Fry, Roger. Cezanne, A Study of His Development. London: The Hogarth Press, 1927.
Published in 1927 by the Hogarth Press, Roger Fry’s monographic treatment of Cezanne was the fullest application of his formalist theory. Fry was responsible for building much of Cezanne’s reputation in the twentieth century.
The visual arts and especially painting were central to lives of many of the members of the Bloomsbury group; painters themselves, art and art criticism was a regular topic of discussion. It is this personal expertise with the act of painting that brought Roger Fry to art criticism and theory. His writings and the development of his thought were complemented by writings of fellow member Clive Bell. Together, they focused on describing what they saw in the actual paintings, the visual forms and compositional structures represented. This approach was a departure from Victorian criticism which typically emphasized a works relationship to the artist’s biography. Their new critical approach came to be known as formalism.