The Digital Production Center (DPC) at Duke University Libraries digitizes and preserves analog audio and video formats as well as still image formats (photographic materials, books and paper and more).  DPC audio and video standards are listed below.  If you have questions or would like to propose a project, please see the general DPC webpage and contact information here.  

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Audio Digitization Standards 

Audio Digitization Equipment

Video Digitization Standards 

Video Digitization Equipment

 

Audio Digitization Standards

Audio Preservation Master SpecificationsExplanation of Terms and AcronymsFile Format: Broadcast wave (.wav or .bwf)File formatCompression:  UncompressedNo data lossAudio Bit Depth: 24-bitnumber of bits recorded for each sampleAudio Sampling Rate:  96 kHz Kilohertz, 1 kilohertz = 1000 hertz of frequencyAudio Channels: Stereo  

Distinct left and right channels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Audio Derivative SpecificationsExplanation of Terms and AcronymsFile Format: MPEG-3 (.mp3)File formatCompression: Lossy  Data loss, necessary for smaller file sizeAudio Bit Rate: 128 Kbps Kilobits per second. 1 kilobit = 1000 bitsAudio Channels: MonoIdentical left and right channels

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: The above specifications are for digitizing analog media. 

When preserving content from a digital source, our goal is to maintain the specifications of the digital content, whether they are high or low, so there is no generation loss, up-converting, or any alteration of the original digital content.  This necessitates a signal path which is digital > digital, as opposed to digital > analog > digital.

Audio Equipment

Audio CPU:

  • Dell Precision T-1650
  • Processor: 3.5 Ghz Intel Xeon E3-1270 v2
  • Memory: 16 GB
  • Graphics: Nividia Quadro 2000
  • Storage: 3 TB
  • 4B) Audio Software
  • Adobe Audition CS5.5
  • 4C) Audio Interface
  • Edirol UA-101 
  • 24-bit/96kHz
  • 10 inputs (2 digital)
  • 10 outputs (includes monitor outs)

 

Audio Signal Balancing and Routing:

  • Henry Engineering Matchbox HD Stereo Interface Amplifier (2) 
  • Coleman Audio MS6 Audio Switcher

 

Audio Monitoring

  • M-Audio BX5 Powered Monitor Speakers
  • AKG K100 Headphones

 

Audio Input Decks

Otari MX-5050 Open Reel DeckSupported Formats:

  • ¼" tape 
  • Runs at 3 ¾ or 7 ½ ips
  • Quarter-track (2 stereo “sides” or 4 mono tracks)
  • Can play 5” or 7” reels (Can play 10.5” reels with NAB Hub Adaptors)

Technics 1200 Direct Drive TurntableSupported Formats: 33/45 rpm (can be modified to also play 78 rpm records)Nakamichi “Dragon” Cassette DeckSupported Formats:

  • Auto azimuth adjustment
  • Tape type & bias adjustment

Marantz PMD350 Cassette Deck / CD PlayerMarantz PMD430 Portable Cassette DeckTascam DA-P1 DAT MachineSony M-650V Microcassette Recorder

 

 

Video Digitization Standards

Video Preservation SpecificationsExplanation of Terms and AcronymsFile Format: QuickTime (.mov) File formatCompression:  Uncompressed**No data lossVideo Bit Depth: 10-bit Number of bits used to display color of a single pixelVideo Bit Rate:  225 MbpsMegabits per second, 1 megabit = 1,000,000 bitsVideo Width: 720 pixels  Number of horizontal pixelsVideo Height: 486 pixels Number of vertical pixelsVideo Frame Rate: 29.97 fps  Frames per secondVideo Chroma Subsampling: 4:2:2  YUVY-luminence / U-blue chroma / V-red chromaVideo Standard: NTSCNational Television System CommitteeAudio Format: PCMPulse-code modulationAudio Channels: StereoDistinct left and right channelsAudio Sampling Rate: 48 kHzKilohertz, 1 kilohertz = 1000 hertz of frequencyAudio Bit Depth: 16-bit      Number of bits recorded for each audio sample

**In the case of Mini-DV, files are transferred in their native dv format instead of 10-bit uncompressed, as dv will be the highest resolution, most uncompressed version possible given the format.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Access Derivatives SpecificationsExplanation of Terms and AcronymsFile Format: MPEG-4 (.mp4)File formatCompression: LossyData loss, necessary for smaller file sizeVideo Bit Depth: 8-bit   Number of bits used to display color of a single pixelVideo Bit Rate: 2300 kbps  Kilobits per second, 1 kilobit = 1000 bitsVideo Width: 640 pixels Number of horizontal pixelsVideo Height: 480 pixelsNumber of vertical pixelsVideo Frame Rate: 29.97 fpsFrames per secondVideo Chroma Subsampling: 4:2:0  YUVY-luma/U-blue chroma/V-red chromaVideo Standard: NTSC National Television System CommitteeAudio Format: AAC  Advanced Audio CodecAudio Channels: Mono  Identical left and right channelsAudio Sampling Rate: 48 kHz    Kilohertz, 1 kilohertz = 1000 hertz of frequencyAudio Bit Rate: 160 KbpsKilobits per second. 1 kilobit = 1000 bits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: The above specifications are for digitizing analog media. 

When preserving content from a digital source, our goal is to maintain the specifications of the digital content, whether they are high or low, so there is no generation loss, up-converting, or any alteration of the original digital content.  This necessitates a signal path which is digital > digital, as opposed to digital > analog > digital.

Video Equipment

Video CPU

  • 27-inch iMacs (2)
  • Processor: 3.5 Ghz Intel Core i7
  • Memory: 32 GB 1600 MHz DDR3
  • Graphics: NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780M 4096 MB
  • Storage: 1 TB SSD (Internal), 4TB G-Drive Pro via Thunderbolt (External)

 

Video Software

  • BlackMagic Media Express
  • Compressor
  • Final Cut Pro
  • HandBrake
  • Live Capture Plus

 

Video Interface

  • BlackMagic Mini Converters (Analog > SDI) (8)
  • BlackMagic UltraStudio Express (SDI > Thunderbolt > CPU) (2)

 

Video Monitoring and Routing

  • Behringer Ultralink Pro (Audio Balancing) (2)
  • BlackMagic SmartScope Duo (Audio & Video Monitoring) (2)
  • BlackMagic  Smart VideoHub (Routing)

 

Video Input Decks

Sanyo GVR-S955Supported Tapes: NTSC VHS, SVHSPanasonic AG-W1 / Samsung SV5000WSupported Tapes: PAL, SECAM, MESECAM, PAL-M, PAL-NSony UVW-1800Supported Tapes: Betacam, Betacam SPSony BVU-950Supported Tapes: 3/4" U-MaticSony EV-S3000 NTSCSupported Tapes: Hi8Sony DCR-VX2000 NTSC HandyCamSupported Tapes: MiniDV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information Last updated: 03/19/2015