Philip Morris, which Rosen helped develop. Of particular interest in this series are the publications “Alfred E. Lynn 80th Birthday Book (1966)” and “Tribute to Johnny Roventini (Philip Morris’ Bellboy Icon)”; these books illustrate a history of their influence in the Philip Morris Tobacco Company. “This is Philip Morris” (Box 32) illustrates the company’s desire to resell their image and history in light of health concerns brought up in the early 1960’s. Boxes 45-49 of this series, and boxes 64, 65 and 67 of the Photographic Materials Series all contain concepts for new packaging for Philip Morris Brands. These boxes contain slides showing logo designs and constructed concept packs for the company.
Howard Scott Papers, 1921 – 1984
Howard Scott was among the most notable graphic artists working in the outdoor advertising industry between the 1930s and the 1950s. Tobacco-related material is found within the Photographs Series (especially box 2) and the Graphic Design, Artwork and Sketches Series. Of particular interest are billboard and poster designs for Chesterfield cigarettes, located in Box 4 and oversize folder 1 of the Graphic Designs Series. Box 4 and oversize folder 4 of this series also contain billboard and poster designs for Old Gold cigarettes dated between the 1940s and 1950s.
Sheldon B. Sosna Papers, 1922-2005
Sosna was an advertising executive and consultant. His tobacco related material is found primarily in the Advertisements Series. Items include original page proofs, newspaper and magazine clippings, as well as concept sketches for client advertisements. Key clients represented are: American Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers, U.S. Tobacco Company, and Tennyson Menthol (Box 5). Box OV1 contains more clippings and proofs for brands such as Silva Thins (promoting low tar and nicotine cigarettes).
Walter Weir Papers, 1909-1996
These papers document the career of Weir, who was involved in advertising, marketing, consulting and teaching. Weir outlines his own concept for a new cigarette brand aimed at the ‘young adult’ market. Though this concept, dated 1976, never reached fruition, the marketing research and methodology is extremely detailed and well organized. (Box 3)
American Association of Advertising Agencies Records, 1918 – 1998
The American Association of Advertising Agencies, established in 1917, is the country’s primary industry trade organization. The Member Biographical Card Series includes two boxes of interest: VF 18 and VF 22. Box VF 18 contains documents detailing complaints from the American Tobacco Company in response to the 1969 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) charge, which characterized the Company’s ads as “false, misleading, and deceptive.” Specific files include the FTC’s official charge, American Tobacco’s response and the FTC’s rebuttal. Box VF 22 includes documents pertaining to the 1971 FTC accusation that the Habana Cigar Company published misleading statements concerning the Company’s business objectives.
Duplex Advertising Company. Billboard Images and Records, 1964-1993
This collection documents the work of an outdoor advertising company operating in central Texas. Marlboro advertisements constitute almost all tobacco advertising work, all of which are from the “Marlboro Country” ad campaign. The Slide and Negative Series (Boxes 10, 11 and 12) are especially well organized and provide images of various campaigns, in addition to Marlboro.
Landmann Company Cigar Label Artwork, ca. 1920-1938
Original color artwork created by the Paul I. Landmann Kunstgesellschaft for cigar packaging and labels in Germany during the interwar period. Over 100 brands are represented. These items display a range of printing techniques, including lithography and pen and ink.
Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company Records, 1908 -1980
Founded in 1873 in Durham, NC, Liggett and Myers became a major force in the tobacco industry in the early part of the 20th century. This collection consists primarily of advertisements for various Liggett and Myers tobacco products such as Chesterfield, Fatima and Piedmont cigarettes, ca. 1910 - 1950’s, as well as advertisements for competitors during the 1970’s. Accession 1999-0366 covers Fatima and Chesterfield Brand Advertisements dated between 1908 and 1955, as well as competitive advertisements (such as Camel and Marlboro) dated in the 1970’s. Accession 2000-0126 includes radio and television scripts, company ledgers (recording profits and brand growth), and more examples of advertising for many Liggett and Myers brands.
Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library, 1891-1994
This collection consists of images dating from 1891 through the 1990’s, the bulk of which dates from the 1950’s onward. The collection is organized by product and also by brand. Box TP9 covers tobacco brands Basic - Kent; Box TP10 covers Kent – Winston.
Richard Pollay Tobacco Advertising and Information Collection, 1900-1990
This collection, created by Professor Richard Pollay of the UBC Business School, includes slide and print copies of cigarette advertisements; corporate and government documents acquired by Pollay as an expert witness in tobacco litigation, along with the court records of his testimony and depositions; published reports from the Federal Trade Commission and tobacco-related corporations like Philip Morris; and cigarette promotional materials including T-shirts, cigarette packages and premium items, among other items. Access to some items is restricted. The Reference Archivist will be able to provide more detailed access information to this collection.
Sauer, Farrell & Co. Records, 1870-1937
Suffield, CT during the late 19th – early 20th centuries was the site of the coutnry’s first cigar factory, which opened in 1810 after its owners hired a Cuban to teach its workers how to roll tobacco. Although not much is known about Sauer, Farrell & Co. in particular, its involvement in cigar manufacturing and selling appears to reflect the general activities of Suffield cigar factories. This collection contains ledgers, account book, and other ephemera related to the sale and purchase of cigars by the company. Of particular interest is a specimen book of sample cigar labels created around 1878.
Strobridge Lithographing Company Advertisements, 1910-1954
The material in this collection documents much of this Cincinnati-based company’s poster advertising during the first half of the 20th century. The bulk of tobacco related images in this collection pertain to Camel Cigarettes but also encompass several other brands. These are located in boxes 3 and 4.
The Tobacco Advertisements Collection, 1942-1969
This small collection contains about 160 print tobacco advertisements, with most originating from the The State, a North Carolina Publication. Many of the ads are for Chesterfield or Camel cigarettes and feature testimonial endorsements by radio, television, and other celebrities.
British-American Tobacco Company Records, 1842-1929
The British-American Tobacco Company began in 1902 through an agreement between the Imperial Tobacco Co. of Great Britain and its rivals, the American Tobaco Co. and its associates. British-American took over trade with those territories not reserved to Imperial or American. The collection contains 367 account books, representing teh operations of British-American in Petersburg, VA. Information on each subsidiary is contained in the finding aid. The Tobacco Collection, noted below, contains advertisements representative of many of the companies noted in this collection.
Paris Cleveland Gardner Papers, 1834 – 1976
This collection documents Gardner’s work as an attorney-examiner for the Federal Trade Commission. Box 8 includes the transcripts from interviews with individuals related to American Tobacco Company. The majority of the information related to tobacco is dated between 1941 and 1945, although some documents from the late 1940s is also available.
Paul Kwilecki Photographs and Papers, 1960-2001
A wide ranging collection of photographs and other materials related to Kwilecki's work as a photographer also include a good number of photographs and other material relating to shade tobacco workers in Decatur County, GA.
The Tobacco Collection, 1888-1927
Includes cigarette and cigar advertising trade cards of Duke Tobacco Co., Lorillard, Liggett and Myers, John Player and Sons, and various other American and British companies; tobacco advertisements by Krueger and Brown of N.Y.; and souvenir tobacco albums published by Allen & Ginter. Cards depict various persons, animals, battle scenes, and photographic views. Includes collections of inserts in the form of flags. Information on accessing this collection is only found in paper form in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library Reading Room.
W. Duke, Sons & Co.
Premiums, booklets, and other advertising devices used by tobacco manufacturers. The majority are those of W. Duke, Sons & Co., but also included are premiums of Kinney Brothers; William S. Kimball; Goodwin and Co.; and Allen and Ginter among others.
Emergence of Advertising in America (EAA)
A database of over 9,000 images dating between the 1850s – 1920s, EAA provides access to items from eleven different collections, a few of which contain tobacco advertising images. A search on the term tobacco returns images ranging from insert cards, to cigar and cigarette wrappers, to photographs of billboards, and broadsides used to advertise during the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Urban Landscape
Though not advertising in nature, this collection contains photographs of buildings and activities related to tobacco in the United States from the late 19th to mid-20th century.
Duke On-line Catalog
The Rubenstein Library holds a wealth of material on the general history of tobacco in the United States, and the marketing of tobacco around the world, including books and pamphlets. To find printed material and other collections beyond the ones listed here, a search in the on-line catalog is suggested. Advanced searching is also available, allowing you to limit the returns based upon mulitple words or phrases, or even physical location (such as Rubenstein). Suggested terms for searching:
The catalog provides the most comprehensive way of finding items holding tobacco history, manufacturing or marketing information.
Collection Descriptions (Finding Aids)
The Finding Aids contain collections of personal or corporate records which more fully described than in the catalog, and are key-word searchable. You may search on multiple terms simultaneously, such as the ones listed above.
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