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Guide to the Memory Project Oral History collection, 2009-2016 | 民间记忆计划口述史

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Summary

The Memory Project Oral History collection comprises digital video recordings and written supporting documentation of interviews spanning 2009 to 2016. The interviews were conducted by filmmakers associated with the Work Station, a film studio run by Wu Wenguang in Caochangdi, Beijing, China. Memory Project interviews were conducted with Chinese people about mid-20th century rural life, primarily experiences during the Great Famine (1958-1961), but also the Land Reform and Collectivization (1949-1953), the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960), the Four Cleanups Movement (1964), and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Wu's studio in suburban Beijing, known as the Work Station, is the home for this project. More than 150 young filmmakers have joined the project, and since 2010 they have visited 246 villages in 20 provinces and interviewed more than 1,100 elderly villagers. These filmmakers, many of whom returned to their families' rural hometowns, developed new intergenerational relationships with elderly relatives. During the process of interviewing the villagers, they reconciled the official history taught in schools with each family's experiences.

Collection Details

Collection Number
RL.10171
Title
The Memory Project Oral History collection | 民间记忆计划口述史
Date
2009-2016
Extent
1464 Gigabytes
Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Collection Overview

The Memory Project Oral History collection comprises digital video recordings and written supporting documentation of interviews spanning 2009 to 2016. The interviews were conducted by filmmakers associated with the Work Station, a film studio run by Wu Wenguang in Caochangdi, Beijing, China. Memory Project interviews were conducted with Chinese people about mid-20th century rural life, primarily experiences during the Great Famine (1958-1961), but also the Land Reform and Collectivization (1949-1953), the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960), the Four Cleanups Movement (1964), and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). The interviews show regional variations in famine experiences and rural culture. They add intimate detail and humanity to the story of the deaths and starvation of millions of Chinese, providing a unique perspective on the unofficial history of the Great Famine.

Due to the geographic scope and rural focus of the Memory Project, the interviews are frequently conducted in regional dialects. In many cases, the filmmakers provided Chinese language transcripts. Many recordings are also accompanied by prose reflections written by the filmmakers, the text of which originally came from the Work Station blog or email communication between filmmakers. The notes and blogs written by the filmmakers and the interview footage preserve the fading memories of people who lived through the Great Famine, ensuring that their stories are not forgotten.

The interviews described in this collection guide are arranged geographically by Province and Village. While multiple filmmakers may have worked in a single province, in most cases, only a single filmmaker traveled to each village represented. Approximately 225, or one quarter, of the interviews and supporting documentation are described as of August 2019. These interviews include those conducted by Wu Wenguang 吴文光, Zhang Mengqi 章梦奇, Zou Xueping 邹雪平, Li Xinmin 李新民, Jia Nannan 贾楠楠, Luo Bing 罗兵, Lin Tao 林涛, Zhang Ping 张苹, Li Yushan 李雨珊, Guo Zhihua 郭志华 and Qu Yufeng 屈玉凤. Other interviews will be published incrementally as each filmmaker's material is arranged and described.

Most materials are available in Chinese. A smaller number of interview transcripts have been translated into English. Those interviews that have English translations are noted in the individual interview description below. All digital files are available online. Videos may be played directly through this collection guide while additional text documents and transcripts can be accessed clicking links next to the embedded videos in this collection guide, or directly via Duke Digital Collections at https://repository.duke.edu/dc/memoryproject/.

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[Identification of item], The Memory Project Oral History collection, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Contents of the Collection

Dongjieguan Village | 衡水市深州市杨家庄村, 2010

Dongjieguan Village is located in Shenzhou County, Hengshui City, Hebei Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Jia Nannan.

东街关村位于河北省衡水市深州市。村民的录像采访人是贾楠楠。

Wu Xiuzhe | 吴秀者, 2010

Wu Xiuzhe (b. 1934) is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Hebei Province. In this interview, Wu recalls the life during the Great Famine. Because of hunger, Wu tried wild herbs, green dates, raw eggplants and cabbage roots.

吴秀者1934年出生,是河北省衡水杨家庄村村民。在这段口述中,吴老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。当时为了填饱肚子,老人吃过野菜、青枣、生茄子、白菜疙瘩。

Xue Dajie | 薛大洁, 2010

Xue Dajie (b. 1937) is a resident of Dongjieguan Village. In this interview Xue recalls the life during the Great Famine. During that time, in order to support the elderly and the children in the family, Xue had to mill the rice and plant grass for the production team.

薛大洁1937年出生,是河北省衡水东街关村村民。在这段口述中,薛老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。当时薛老人家上有老下有小,为了有饭吃,薛老人在家里给生产队碾稻子种草。

Rui Zhan | 瑞沾, 2010

Rui Zhan (b. 1927) is a resident of Dongjieguan Village, Hebei Province. In this interview, Rui talks about the hardship during the Great Famine. With 7 kids to feed, Rui's life was very difficult back then.

瑞沾1927年出生,是河北省衡水东街关村村民。在这段口述中,瑞老人回忆了大饥荒时期的挨饿经历。当时瑞老人家里有七个孩子,生活十分艰苦。

Zheng Lanfang | 郑兰芬, 2010

Zheng Lanfen (b. 1942) is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Hebei Province. In this interview, Zheng talks about the life during the Great Famine when she was working at the production team. The food given by the production team was far from enough: everyone could only get two jins of wheat when wheat was harvested and then some other grains in the Fall. People had to find wild herbs for extra sustenance and most kids suffered from malnutrition.

郑兰芬1942年出生,是河北省衡水杨家庄村村民。在这段口述中,郑老人讲述了大饥荒时期的生活。当时郑老人在生产队干活,发的粮食根本吃不饱。收麦子时一人分二斤麦子,到秋天再发点别的粮食,不够吃就只能挖野菜,孩子都因为缺乏营养发育不良。

Yangjiazhuang Village | 深州市深州镇杨家庄村, 2010

Yangjiazhuang Village is located in Shenzhou County, Hengshui City, Hebei Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Jia Nannan.

杨家庄村位于河北省衡水市深州市。村民的录像采访人是贾楠楠。

Jia Futian | 贾福田, 2010

Jia Futian (b. 1936) was born in Changchun, Jilin Province. During the Siege of Changchun in 1947, Jia fled to Yangjiazhuang Village, Hebei Province with his family. In this interview, Jia talks about the life during the siege and their fleeing, as well as other various experiences from the Liberation to the Cultural Revolution. After the Liberation, Jia went to work in Beijing. In 1958, as a Catholic, Jia expressed his disapproval of the government's religion policies. He was therefore sent to a farm for labor reeducation and experienced the Great Famine on the farm. He was not allowed to return home until 1969. After the Tangshan Earthquake in 1976, Jia went to work in Tangshan as a migrant worker. According to Jia, the work in Tangshan was much more grueling than the farm. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

贾福田1936年出生于吉林省长春市,1947年长春围城时随家人逃难到河北省杨家庄村。在这段口述中,贾老人回忆了长春围城和逃难时的情况,以及解放后直到文革时的各种经历。解放后贾老人在北京工作。1958年,信奉天主教的贾老人因为对宗教政策不满,被发配到农场进行劳动改造,直到1969年才回家,期间经历了大饥荒艰苦的三年。1976年唐山大地震后老人去唐山充民工,据老人回忆,那段经历比在农场劳教时还要辛苦。

Jia Fuyong | 贾夫勇, 2010

Jia Fuyong (b. 1927) is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Hebei Province. In this interview, Jia talks about the life during the Japanese occupation, the Great Famine and the Cultural Revolution. The Japanese arrived in the village in 1937 and stayed for 8 years. Later Jia was forced to join the army when he was still a teenager. During the Great Famine, people ate whatever they could find. In the campaign of "Destroy the Four Olds" during the Cultural Revolution, the birth certificates of Jia's family were accidentally burned, together with books of classical literature.

贾夫勇1927年出生,是河北省衡水杨家庄村村民。在这段口述中,贾老人讲述了解放前日本人占领时的生活,以及大饥荒和文革时期的经历。日本人1937年到的村里,待了8年。贾老人十几岁就被拉去当兵。大饥荒时,村民找到什么就吃什么。文革时除四旧,烧古书时贾老人家连出生证明都给误烧了。

Jia Fukui | 贾夫奎, 2010

Jia Fukui (b. 1932)is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Shenzhou Town, Shenzhou City, Hebei Province. He is the interviewer's grandfather. In this interview, Jia remembers that his big family lacked manpower to earn work credits during the Great Famine. Back then almost no vegetables could be harvested and all the tree leaves were eaten by the hungry people. Later many people went to work on the dam because they had enough food there. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

贾夫奎1932年出生,是河北省深州市深州镇杨家庄村村民。他是采访者的爷爷。在这段口述中,贾老人回忆了大饥荒时期他的一大家人因为缺少劳动力挣工分而挨饿的经历。大饥荒时期地里都长不出菜,树上的叶子都被人吃光了。后来大家都去挖水库,因为在那里能吃饱饭。

Li Yunnu | 李允女, 2010

Li Yunnu (b. 1926) is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Shenzhou Town, Shenzhou City, Hebei Province. Her body is not well due to the past. In this interview, Li talks about the different kinds of work she did and the starvation she experienced during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李允女1926年出生,是河北省深州市深州镇杨家庄村村民。她的身体有很多过去落下的毛病。 在这段口述中,李老人讲述了大饥荒期间她干的各种活和经受的饥饿。

Liu Shuming | 刘淑明, 2010

Liu Shuming (b. 1935) is a resident of Yangjiazhuang Village, Hebei Province. In this interview, Liu talks about the life during two Great Famines around 1944 and 1958-60. She was 9 and went out begging for food with her older sister and they went to several villages without getting enough food. During the People's Commue canteen time, she had to find wild vegetables as there was still severe shortage of food.

刘淑明1935年出生,是河北省衡水杨家庄村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人讲述了1944年和1958-60年两次大饥荒时期的生活。刘老人9岁时和11岁的姐姐一起去要饭,走几个村子都吃不饱。吃食堂时,挖野菜,同样吃不饱。

Diaoyutai Village | 随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村, 2010-2016

Diaoyutai Village is located in Sui County, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zhang Mengqi.

钓鱼台村位于湖北省随州市随县殷店镇。村民的录像采访人是章梦奇。

Liu Shundong | 刘顺东, 2016
Wang Zhilan | 王志兰, 2016
Lei Desheng | 雷德胜, 2016
Lei Xianzhen | 雷险珍, 2010-2016

Lei Xianzhen (b.1945) was born in Zhuxi (Sichuan Province), and moved to Diaoyutai Village (Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province) with her husband around 1990. In this interview, Lei recalls the hardship that her family, especially the little sister, endured during the Great Famine. She also remembers that many people died of starvation. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

雷险珍(1945年生)出生于竹溪(四川省),1990年同丈夫搬到湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村。 在这段口述中, 雷老人回忆了大饥荒期间她的家人, 特别是小妹妹, 过的苦日子。她也记起那时许多人都被饿死了。

He Zongfang | 何宗芳, 2016
Lei Dayu, Wang Hongying, and Yin Zhengshan | 雷大玉, 王红英, 和 殷正山, 2012

Lei Dayu (b.1943) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. He says that people ate anything they could find during the famine. Some died if starvation in his village. He went to Zijin Mountain to build reservoir. The locals calls Zijin the 'Mountain of the Dead'. He also mentions that Ma Taishan died during the Land Reform. Ma was criticized at struggle sessions and died of illness.|Wang Hongying(b.1943) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. She says that people were so hungry during the famine that they ate anything they could find: chaff, tree bark, cotton leaves and peanut leaves. Quite a few people died of starvation.|Yin Zhengshan(b.1942) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. He recalls that 1959 is the most difficult year, people died of starvation. He also went to Zijin Mountain to build reservoir. He remembers that Ma Taishan was criticized during struggle sessions.

雷大玉(1943年生)是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。雷大玉说饥饿时什么都吃过。村里有人饿死。他到紫金山修水库, 当地人把紫金山叫做'死人山'。他提到马泰山是土改时死的。马被批斗, 后来病死。|王红英(1943年生)是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。王红英回忆饥荒时什么都吃:糠、树皮、棉花叶子、花生叶子。村里面有不少人饿死。|殷正山(1942年生)是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。殷正山说1959年情况最糟糕, 那年死的全都是饿死的。他还到紫金山修水库。他提到马泰山是土改时被批斗。

Yu Xingying and Wang Wenyou | 余兴英 和 王文友, 2012

Yu Xingying (b.1930) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. She lost her parents when she was very young. Her older brother died of starvation.|Wang Wenyou (b.1940) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. He lost his parents when he was very young. He lived with his grandmother who also passed away during the Land Reform. He received a piece of land, also herding cattle for other families. He joined the People's Commune and worked as a cook. He married Yu Xingying whose husband died. He remembers that his production team didn't suffer too much because grains were distributed in secret. He does remember that one person died of overeating.

余兴英1930年生, 是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。父母早亡。余的哥哥余兴发饿死了。|王文友1940年生, 是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。父母早亡, 跟着奶奶, 奶奶土改时也去世了, 分到了一点田, 还帮别人放牛。他入了初级社, 在公社当炊事员。余兴英的丈夫去世, 他和余兴英结婚。王说他们生产队私下分粮食所以情况较好。有一个人胀死了。

Li Guiting | 李贵庭, 2011-2012

Li Guiting(b.1933) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province, and was the only tofu maker in the village. Li talks about his family life from 1949 till end of the Cultural Revolution. Li's family didn't own land and had to beg for food. During the Land Reform, they were given some land. In 1953, the mutual aid groups were formed and food were distributed based on the work points earned by each person. In 1955 people's commune was established. And in 1956, the government started the state monopoly of grain purchase and sell. During the Great Famine, Li and his mother could only eat bran, tree leaves, tree bark & roots and wild plants while participating in the construction of dam and reservoir. The mother and son tried committing suicides by eating poisonous food because of starvation. During the Great Leap Forward, Li participated in constructing blast furnace and was injured with chronic concussion. During the Four Cleanups, Li hosted the campaign work group as he was the poorest one in the Production Team. He was then appointed as president of poor peasant association and was able to criticize the misconducts of the local cadres of the people's commune. During the Cultural Revolution, Li was criticized and over a hundred of big character posters about him were posted by other villagers. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李贵庭(1933年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 经营着村里唯一的豆腐作坊。李老人的口述贯穿土改、大饥荒、大跃进、四清运动和文革五个主题。土改以前, 李家没有田地, 全家出门要饭;土改以后才分到田地。1953年成立互助组, 按照劳动所得的工分分配粮食。1955年成立人民公社。,1956年实行粮食由国家统购统销的政策。大饥荒时期, 李老人和母亲吃糠、黄荆叶子树树叶、榔树皮、榔树根和野菜;同时自己还要参加修建田间大堰(坝)和水库。因为饥饿, 母子二人曾尝试吃有毒的食物自杀。大跃进期间, 李老人参加大炼钢铁运动并受伤得了慢性脑震荡。四清运动中, 县里来的工作组住在李老人家里, 李老人当上了贫协主席, 给公社干部提意见。文革中李老人受到批斗, 被村里人贴了一百多张大字报。

Cao Yongtai | 曹永泰, 2013

Cao Yongtai (b. 1943) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, Cao talks about the situation of Minyue Brigade (that is, today's Diaoyutai Village) during the Great Famine and recalls the villagers who died of starvation.

曹永泰1943年出生, 是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 曹永泰讲述了大饥荒时期民跃大队(即现在的钓鱼台村)的情况, 并回忆了因为饥饿逝去的村民。

Gong Jinkuan | 宫金宽, 2012

Gong Jinkuan (b. 1942) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, Gong talks about his childhood. After both of his parents passed away, Gong and his siblings went to live with different relatives scattered in different places and made a living by grazing cattle. Gong also recalls the difficult life during the Great Famine and the Cultural Revolution. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

宫金宽1942年出生, 是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 宫老人讲述了他的童年故事。父母离世后, 他们兄弟姐妹被迫四散在各处亲戚家, 靠放牛为生。此外, 宫老人也回忆了大饥荒时期挨饿的经历和文化大革命时期的情况。

Gong Zhishun | 宫志顺, 2010

Gong Zhishun (b. 1947) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, Gong talks about what the villagers ate and how they ate them during the transitional period of grains (namely, the Great Famine).

宫志顺1947年出生, 是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 宫老人回忆了粮食过渡(即大饥荒)时期吃了什么以及怎么吃。

Yu Xiantang | 余先堂, 2010

Yu Xiantang (b. 1926) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. She is one of the oldest interviewees. In this interview, Yu talks about her memory of the Great Famine, including People's Commune Canteen in 1958, people who starved to death in every production team, and her daughter-in-law who cooked chaff in the pillow. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

余先堂(1926年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 是受访的最为年长的老人之一。在这段口述中, 余老人讲述了她对大饥荒的记忆, 包括1958年的集体食堂、每个生产队上饿死了的人、还有她儿媳妇拿枕头里的糠做饭的情况。

Ding Zuxin | 丁祖鑫, 2011

Ding Zuxin (b. 1954), a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province, is the elder uncle of the interviewer, Zhang Mengqi. In this interview, Ding first talks about his experiences during the Four Cleanups. The central government dispatched work teams to local production teams to investigate local cadres of their political, financial, and private life misconducts and to encourage commune members to report them. During the Cultural Revolution, Ding was a red guard. He recalls that a student in their village went to Beijing through the Red Guard Great Exchange, that different factions of red guards were were beating, smashing, looting each other because of different political opinions about criticizing the five black categories (Landlords, Rich Peasants, Counterrevolutionaries, Bad Elements & Rightists). He also recalls that people recited Quotes from Chairman Mao when greeting each other, attending meetings of the production team, before eating meals at home, and at the beginning of a work day.

丁祖鑫(1954年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 是采访者章梦奇的大伯, 帮助章在钓鱼台村联系采访对象。丁老人主要讲述了对四清运动和文革的记忆。四清运动中, 中央下派工作队到各个生产队, 调查干部的经济政治和作风问题, 并提倡社员进行揭发, 然后对有问题的干部进行开会批斗、罢免职务、或进行刑事处罚。文革中丁老人当过红卫兵, 他讲述了村里一位学生参加串联去北京、不同红卫兵派系之间因为批判'地富反坏右'意见不一发生'打砸抢'的情况。另外, 他还回忆了文革期间熟人见面靠背诵毛主席语录互相问候, 以及生产队开会、家庭吃饭和工作之前都要背诵毛主席语录的故事。

Chen Houying | 陈厚英, 2012

Chen Houying (b. 1940) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, Chen recalls the villagers who died of starvation during the Great Famine and the hardship when building the railroads and the dams. Chen also talks about her ex-husband. Because her ex-husband's class status was not good, they were always bullied by others, and eventually she divorced him. Due to starvation and malnutrition, Chen didn't have much milk after giving birth to one of their sons. The baby died of starvation in less than six months.

陈厚英1940年出生, 是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 陈老人回忆了大饥荒时期被饿死的村民, 以及修铁路和修水利的艰苦经历。陈老人的前夫成分不好, 俩人经常被别人欺负, 她最终与他离婚。她还回忆到与前夫所生的一个儿子, 因为饥饿营养不良, 陈老人没有奶水, 不到半岁的儿子因此饿死。

Guo Chuanfu | 郭传付, 2010

Guo Chuanfu (b. 1945) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Guo's older brother, who was murdered before the Land Reform, left huge debt and three daughters. Guo raised his three nieces while remained single. In this interview, Guo talks about eating bran, peanut leaves, cotton leaves, soy leaves and wild plants for survival during the Great Famine. He also recalls that his older cousin starved to death in 1959 while his cousin's wife went out begging for food. Guo recalls that farmers were starving with no food due to the state monopoly of grain purchase.

郭传付(1926年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。郭老人的大哥土改前被谋害, 留下巨债和三个女儿;郭老人终生未娶, 独自把侄女们抚养成人。在这段口述中, 他回忆了自己大饥荒时期吃糠、花生叶、棉花叶、黄豆叶、野菜等果腹, 以及家族里的大堂嫂外出要饭、大堂哥在家饿死(1959年)的情况。老人回忆说农民家里没粮挨饿, 是因为政府的粮站通过'统购'收走了粮食。

Zhu Shunlian | 朱顺莲, 2011

Zhu Shunlian (b. 1937) was born in Zhushan County, Shiyan City, Hubei Province, and moved to Diaoyutai Village (Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province) in 1988. Her husband was once the production team leader. In this interview, Zhu recalls that she and her husband worked at Zhushan mine and ate at the People's Commune canteen in 1959. The food available in the canteen and households included buckwheat, corn flour, grass root, rice chaff, tree leaves, chingma abutilon seed and wild walnut, as well as a mixture made of soy milk, pumpkin leaves, string bean leaves, potato leaves and wild plants. Zhu also remembers that some people from Sichuan escaped to Hubei because of the famine.

朱顺莲(1937年生)出生于湖北省十堰市竹山县, 1988年搬迁到湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村。朱老人的丈夫年轻时当过生产队长。在这段口述中, 朱老人讲述了自己和丈夫59年跟随生产队在竹山矿场劳动和吃食堂的故事。当地人在集体食堂和家里吃花荞、苞谷面、草头木根、花米糠、桐柏树叶子、茼麻籽和野核桃, 以及在家用黄豆豆浆、南瓜叶子、四季豆叶子、土豆叶子、野菜打锅渣吃。另外, 朱老人还回忆有四川人逃荒到湖北。

Xia Changying | 夏常英, 2012

Xia Changying (b. 1946) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Her father died when she was eight, and her mother died when she was thirteen. Since 1959 he and her four sisters suffered from constipation because of eating chaff. They also ate water elm bark and water grass. Zijin Mountain was called 'Mountain of the Dead' because many people, who worked on mines there for constructing blast furnace, died there. In 1964, when the Four Cleanups began, Xia married to a man in Minyue production team. She and the local people participated in reservoir construction during the daytime, and in criticizing those who hadn't cleaned up their reactionary elements at night. She specifically mentioned how Li, who was selected as the president of poor peasant association, lied to criticize other people.

夏常英(1946年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 8岁时父亲去世, 13岁时母亲去世。夏老人家里姐妹五人, 1959年开始吃糠导致排便困难, 另外还吃榔树皮和水草。当地人把紫金山叫做'死人山',因为为了炼钢铁去那里挖矿的人很多都死在那里。四清运动开始的1964年, 夏常英嫁到民跃大队。白天参加水库建设, 晚上开会批斗'四不清'。她特别提到队里的李**被工作组选为贫协主席, 开会时说假话批斗'四不清'。

He Gaoshan | 何高山, 2013

He Gaoshan (b. 1936) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, He recalls his difficult life as well as his experience during the Land Reform, the Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine. His parents passed away when he was young, and all of his brothers also died of starvation due to poverty. His original family name was Yu, but it was changed to He after he was sold to the He family by his uncle and left his hometown. However, his life was still very difficult. During the Great Famine, He saw the wife of a production team leader who was working outside hung herself because of hunger.

何高山1936年出生, 是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 何老人回忆了自己辛酸的一生以及土改、大跃进、大饥荒时的情况。何老人从小父母双亡, 兄弟也都因为贫穷饿死了。他原本姓余, 后来被舅舅卖给了何家, 从此离开老家, 但生活仍十分艰苦。大饥荒期间, 何老人看见一个队长出工干活, 老婆在家饿得吊死。

Chen Xinmin | 陈新民, 2012

Chen Xinmin (b.1943) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. The Great Famine, according to him, was because the central government in 1959 encouraged people to 'tighten their belts' in order to pay off the debt to Soviet Union, the local cadres exaggerated about the grain production for their political achievements, and they made unfair allocation of the grain. Chen talks about how several fellow villagers starved to death, including the controversy over whether Ma Zhengyi died of starvation or of overeating. Chen described in detail about the Four Cleanups movement based on his own experience of being criticized and writing self criticism. Chen was found as 'clean' by the movement, so he became a cadre in the production team at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. In 1968-1969, he was the director of the Revolution Committee. Chen says that the Revolution Committee was in charge of any chaotic situation caused by beating, smashing, and looting, and his village maintained peaceful social order during the Cultural Revolution.

陈新民(1943年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。他的口述涉及大饥荒、四清运动和文革三个主题。关于大饥荒, 他解释原因是1959年中央政府提出百姓'把肚子勒一下'偿还苏联债务, 部分基层干部为了政绩虚报粮食产量, 而且对于本地存储的粮食管理分配有问题。陈老人还讲述了当地几位村民饿死的情况, 包括关于马正义是饿死还是涨死的争议。关于四清运动, 陈老人结合自己受生产队开会批斗、写检讨的经历, 详细讲述了运动发展的情况。因为运动中没有被查出问题, 文革开始后陈老人一直在生产队担任干部, 特别是1968-1969年间担任革委会主任。陈老人讲述革命委员会专门管理文革期间打砸抢的混乱局面, 他所在的乡没有出现乱局。

Liu Zhengying | 刘正英, 2012

Liu Zhengying (b. 1945) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Liu's mother died of disease when she was less than one year old, and her father raised her while remained single. This interview was co-completed by Zhang Mengqi and Liu's grandson, Zou Xue song, who was a first-year middle school student. In this interview, Liu recounts in detail how she cooked wild herbs, tree bark, plant leaves, and chaff to survive famine in 1959, and how she made sweets by barley sugar and peanuts in 1961. In 1959, when the famine was most serious, Liu went to the local leaders' conference location to stole food, which were cooked for the leaders, and then distribute them to her family and neighbors. This starving situation did not change until 1962, when People's Commune finished.

刘正英(1945年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。刘老人的母亲生下她不到一年就因病去世, 父亲独自把她抚养成人。该采访由章梦奇和被采访人的孙子——初一学生邹雪松——共同完成。在这段口述中, 刘老人详细介绍了1959年饥饿时期用于果腹的野草、树皮、植物叶子、糠等的烹饪方法, 以及1961年左右自己用大麦做糖、跟花生一起做成糖果吃的经历。1959年最为饥饿的时候, 刘老人到干部们开会吃饭的地点偷饭, 带回家给家人和邻居吃。这种饥饿的状况直到1962年人民公社食堂结束, 才稍有改变。

Liu Shunfang | 刘顺芳, 2010

Liu Shunfang (b.1948) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. She is one of the few villagers who is educated, and has three sisters. In this interview, Liu talks about her father with poor health went to build railroad in order to save food for the family. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

刘顺芳(1948年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。她是少数受过教育的村民之一, 并有三个姐妹。在这段口述中, 刘老人讲述了身体不好的父亲在饥荒期间为给家里省下口粮去修铁路的经历。

Gong Zhiqing | 宫志清, 2012

Gong Zhiqing (b. 1941) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. In this interview, Gong talks about the Great Famine. According to Gong, the cause of the famine was China's paying off the foreign debt. Gong thinks there was nothing wrong with the policies made by the higher-level government, but due to the negligence of and exaggerated harvest reports made by the local cadres, the villagers suffered a lot from the famine. Gong also talks about the life in 1959 when building the Zijin Mountain reservoir and the causes of death for those who died of starvation during that time. According to Gong, over one hundred people from Minyue Brigade (namely, Diaoyutai Village) starved to death. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

宫志清1941年出生, 是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。在这段口述中, 宫老人回忆了大饥荒时期的情况。据宫老人讲述, 当时挨饿的原因是国家还外债。宫老人认为, 上级的政策并没问题, 但当地村干部不作为, 虚报收成, 导致村民受灾挨饿, 自己却有粮食吃。宫老人还讲述了1959年去紫金山修水库的生活, 以及当年因饥饿去世的村民的死亡原因。宫老人回忆说, 当时整个民跃大队(即钓鱼台村)饿死超过一百人。

Li Xiaodong | 李小东, 2012
Wang Yifa | 王义发, 2010-2012

Wang Yifa (b. 1945) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. In 1958, Wang was a work-study student; he pastured cattles for the production team. Then people ate for free in the People's Commune Canteen, but soon the commune canteen ran out of food except chaff. Wang went to Zijin Mountain to join the railway construction project to feed himself. The local production team blew up the team's population to gain more relief grain. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

王义发(1945年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 1958年13岁的王老人一边上学一边给生产队放牛挣工分。公社食堂可以免费吃饭, 但后期食堂无粮只能吃糠, 王老人跑去紫金山参加修铁路才吃饱饭。当地生产队为了让群众吃饱饭, 虚报人数领取补助粮。

Wang Wenyu | 王文玉, 2010

Wang Wenyu (b. 1941) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. He worked for railroad and dam construction as a teenager. In this interview, Wang recalls the hardships on the construction site and in his family during the Great Famine (or what he calls 'the transitional period'). The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

王文玉(1941年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 十几岁就参加了铁路和水利修建工作。在这段口述中, 王老人回忆了大饥荒期间(或他口中的'生活过渡')工地上和家里艰难的情形。

Yang Houxin | 杨厚新, 2010

Yang Houxin (b. 1948) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. His father died before his birth, he lived with his mother and an older sister, who got married during the Great Famine. Yang and his mother fed on tree bark and wild herbs. This difficult situation did not change until the second half of 1961.

杨厚新(1948年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。杨老人出生之前父亲就已经去世, 他与母亲和一个姐姐相依为命。大饥荒时期姐姐出嫁, 杨老人与母亲吃树皮、野菜为生。这种状况直到1961年下半年才开始得到缓解。

Yao Guangxue | 姚光学, 2010

Yao Guangxue (b. 1945) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province, and lives in an old house with a hundred years of history. In this interview, Yao talks about what kind of food (tree bark, wild plants, etc.) his family ate and how they ate them to survive the Great Famine. He particularly remembers a Production Team leader called Dai Mingshan, who often peaked into their house when they were eating. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

姚光学(1945年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 现居住在一间百年老屋里。 在这段口述中, 姚老人回忆了他的家人为了在大饥荒中生存下来吃了什么(树皮, 野草等),怎么吃的。他尤其记得一个时常偷看他们家吃饭的生产队长, 戴明山。

Qiu Jiafa | 邱家发, 2010

Qiu Jiafa (b.1940) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. During the Great Famine, Qiu was in middle school and his teachers led students to find oak tree seed and bark, vitex leaves and Chinese scholar tree flowers for food. All members of the production team had to participate in building the reservoir and a meal provided by the People's Commune Canteen included only two liang of rice and boiled water grass. Qiu's father starved to death in 1959. Qiu believes that the Great Famine happened partly because the cadres much exaggerated the grain production to gain political achievements, and partly because the cadres stole some grain given by the government. Commune members of the production team dared not report because they were afraid of the vengency from the cadres.

邱家发(1940年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。大饥荒时期邱老人在上中学, 因为饥饿学校老师组织学生们去山里打橡籽、挖橡树皮、黄荆树叶和槐树花吃。全生产队都参与修水库, 每顿饭在集体食堂吃的是二两米和煮水草。邱老人的父亲1959年被饿死。老人认为饥荒的原因一是干部为了自己的政绩向上虚报产量, 二是基层干部贪污皇粮之外的'义粮'。这些情况社员们不敢向上告发是因为害怕基层干部的打击报复。

Shu Jiaqing | 蜀家清, 2012

Shu Jiaqing (b. 1934) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province, and now lives alone in a shabby house. Her husband, the company commander in Minyue Production Team, passed away more than a decade ago. In this interview, Shu recalls the day when her neighbor He Kaiguo hung himself to death due to starvation during the Great Famine. She also describes the experience of confiscation of family possessions during the Four Cleanups Movement. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

蜀家清(1934年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 现在一个人住在简陋的小屋里。她的老伴(民跃大队的连长)十多年前去世了。在这段口述中, 蜀老人回忆了大饥荒期间她的邻居何开国因为饥饿上吊自杀当天的情况。随后她还描述了四清运动中一家人被抄家的经历。

Wan Qisheng | 万启升, 2010

Wan Qisheng (b.1935) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province, and both his parents died when he was 13. Wan talks about eating water elm bark, peanut leaves, wild grass, water grass and bran during the Great Famine. Wan believes the nation had a shortage of grain reservation at this time because a lot of grain were given to the Soviet Union, and the starvation among the members of the production team was because the cadres exaggerated the grain production and collected all the grain from the farmers.

万启升(1935年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 13岁时父母双亡。万老人回忆了自己大饥荒时期吃榔树皮、花生叶子、野草、水草、糠果腹的经历。万老人认为大饥荒时期国家没有粮食是因为粮食都给了苏联, 当地生产队社员饿死是因为生产队干部虚报产量, 把粮食都从农民手中收走。

Jiang Wangying | 姜旺英, 2012

Jiang Wangying (b.1931) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. She had her younger son in 1959. In this oral history, Jiang recalls Ma Dazhu, who starved to death while building railroad in Zijin Mountain. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

姜旺英(1931年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。她在1959年生下了小儿子。在这段口述中, 姜老人回忆了在紫金山修铁路时被饿死的马大柱。

Ma Guangxue | 马光学, 2012

Ma Guangxue (b.1937) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. In 1959 when local people were most starving, Ma worked in a silkworm farm, where he was able to eat silkworm pupas to get nutrition. Like Chen Xinmin, Ma talks about how several fellow villagers starved to death, including the controversy over whether Ma Zhengyi died of starvation or of overeating. Before the Four Cleanups, Ma was in charge of recording work points of the production team members. During the Four Cleanups, leaders who misbehaved were criticized as those who hadn't cleaned up the reactionary elements. The criticism was much harsher during the Cultural revolution. Ma also briefly talks about the administration system of the production team. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

马光学(1937年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。马老人的口述涉及大饥荒、四清运动和文革三个主题。1959年最饥饿的时候, 马老人在外地的蚕场工作, 通过吃蚕蛾儿补充营养。与陈新民老人一样, 马老人也讲述了村里几位村民饿死的情况, 包括关于马正义是饿死还是涨死的争论。四清运动之前, 马老人曾经担任生产队的记分员。关于四清运动, 他解释做事不正当、不清楚的干部就是受到批判的'四不清',文革期间对干部的批斗更加严厉。另外, 马老人还简要介绍了生产队的管理体系构成

Ma Guangyun | 马光云, 2012

Ma Guangyun(b.1939) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. He recalls that a lot of people died of starvation in 1959. People even ate all the tree leaves and barks. They also ate cotton leaves and soy bean leaves, almost anything they could find. He went to work at railroad construction but was still hungry all the time. He was told that the shortage of food was because the country needed to pay back debts owed to the Soviet Union. His village suffered the most because the village party secretary refused help. They also went to build Zijinshan reservoir. They had to work on empty stomach. Many people starved to death.

马光云(1939年生)是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。他记得1959年饿死了很多人, 人们把树叶和树皮都吃光了。还吃棉花叶子、黄豆叶子, 找到什么吃什么。他去修铁路, 也吃不饱。他听说粮食短缺是因为要还苏联的债。 他的村子饿死的人多是因为他们的书记拒绝了上面的供应。他们去修紫金山水库时, 肚子饿仍然要干活, 饿死了很多人。

Ma Dagui | 马大贵, 2012

Ma Dagui(b.1934) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Hubei Province. He's single. He was given two rooms previously owned by a landlord during the Land Reform. He repeatedly says that the Great Famine was because of the difficulties China experienced. He ate things that tasted horrible. During the Cultural Revolution, he was appointed the deputy production team leader.

马大贵(1934年生)是湖北省随州市随县殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。他是个单身汉, 土改时分到了地主家的两间屋。他反复强调饥荒是因为国家有困难。他吃过非常难吃的东西。文革期间他被任命为副队长。

Zhang Mingying | 张明英, 2012

Zhang Mingying (b. 1947) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. She is the daughter-in-law of the other interviewee, Yu Xiantang. Zhang recalls that people ate chaff, tree leaves, cotton leaves, bean and peanut leaves, and water grass. Many people died in Zijin Mountain, where people worked on mines for constructing blast furnace, so the Mountain was later called 'Mountain of the Dead.' In 1959, people who stole things were humiliated in a parade around the local villages while hitting a gong by himself. Those who held disagreements against 'the transitional period' were convicted for counterrevolutionary. Zhang's younger sister was named Siqing (meaning Four Cleanups), because she was born in 1964 when the campaign started. Zhang also talks about how people were beaten at the criticizing meetings during the cultural revolution.

张明英(1947年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 是另一位受访者余先堂的儿媳妇。张老人回忆了1959年当地人吃糠、树叶子, 棉花叶子、黄豆叶子、花生叶子和水草等的情况。很多人饿死在去修水库的路上和挖矿的紫金山, 所以紫金山被称为'死人山'。1959年偷了东西的人要敲锣游乡, 对'粮食过渡'时期有不同意见的人要被打成反革命。张老人的妹妹名叫四清, 因为是四清运动开始的1964年出生。另外张老人还回忆了文革期间批斗会打人的情况。

Zhu Guangjian | 朱广建, 2010-2012

Zhu Guangjian (b. 1941) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Zhu believes that the grain shortage was because China needed to pay debt to the Soviet Union with grain. But later in the interview, he also talks about the boasting and exaggeration of grain production during 'the transitional period'. Since 1958 people could eat in the People's Commune Canteen for free. Soon the commune canteen failed to feed the people, who began to eat wild herbs, tree barks, corn leaves, water grass and chaff. In 1959 Zhu participated in the construction of Handan Railway because he could have more food there. Zhu recalls that most fellow villagers died of starvation were adults. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

朱广建(1941年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民。朱老人认为粮食缺少的的原因是国家需要集中粮食给苏联还账, 在之后的采访中他也提到了'粮食过渡'时期的浮夸风。1958年免费吃食堂, 后来食堂吃不饱人们开始吃野菜、榔树皮、青桐树皮、棉花叶子、水草和糠的情况。1959年朱老人辍学参加汉丹铁路建设, 因为能够吃得多一些。另外, 老人还回忆村里饿死的大多是成年人。

Zhou Chengyou | 周呈友, 2012

Zhou Chengyou (b. 1941) is a resident of Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. He was the leader of No. 3 production team for 20 years since he was in his twenties. Zhou believes that 'the transitional period' of grains (the Great Famine) was because China had to pay debts to foreign countries. He recalls a few people who starved to death in different production teams. Zhou described in detail about the procedure of struggle sessions during the Four Cleanups, how he was criticized as he hadn't cleaned up some reactionary elements. He argues that the Four Cleanups movement was good at the beginning, but was overdone as it developed. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

周呈友(1941年生)是湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村村民, 从二十多岁起担任第三生产队队长二十余年。周老人认为粮食过渡时期(大饥荒)的产生是因为要偿还外国债务, 另外他还回忆了各个生产队被饿死的人的情况。关于四清运动, 周老人详细讲述了批斗会的流程, 以及他本人作为'四不清'受到批斗的经历。他认为四清运动开始很好, 后来发展过火了。

Peng Kaiying | 彭开英, 2010

Peng Kaiying (b.1926) was born in Diaoyutai Village, Yindian Town, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. She worked on dam construction in Tianjiawan during the Great Famine. In this interview, Peng talks about people in her production team who starved to death at that time. She also recalls how women searched for food while building the dam. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

彭开英1926年出生于湖北省随州市殷店镇钓鱼台村. 大饥荒期间她曾在田家湾修水库。在这段口述中, 彭老人说起那时在她的生产队里饿死的人。她也回忆了修水库的妇女们是如何寻找食物的。

Xiahe Village | 随州市万店镇下河村中湾, 2016

Xiahe Village is located in Sui County, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zhang Mengqi.

下河村位于湖北省随州市随县殷店镇。村民的录像采访人是章梦奇。

He Jinxiu | 何锦绣, 2016

Yanzi River Town | 随州市岩子河乡, 2016

Yanzi River Town is located in Sui County, Suizhou City, Hubei Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zhang Mengqi.

岩子河乡位于湖北省随州市随县殷店镇。村民的录像采访人是章梦奇。

Zhang Xiufeng | 章秀峰, 2016

Heiqi Village | 永州市东安县大庙口镇黑漆村, 2016

Heiqi Village is located in Dongan County, Yangzhou City, Hunan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Luo Bing.

黑漆村位于湖南省永州市东安县大庙口镇。村民的录像采访人是张苹。

Zhu Xiaoqin | 朱晓琴, 2016
Zhang Chaomin | 张朝珉, 2016

Zhang Chaomin (b. 1933) is a resident of Heiqi Village, Damiaokou Town, Dong'an County, Hunan Province. He is the interviewer's father. In this interview, Zhang talks about his family history: the death of his mother, the working experience during his childhood, and his two previous marriages. He also recalls how he guided the troops of the Liberation Army during the bandit suppressions. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张朝珉出生于1933年,是湖南省永州东安县大庙口村黑漆村的村民。他是采访人的父亲。在这段口述中,张老人讲述了家族历史、他母亲的死、童年帮工、他的前两段婚姻选择以及他剿匪带路的经历。

Fan Chunyan | 范春燕, 2016

Fan Chunyan (b. 1939) is a resident of Heiqi Village, Damiaokou Town, Dong'an County, Hunan Province. She is the interviewer's mother. In this interview, Fan recalls about her life, her childhood experiences, her father's way of living and how most members in the Fan family died during the Land Reform. She also recalls life in the steel mill while constructing blast furnace and life in the countryside when she and her husband were sent down there because he was labeled as a rightist. She also talks about her giving birth, etc. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

范春燕出生于1939年,是湖南省东安县大庙口镇黑漆村的村民。她也是采访人的母亲。在这段口述中,范老人回忆了自己的一生:范家在土改中的灭族之难、父亲的存世之道、童年遭遇、大炼钢铁的钢厂生活、受丈夫右派连累的农村生活、她的生育故事等。

Zhang Wenbin | 张文斌, 2016

Zhang Wenbin (b.1933) is a resident of Heiqi Village, Damiaokou Town, Dong'an County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Zhang talks about his bitter days after the Liberation, and commented on the policy mistakes during the People's Commue canteen time and the Cultural Revolution. Because he was born in a landlord family, he quitted school after the Liberation. At 18 years old, he became a major labor force and had to do all kinds of work. The entire family relied on him. It only got better after collectivization in 1955. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张文斌1933年出生, 是湖南省永州东安县大庙口村黑漆村的村民。在这段口述中,张老人讲述了解放后自己过的苦日子,同时评论了吃食堂和文革时得政策失误等。因为出生在地主家庭,解放后他就没继续读书。18岁就成了主要劳动力,一个人养家,什么都要做。直到1955年集体化后日子才好过一点。

Pen Jinhua | 彭金华, 2016

Taitai Village | 株洲市茶陵县潞水镇太台村, 2010

Taitai Village is located in Chaling County, Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Luo Bing.

太台村位于湖南省株洲市茶陵县潞水镇。村民的录像采访人是罗兵。

Luo Taoxiang | 罗桃香, 2010

Gucheng Village | 株洲市茶陵县高陇镇古城村|, 2010

Gucheng Village is located in Chaling County, Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Luo Bing.

古城村位于湖南省株洲市茶陵县潞水镇。村民的录像采访人是罗兵。

Luo Juying | 罗菊英, 2010

Luo Juying (b. 1936) is a resident of Gucheng Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Luo talks about how people ate wild herbs and chaff to survive the famine and how people, who were caught stealing vegetables from the people's commun canteen, were criticized at struggle sessions in 1960. Luo also talks about some villagers died because of the brutal treatment at struggle sessions and some who committed suicide because they were very scared of being criticized at struggle sessions during the Cultural Revolution.

罗菊英(1936年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇古城村村民。在这段口述中,罗老人讲述了1960年粮食匮乏、人们吃野草和糠等充饥,以及偷食堂的菜被抓后被开会批斗的情况。罗老人还讲述了文革期间有人被批斗致死、有人因为害怕挨批斗而自杀的情况。

Changxing Village | 株洲市茶陵县高陇镇长兴村, 2010-2012

Changxing Village is located in Chaling County, Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Luo Bing.

长兴村位于湖南省株洲市茶陵县潞水镇。村民的录像采访人是罗兵。

Ge Haiqun | 葛海群, 2010

Ge Haiqun (b. 1932) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Ge talks about his experiences of constructing blast furnace and mining coal during the Great Leap Forward. In 1960, Ge returned home from the mine and then worked as the leader of the production team for almost a decade. Ge introduces in detail the standard of grading working points and the methods of cooking tree roots, grass roots, tree bark, wild herbs, as well as chaff to survive the famine. He believes that the cause of the famine was to pay debts to the Soviet Union. Ge also mentions the class struggles during the Great Famine.

葛海群(1932年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,葛老人讲述了大跃进时期大炼钢铁和在煤矿挖煤的经历。1960年代葛老人从煤矿回来,任生产队队长近十年,所以老人详细介绍了工分的评定方法。葛老人讲述了大饥荒时期烹饪树根、草根、树皮、野草、糠等,他认为大饥荒产生的原因是要给苏联还债。另外,葛老人还提到了大饥荒期间的阶级斗争情况。

Liang Lanfang | 梁芳兰, 2011

Liang Fanglan (b. 1946) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. Liang's mother died of disease in 1960 and she moved from Lianyuan City of Hunan Procive to Changxing Village with her family after the Great Famine. In this interview, Liang recalls that she and her five siblings planted vegetables and caught fish to supplement the limited food supplies during the Great Famine. Liang also mentions that some factory workers returned home in the countryside to farm because of the famine.

梁芳兰(1946年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。1960年梁老人的母亲于因病去世,大饥荒后她随家人从湖南省涟源市迁居到长兴村。在这段口述中,梁老人讲述了大饥荒时期粮食匮乏,她和其他五个姐妹弟弟种蔬菜、捞鱼充饥的经历。梁老人还提及当时有些工人因为饥饿回家种地的情况。

Liu Chunying | 刘春英, 2010

Liu Chunying (b. 1936) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Liu recalls how she stayed up all night carrying iron pipes and charcoal for constructing blast furnace during the Great Leap Forward and how she ate tree bark and chaff during hunger. Liu also talks about the collective day care center of 1960, which helped taking care of young children whose parents were busy at work.

刘春英(1936年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人回忆了自己大跃进时期为大炼钢铁通宵到江西担铁管和木炭、以及吃树皮、糠等充饥的经历。老人还回忆1960年有集体办的幼儿班,可以帮务工的父母照看幼儿。

Chen Jiangou | 陈件苟, 2010-2011

Chen Jiangou (b. 1942) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Chen recalls how he left school to work as an apprentice in the local People's Commune and later joined constructing blast furnace. Chen also talks about how his dad was punished to kneel down during a struggle session just because he was late for work one day.

陈件苟(1942年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,陈老人回忆了自己1958年离开学校、到公社做学徒及参加大炼钢铁的经历。陈老人还讲述了自己父亲因为出工迟到被罚下跪遭批斗的故事。

Liu Xiangying | 刘湘英, 2010

Liu Qiuying (b. 1937-2010) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Liu recalls that she was forced to participate in constructing blast furnace ten days after the birth of her child.

刘香英(1937-2010)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人回忆了自己1958年生孩子十天后就被强制参加炼铁的经历。

Zhou Yangjiao | 周杨娇, 2010

Zhou Yangjiao (b. 1933), who raised ten children, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Zhou recalls how she ate tree bark and wild herbs to survive 1960, and how her neighbors gave her food because they sympathized with her for the heavy burden of raising so many children.

周杨娇(1933年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,育有十名子女。在这段口述中,周老人回忆了1960年吃树皮、野草等果腹,以及家里孩子多负担重而被邻里接济的经历。

Xu Qingming | 许清明, 2012

Xu Qingming (b. 1953), who is the youngest among Luo Bing's interviewees, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Xu recalls how people ate chaff, sweet potatoes, and etc. to survive the famine in 1960. During the Cultural Revolution, Xu was appointed the commander of the local Red Guards because his class status is poor peasant. He talks about his experiences of learning Chairman Mao's works in the county as the representative of the local people's commune, raiding landlords' houses, organizing meetings to criticize landlords, and singing model play songs and other revolutionary songs during this period. Some of the supporting documents for this interview have been translated into English.

许清明(1953年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,是采访人罗兵的采访对象中最年轻的一位。在这段口述中,许老人回忆了1960年粮食匮乏当地人吃糠、薯、等充饥的情况。文革期间许老人凭借自己的贫农身份担任红卫兵司令员。文革期间作为公社代表到县里学习毛主席著作、抄地主家、开会批斗地主、唱样板戏和革命歌曲的经历。

An Zhuanzai | 安转仔, 2010

An Zhuanzai (b. 1937), who worked as accountant of the production team, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, An recalls how people ate tree leaves, tree bark, tree roots, wild herbs, as well as chaff because of severe food shortage, how an old man in the village died of constipation because of eating chaff, and how people escaped from the nearby You County to Chaling County because of the famine. An also mentions that the women villagers were infertile in 1960 because they were exhausted by doing hard labor of carrying iron pipes from Jiangxi Province day and night.

安转仔(1937年)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,大饥荒期间曾在生产队担任会计。在这段口述中,安老人讲述了1960年粮食匮乏、人们吃树叶、树皮、树根、野草、糠等充饥,同村的一个老头吃糠、排便困难涨死的情况,以及隔壁攸县的人逃荒到茶陵县的情况。另外,安老人还提及1960年期间村里女人也要夜以继日到江西担铁管,过度劳累以致没有生育的情况。

Zhen Liying | 针梨英, 2010

Zhen Liying (b. 1929) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Zhen recalls how she went to Jiangxi Province to carry iron pipes and went to the nearby village to carry charcoal during the Great Leap Forward, and how she ate tree bark, tree roots, as well as chaff and stole turnip during the Great Famine. Zhen also talks about an old man in the village, who died of constipation because of eating chaff.

针梨英(1929年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,针老人讲述了大跃进时期晚上到江西担铁管和到隔壁村担木炭,以及大饥荒时期吃树皮、树根、糠和偷白萝卜的经历。针老人还回忆了村里一位老人吃糠排便困难涨死的情况。

Long Qiuying | 龙秋英, 2010

Long Qiuying (b. 1939) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She married a man in Changxing Village in 1959 and gave birth to her first son in 1961. In this interview, Long recalls that people ate tree leaves, tree bark, grass roots, and chaff during the Great Famine, and her husband was once beaten because he stole turnip to eat. Long also mentions how the five black categories ( landlords, rich peasants, counterrevolutionaries, bad elements & rightists) were criticized and beaten during the Cultural Revolution.

龙秋英(1939年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。她1959年嫁到该村,1961年生下大儿子。在这段口述中,龙老人回忆了大饥荒时期吃树叶、树皮、草根、糠,以及自己老伴偷萝卜吃被打的经历。龙老人还提及文革时期批斗、吊打地富反坏右的情况。

Long Qiugu | 龙秋姑, 2010

Long Qiugu (b. 1932), whose husband served in the army during the Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Long recalls that during the Great Leap Forward all male villagers, except village leaders, were sent to maintain dams outside the village while only female villagers were left working in the field. About the Great Famine, Long talks about how her family ate wild herbs and tree roots, but she insists that she did not starve.

龙秋姑(1932年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。龙老人的丈夫在大跃进和大饥荒时期都在部队服役。在这段口述中,龙老人讲述了大跃进期间村里没当干部的男人都被调去外地修河,只有妇女在村里种田的情况。关于大饥荒,老人回忆了全家吃野草、树根等替代食物的经历,但老人强调自己没有挨饿。

Liu Xiangsheng | 刘湘生, 2010

Liu Xiangsheng (b. 1937) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Liu describes the Great Famine as 'surviving the hardship,' which resulted from paying Soviet Union's debts. Liu recalls how they ate kidney beans, alfalfa, sorghum, chaff, tree bark, and wild herbs when food supplies were limited, and how several fellow villagers died of edema because they drank too much water.

刘湘生(1937年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人把大饥荒时期形容为'过难关',认为'过难关'的原因是要给苏联还债。刘老人回忆了该时期用以充饥的蚕豆、苜蓿、麦子、高粱、糠、树皮、野草等,以及几位同乡喝水得水肿病致死的情况。

Ning Caiyun | 宁彩云, 2010

Ning Caiyun (b. 1940) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She escaped from Hunan Province to this village after the Great Famine. In this interview, Ning recalls that she married her husband in 1958, and migrated in 1960 to Shaoyang City of Hunan Province, where her husband worked as a coal miner. In 1960 Ning's husband worked in an electrical machinery plant while Ning worked in the canteen. They and their children fed on congee made from wild herbs, tree roots, grass roots, and rice. Ning also talks about the five family members, including her grandmother, father, uncle, aunt, and uncle's child, who died of starvation during the Great Famine.

宁彩云(1940年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,在大饥荒过后从湖南逃到该村。在这段口述中,宁老人讲述自己1958年和丈夫结婚,1959年跟着在湖南邵阳下井挖煤的丈夫艰难度日,以及1960年丈夫在电机厂工作、自己在食堂煮饭、用野草、树根、草根和米一起煮粥吃的经历。另外,宁老人还回忆了大饥荒时期家里有五位亲人饿死的情况,包括老人的外婆、父亲、舅舅、舅母、以及舅舅的孩子。

Ouyang Taogu | 欧阳桃姑, 2010

Ouyang Taogu (b. 1932) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She, as Tongyangxi, married to a man in Changxing Village during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In this interview, Ouyang recalls how she joined constructing blast furnace and planting rice seedlings day and night during the Great Leap Forward, and how she suffered from the shortage of food and clothing supplies during the Great Famine. She also talks about two village leaders, who made relevantly fair allocation of the limited grains.

欧阳桃姑(1932年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,抗日战争期间作为童养媳嫁到长兴村。在这段口述中,欧阳老人讲述了大跃进期间夜以继日炼钢铁和插秧,以及大饥荒期间缺吃缺穿的经历。她还提及两位当地村干部在粮食匮乏时对仅有的粮食进行了合理分配。

Wei Quanying | 魏全英, 2010

Wei Quanying (b.1926) was born in Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. Wei recollects her constipation after eating bran dumplings during the Great Famine—she bleeded in the bathroom. She says that her child was looking for sweet potatoes left in the field and was criticized into tears by their team leader. Wei was once sent to Jinggangshan to bring back the run-aways. Because of her constipation, she could not sit on her way there. She stood on the bus all the way there.

魏全英1926年出生于湖南省株洲市茶陵县高陇镇长兴村。魏老人回忆了大饥荒期间吃了糠饺以后便秘,上厕所的时候满地是血。老人的孩子在红薯地里找剩下的红薯根,被队长骂哭。魏老人当时曾被村书记叫去井冈山领逃荒的人回来,因为便秘,老人在车上也不能坐下,只能一路站着过去。

Ying Mieying | 尹乜英, 2010

Yin Mieying (b. 1932) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She was born in a nearby town called Huotian, and married to a man in Changxing Village during the Land Reform. In this interview, Yin recalls that she was forced to work during the Great Leap Forward, which left her no time to attend her child, and that she ate tree root, tree leaves, and wild herbs to survive. She also mentions an old fellow villager, who died of constipation because of eating chaff.

尹乜英(1932年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,土改时期从隔壁的火田镇嫁到长兴村。在这段口述中,尹老人讲述了大跃进期间被强制劳动、没有时间照顾孩子,以及大饥荒期间吃树根、树皮和野菜果腹的经历。她还提及村里一位吃糠导致无法大便、活活涨死的老人。

Ying Zhong'e | 尹中娥, 2010

Yin Zhonge (b. 1925-2011) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She gave birth to nine children, and only six of them survived. In this interview, Yin recalls how starving she was because of limited food supplies in 1960, and how she was forced to work in the production team less than 20 days after her child's birth.

尹中娥(1925-2011)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,育有九名子女,成活六名。在这段口述中,尹老人回忆了1960年粮食匮乏吃不饱,以及生孩子不到二十天后就要到生产队参加劳动的经历。

Ren Dingqi | 任定其, 2010

Ren Dingqi (b. 1935) is a resident of Changxing Village, Chaling Town, Zhuzhou County, Hunan Province. He came here during the Great Famine. In this interview, Ren remembers his experience of building dikes around Dongting Lake in 1960; the work points they earned and the amount of food people got at the canteen in 1958, and how people ate tree bark and grass. He also talks about the village across the river, people there had more food to eat because they reported a lower production output.

任定其1935年出生,是湖南省株洲市茶陵县长兴村的居民。大饥荒时他逃到了这里。在这段口述中,任老人回忆了1960年在洞庭湖修堤抗洪的经历,58年吃食堂后人们分到的饭量和劳动挣到的工分,以及当时吃树皮和草的方法。他还提到河对面村子因为隐瞒实际产量而有饭吃的事。

Tan Chagu | 谭茶姑, 2010

Tan Chagu (b. 1938) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. When she was five, Tan was abandoned by her mother, and was later adopted by a family in Changxing Village. In this interview, Tan recalls that she went to Jiangxi Province to move iron pipes and charcoal, constructed blast furnace at night, and raised pigs at a pig farm in 1958. Tan also talks about how she cooked tree leaves, tree bark, tree roots, wild herbs, as well as chaff, and how an old man in the village died of constipation because of eating chaff during the Great Famine.

谭茶姑(1938年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。她五岁时被母亲遗弃,后被长兴村的一户村民收养。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了1958年大炼钢铁到江西担铁管和木炭、夜里出工炼铁、和在养猪场养猪的经历。谭老人还回忆了大饥荒时期烹饪树根、草根、树皮、野草、糠等的方法,以及村里一位老人吃糠排便困难涨死的情况。

Tan Donglian | 谭冬莲, 2011

Tan Donglian (b. 1938) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls how she participated in constructing blast furnace and moved iron pipes and charcoal, and how her house was torn down and materials were used as fertilizer in 1958. Tan also recounts how she cooked wild herbs and chaff during the Great Famine and how people died because of the brutal treatment at struggle sessions during the Cultural Revolution.

谭冬莲(1938年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了1958年大炼钢铁、夜里出工去担铁管和木炭,以及自己家房子被拆掉做肥料的经历。谭老人还介绍了大饥荒期间烹饪野草、糠等的方法,以及文革期间批斗致人死亡的情况。

Tan Dangxiu | 谭当秀, 2010

Tan Dangxu (b. 1931) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls how she was beaten by her husband because their child cried for food, how she was forced to work half a month after the birth of their child, and how her husband suffered from edema because of hunger during the Great Famine. Tan also talks about the local leaders, who distributed more food to their own families.

谭当秀(1931年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了大饥荒时期因为孩子饿得哭挨丈夫打,生孩子半个月后被村干部强制劳动,以及丈夫因为饥饿得了水肿的经历。谭老人还讲述了当时干部搞特殊、有粮食吃的情况。

Tan Shunying | 谭顺英, 2010

Tan Shunying (b. 1937) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She married a man in Changxing Village in 1956. In this interview, Tan recalls how she was forced to go to Sandu (location name) to carry iron pipes, and how starving people from nearby You County came to sell clothes and children in 1958. At that time Tan's father-in-law worked as a leader at another place, and he distributed grains to the local villagers secretly. Tan also talks about how her in-laws were criticized and how several villagers died because of the brutal treatment in struggle sessions during the Cultural Revolution.

谭顺英(1937年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。1956年谭老人嫁到该村。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了1958年被迫到三度(地名)担铁管,以及附近攸县的饥民担着衣服和孩子来卖的情况。当时老人的公公在外地当干部,把粮食偷偷分给社员吃。另外,谭老人还回忆了文革时期自己的公公婆婆被批斗、以及村里有几个人被批斗致死的情况。

Tan Youqi | 谭佑起, 2010

Tan Youqi (b. 1938) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls that he went to the nearby Changan County to build dikes in 1958, and ate chaff, tree bark, tree roots, plant leaves, and wild herbs during the famine in 1960. In his village, some people died of edema caused by starvation, and some people died of conspilation resulted from eating chaff. Tan also talks about three fellow villagers' death during the Cultural Revolution; two died because of the brutal treatment in struggle sessions, and one committed suicide.

谭佑起(1938年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了1958年到隔壁长安县参与修河,1960年粮食匮乏吃糠、树皮、树根、植物叶子、野草等充饥的经历。当时村里有人因为饥饿导致水肿、有人因为吃糠导致大便困难活活胀死。谭老人还回忆了文化大革命期间三位村民过世的情况:两位被批斗致死,一位上吊自杀。

Tan Dongzai | 谭冬仔, 2010

Tan Dongzai (b. 1947), the youngest among Luo Bing's interviewees, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan says that he herded cattle for the production team, collected fruits and caught fish to sell at the local market, and he was caught for stealing the collective rice during the Great Leap Forward. He recalls how he ate chaff, tree bark, as well as grass roots during the Great Famine. Tan witnessed people died because of the brutal treatment during struggle sessions when he was a platoon leader of the people's militia.

谭冬仔(1947年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,是采访人罗兵的采访对象中最年轻的一位。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了大跃进期间给生产队放牛、摘水果捉鱼到集市上去卖、偷集体稻穗被抓,以及大饥荒期间吃糠、树皮、草根等的经历。谭老人还回忆了文革时期自己任民兵排长时,目睹的批斗人致死的情况。

Tan Duisheng | 谭对生, 2012

Tan Duisheng (b. 1931), who was the village accountant from 1955 to 1985, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls how he, as a village leader, attended meetings, organized villagers to construct blast furnace and build dikes, and managed the village finance, and how people ate tree bark, chaff, and etc. during the Great Famine. Tan also talks about how people destroyed the Four Olds during the Cultural Revolution.

谭对生(1931年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,曾在1955年至1985年期间担任村里会计。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了大跃进期间作为干部要参加会议、组织群众大炼钢铁、搞水利建设、管理财政,以及大饥荒时期吃树皮、糠等的经历。谭老人还回忆了文革期间破四旧的情况。

Tan Chengyuan | 谭承元, 2011

Tan Chengyuan (b. 1942), who migrated to the nearby Bailong Village with his older sister in 1957, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan talks about his experiences of carrying iron pipes for constructing blast furnace during the Great Leap Forward, and of eating tree roots, tree leaves, and etc. during the Great Famine.

谭承元(1942年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,1957年曾随姐姐迁居到隔壁的白龙村。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了大跃进时期为了大炼钢铁、夜里去担钢管的经历, 以及大饥荒时期粮食匮乏吃树根、树皮等的经历。

Tan Lizai | 谭理仔, 2010

Tan Lizai (b. 1939) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls how he made charcoal and ate tree bark, wild herbs, as well as chaff during the Great Famine.

谭理仔(1939年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了大饥荒时期自己烧木炭,以及吃树皮、野草、糠等充饥的经历。

Yu Maoli | 俞茂立, 2010

Yu Maoli (b. 1929-2010) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. He was a cadre of the local People's Commune during the Great Leap Forward. In this interview, Yu talks about how people focused on constructing blast furnace while the crops were left uncollected in the field and got rotten in 1958. In 1959 some villagers were criticized for collecting sweet potatoes in the field to eat, and other villagers escaped to Jiangxi Province to survive the famine. Yu expresses his understanding of some villagers who stole grain from the People's Commune because of starvation, as well as his disapproval of the production team leaders, who gave themselves more stamps to buy meat and other non-staple food. One of the supporting documents for this interview has been translated into English.

俞茂立(1929-2010)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,大跃进时期在当地公社担任干部。在这段口述中,俞老人讲述了1958年当地集中大炼钢铁、粮食没人收割、烂在地里的情况。1959年粮食短缺,到田地里捡红薯吃的百姓遭到批斗,有些百姓为生计逃去江西。另外,俞老人表示了大饥荒时期普通群众因为饥饿偷集体粮食的理解,和对生产队干部搞特殊化给自己多发粮票买肉和副食品的不满。

Tao Zaohua | 谭造华, 2010

Tan Zaohua (b. 1930), who is the husband of another interviewee, Zhou Jianying, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recounts in detail how he escaped to Jinggang Mountain of Jiangxi Province with 11 fellow villagers in 1960, because of the limited food supplies and unfair allocation by the local leaders. In Jinggang Mountain they participated in moving cedar and building roads, and received more food. Two months later, leaders from Hunan Province went to Jinggang Mountain, found them and brought them back home.

谭造华(1930年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,是另一位受访人周俭英的丈夫。在这段口述中,谭老人详细讲述了自己1960年和其他11位同乡一起逃去江西井冈山地区的经历。谭老人回忆出逃的起因是当地食物匮乏而且干部分配不均;他们到了井冈山以后参加当地建设——背杉树、修马路,伙食比在湖南老家够吃;两个多月后老家的干部去井冈山把他们找了回来。

Tan Yuanxing | 谭元兴, 2010

Tan Yuanxing (b. 1930) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls that he was forced to do the the dirtiest and heaviest jobs during the Great Leap Forward because his class status was rich peasant. Tan also talks about how he ate chaff and wild herbs during the Great Famine, and how his wife died of disease two months after the birth of their child.

谭元兴(1930年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人回忆了自已因为家庭成分是富农,大跃进时期他被强迫做最脏最累的工作的经历。他还讲述了大饥荒时期粮食匮乏、吃糠、野草等充饥,以及自己妻子1960年生孩子两个月后因病去世的情况。

Tan Yujiao | 谭玉娇, 2010

Tan Yujiao (b. 1940) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan recalls how she carried iron pipes at night, worked in the sewing factory, and ate tree roots, wild herbs, plant leaves, as well as chaff during the Great Famine. Tan also recounts in detail how her neighbour, Liu Shouyu, died of constipation because of eating chaff in 1960.

谭玉娇(1940年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,谭老人讲述了晚上担铁管,在缝衣厂做工,以及大饥荒时期吃树根、野草、植物叶子、糠等充饥的经历。谭老人还详细讲述了1960年邻居刘寿雨吃糠后排便困难、活活涨死的情况。

Tang Jinlian | 唐金莲, 2011

Tang Jinlian (b. 1939) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She was born in Shaodong City of Hunan Province and married a man in Changxing Village in 1962. In this interview, Tang recounts about her working for the production team in Shaodong City and that her mother died of illness during the Great Famine. Tang also talks about how people were criticized at struggle sessions during the Cultural Revolution.

唐金莲(1939年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,1962年从湖南省邵东市嫁到该村。在这段口述中,唐老人回忆了大饥荒时期在邵东市参加生产队劳动,以及母亲病逝的情况。唐老人还回忆了文革期间批斗人的情况。

Tan Wangou | 谭晚苟, 2010

Tan Wangou (b. 1920), who worked as the director of the production team during the Great Famine, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan briefly talks about constructing blast furnace in 1958 and the severe shortage of food supplies in 1960.

谭晚苟(1920年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,曾在大饥荒时期任生产队长。在这段口述中,谭老人简要讲述了1958年大炼钢铁和1960年粮食匮乏的情况。

Tan Wenying | 谭文英, 2010

Tan Wenying (b. 1940), who is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Tan is really concerned about the quality of her photo taken. Her step father's death is related with the Great Famine.

谭文英(1940年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。谭老人的继父谭明珠的逝世和饥饿有关。她本人很在意照片照得好坏。

Luo San'e | 罗三娥, 2010
Liu Jiangzai | 刘江仔, 2010

Liu Jiangzai (b. 1932) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Liu recalls how all men and women in the village went to Jiangxi Province to carry iron pipes day and night for constructing blast furnace in 1958, and how they ate tree leaves, tree bark, tree roots, wild herbs, and chaff because of the shortage of food, and how some husked rice behind the leaders' back in 1960. Liu also talks about how his father committed suicide by poisoning himself after being punished by the town government for stealing grains to eat.

刘江仔(1932年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人回忆了1958年大炼钢铁期间、全村男女夜以继日到江西担铁管,以及1960年粮食匮乏吃树叶、树皮、树根、野草、糠等充饥,瞒着干部晚上在家偷偷舂米的经历。刘老人还讲述了自己父亲1960年因为偷吃粮食被乡政府惩罚后吃药自杀的情况。

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Liu Dongyuan | 刘冬元, 2011

Liu Dongyuan (b. 1941) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. In this interview, Liu recalls that the households of no. 11 production team of Changxing Village, to which he belonged, moved to the location of no. 6 production team to establish the people's commune from 1958 to the winter of 1959. During this period, some people were criticized because they were slow when working for dike construction projects. Liu also talks about stealing a plant called red flower, turnip, and pumpkins to eat because of limited food supplies in 1960.

刘冬元(1941年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。在这段口述中,刘老人讲述了1958年至1959年冬天自己所在的长兴村第十一生产队全部迁居到第六生产队成立人民公社,以及该时期参加修塘坝时做工慢就要挨批斗的情况,以及1960年粮食匮乏偷红花、萝卜、南瓜等吃的情况。

Zhou Jianying | 周俭英, 2010

Zhou Jianying (b. 1934), the older sister of another interviewee, Zhou Xueying, is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. Zhou was born in the nearby Zhoubi Town, and married a man in Changxing Village in 1952. In 1958, Zhou worked for the production team during pregnancy until labor. Her working points were deducted because of going back home to feed her child. In 1960, Zhou's husband with several other villagers escaped to Jinggang Mountain of Jiangxi Province, where they could get more food by participating in the construction work. Zhou was punished to work more as the wife of the escaped criminal. During this period, some peasants from the nearby You County came to Changixing Village to sell their clothes and children because of the famine. She remembers that during the Cultural Revolution, the Red Flag Army, leaders of the Land Reform, were criticized.

周俭英(1934年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民。她是另一位受访人——周雪英——的姐姐,1952年从隔壁的州比镇嫁到长兴村。周老人的口述包括大跃进、大饥荒和文革三个主题。1958年,周老人怀着孩子参加生产队劳动,一直到临产;生产后因为在工作间隙回家给孩子喂奶被扣工分。1960年,周老人的丈夫和很多同乡逃去江西井冈山,因为在那里参加建设给饭吃;而周老人作为逃犯家属,被生产队惩罚参加劳动。该时期长兴村附近的攸县的农民,有的担着衣服和孩子到这里来卖。另外,周老人还讲述了文革期间,批斗'红旗军'——土改时期的干部——的情况。

Zhou Xueying | 周雪英, 2010

Zhou Xueying (b. 1940) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She was born in a nearby town called Zhoubi, and married to a man in Changxing Village in 1961. In this interview, Zhou recalls how she raised rabbits for a state farm, which was established in Zhoubi Town in 1958, and how this state farm distributed more grains than other People's Communes.

周雪英(1940年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,1961年从隔壁的州比镇嫁到长兴村。在这段口述中,周老人讲述了自己1958年在州比镇的国营农场养兔子的经历,以及1960年粮食最为匮乏的时期,周老人所在的国营农场发放的粮食比其他公社稍多的情况。

Zhou Nianying | 周年英, 2010

Zhou Nianying (b. 1940) is a resident of Changxing Village, Gaolong Town, Chaling County, Hunan Province. She was born in a nearby town called Zhoubi, and married to a man in Changxing Village in 1957. In this interview, Zhou recalls how she participated in constructing blast furnace as a pregnant woman during the Great Leap Forward, and how she starved for limited food supplies during the Great Famine.

周年英(1940年生)是湖南省茶陵县高陇镇长兴村村民,1957年从隔壁的州比镇嫁到长兴村。在这段口述中,周老人讲述了大跃进期间自己怀着身孕参加大炼钢铁,以及大饥荒期间因粮食匮乏挨饿的经历。

Luwan Village | 徐州市沛县鹿湾村, 2016

Luwan Village is located in Pei County, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Li Yushan.

鹿湾村位于江苏省徐州市沛县。村民的录像采访人是李雨珊。

Hu Yufang | 胡玉芳, 2016
Feng XinYing & Feng Xinlan | 冯欣英 & 冯欣兰, 2016
View 2 items (Duke Digital Repository)
Xu Degui | 徐德圭, 2016

Xu Degui (b. 1939) is a resident of Luwan Village, Jiangsu Province. In this interview, Xu talks about his experience during the Great Famine. In 1958 Xu went to work in the city. When he came back to the village, many villagers had developed edema disease because of starvation. To cure the patients, the government distributed tofu water made of soybeans. In 1963, although according to the state policy, Xu had to return to his village, he decided to move to Xiaoxian, Anhui Province and worked on the railroad construction. According to Xu, the famine was even worse there and there were even cases of people eating human flesh. An acquaintance of his hid a jar of food in a well and therefore survived the famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

徐德圭1939年出生,是江苏省徐州市沛县鹿湾村村民。在这段口述中,徐老人回忆了大饥荒时的经历。徐老人1958年上城里参加工作,后来回农村看到很多人因为挨饿得了浮肿病。为了治病,政府给病人发大豆做成的豆腐水喝。1963年,根据国家政策,徐老人应该回农村工作,但他选择去安徽萧县修铁路。据徐老人回忆,萧县那一带更加困难,甚至有人吃人的情况。他认识的一位老人靠把装有粮食的罐子藏到井底才没挨饿。

Hu Yuxiang & Xu Deyu | 胡玉香 & 徐德玉, 2016
Hu Yuxiang | 胡玉香, 2016
Kong Yuexia | 孔月霞, 2016
Lei Dianxi | 雷电喜, 2016

Lei Dianxi (b. 1931) is a resident of Luwan Village, Jiangsu Province. In this interview, Lei talks about his difficult life during the Great Famine. When the famine started in 1957, there was a shortage of all kinds of food and materials. People were so hungry that they had to find wild herbs to eat. Lei used to work at the local public security bureau and therefore read about reports on people eating human flesh in Henan Province. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

雷电喜1931年出生,是江苏省徐州市沛县鹿湾村村民。在这段口述中,雷老人回忆了大饥荒时的艰苦生活。1957年开始生活十分困难,缺衣少食,大家饿得都去地里挖野菜。雷老人在公安局工作,曾看到文件说河南有不少吃人肉的事情发生。

Miao Qianzhi | 苗千芝, 2016

Miao Qianzhi (b. 1946) is a resident of Luwan Village, Jiangsu Province. Miao's family used to be a landlord and her father left for Taiwan many years ago. In this interview, Miao talks about the starving experience in 1963. Miao's mother fled back to her family in Hebei Province with Miao's little sister, while Miao was left at home and attended by someone else. In exchange of food, Miao sold all the 13 mu of land left by her father. During that time, people would do anything, including selling kids, for food. Some villager bought a 7-year-old boy from Suzhou for 200 Yuan. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

苗千芝1946年出生,是江苏省徐州市沛县鹿湾村村民。苗老人家曾是地主,苗老人的父亲在台湾。在这段口述中苗老人回忆了1963年挨饿的经历。当时苗老人的母亲带着妹妹逃荒去河北娘家,苗老人留在徐州由别人照顾,靠卖爸爸留下的十三亩地换粮食吃。当时还有人为了吃饭卖孩子,村里一个人在苏州花了200块钱买了个七岁的男孩。

Shan Xiuer | 善秀娥, 2016

Shan Xiu'e (b. 1942) is a resident of Luwan Village, Jiangsu Province. In this interview, Shan recalls the life during the Great Famine. When working at the production team for work points, people had to work day and night. No food would be provided if someone skipped work. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

善秀娥1942年出生,是江苏省徐州市沛县鹿湾村村民。在这段口述中,善老人讲述了大饥荒时的生活。当时在生产队干活挣工分,从早做到晚,如果不去干活就没有饭吃。

Nainaimiao Village | 吉安市吉州区樟山镇奶奶庙, 2014

Nainaimiao Village is located in Jizhou County, Ji'an City, Jiangxi Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Guo Zhihua.

奶奶庙村位于江西省吉安市吉州区樟山镇。村民的录像采访人是郭志华。

Luo Jinfeng | 罗金凤, 2014

Luo Jinfeng (b. 1925) is a resident of Nainai Village, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Luo recalls the difficult life during the Great Famine. Luo's husband died of sickness very early. Not able to carry out heavy work, Luo cooked for the communal canteen to earn a living. At that time, a man got 8 Liang of rice each meal while a woman only got 6. Since she had to save some of her 6 Liang of rice for the kids, Luo was alwasy hungry and had to eat chaff and wild vegetables, and developed constipation.

罗金凤1925年出生,是江西省吉安市奶奶庙村民。在这段口述中,罗老人讲述了大饥荒时的艰难生活。罗老人的丈夫很早就病逝,干不了重活的罗老人只能靠在食堂做饭为生。当时男的一顿饭8两米,女的6两,但她还得省下点粮食给孩子吃,实在吃不饱就吃糠皮、野菜,结果导致便秘。

Futan Village | 吉安市青原区富滩镇富滩村, 2014

Futan Village is located in Qingyuan County, Ji'an City, Jiangxi Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Guo Zhihua.

富滩村位于江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇。村民的录像采访人是郭志华。

Guo Hougui | 郭厚桂, 2014

Guo Hougui (b. 1941) is a resident of Futan Village, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Guo talks about the life during the Land Reform and the Great Famine. During the Land Reform in 1949, three people classified as landlords in Futan Village were executed by shooting, including one former head of Ganzhou Country during Kuomintang's regime. In 1958 during the Great Leap Forward, Guo, still at school at that time, went to carry ores for the steel factory. When people were eating at the communal canteen, grains were all sold to the government, people had to earn work points in exchange of grain rations. Because of hunger, they ate chaff, wild vegetables and dried sweet potatoes. Due to the state monopoly over purchase and marketing, every household had to hand in a pig and chickens, even though some didn't even have a pig. From 1957 to 1960, people had to seek permission to kill an ox or a pig. Such a policy was not cancelled until the new policy of"allocation of land to individual households" started.

郭厚桂1941年出生,是江西省吉安市富滩镇富滩村村民。在这段口述中,郭老人回忆了土改和大饥荒时的生活。1949年土改期间,富滩村有三个地主被枪毙了,其中包括一位国民党时期的赣州县县长。58年大跃进时,为了炼钢铁,还在读书的郭老人就去担矿石。集体化以后,在食堂吃饭,粮食都交给国家,只能靠挣工分换口粮,吃不饱就吃糠皮、野菜、番薯干。统购统销时,每家都要交一头猪和鸡,没有也要交。57年到60年,杀牛杀猪都要经过批准,直到分田到户之后才取消。

Guo Defu | 郭德敷, 2014

Guo Defu (b. 1941) is a resident of Futan Village, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Guo talks about the situation during 1958. When eating at the communal canteen, Guo had one bowl of congee for lunch and four for dinner, with each bowl of congee containing around 2 Liang of rice. Guo was still attending school at that time, but he had to go to class in the morning and go to work in the afternoon. No food would be provided if they didn't go to work. Sometimes when he was too starving, Guo would pull out radish roots to eat.

郭德敷1941年出生,是江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇富滩村村民。在这段口述中,郭老人讲述了58年的情况。吃食堂时中午就吃一碗粥,晚上四碗,每碗粥有2两米左右。当时郭老人还在上学,上午上课下午干活,不干活就没饭吃。有时实在饿了,就拔萝卜根吃。

Guo Housong | 郭厚松, 2014

Guo Housong (b. 1925) is a resident of Futan Village, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Guo talks about the life during the Great Famine. During those years, Guo was working outside most of the time. When working at the rice mill, Guo always stole some rice and sent it home to help his family.

郭厚松1925年出生,是江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇富滩村村民。在这段口述中郭老人回忆了大饥荒时的生活。那几年郭老人都在外打工。在机米厂工作时,郭老人经常偷米运回家接济家人。

Li Jiuxiang | 李九香, 2014

Li Jiuxiang (b. 1930) is a resident of Futan Village, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Li recalls the life in 1958. When eating at the communal canteen, the women could only get 6 Liang of rice for each meal. Because of hunger, people had to eat chaff and wild vegetables. No matter how bad the weather was, the villagers had to work in the field, otherwise they wouldn't get food. Sometimes they were too busy working in the field that their family had to deliver the food to them there.

李九香1930年出生,是江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇后屋家花园巷村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了58年的生活。吃食堂时女的一顿只有六两饭,吃不饱就只能吃糠、野菜。天气再恶劣也得出工干活,不然没有饭吃。有时候干活时不能回去吃午饭,只能让家人把饭送到地里去。

Ji'an City | 吉安市, 2014

Ji'an City is located in Qingyuan County, Jiangxi Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Guo Zhihua.

吉安市位于江西省。村民的录像采访人是郭志华。

Wang Zhaofeng | 王招凤, 2014

Wang Zhaofeng (b. 1932) is a resident of Ji'an City, Jiangxi Province. In this interview, Wang recalls her early life which was full of hardships. After getting married, she moved to the village she's living now. Wang's family was classified as landlord. As a result, Wang was once criticized in struggle sessions for seven days and nights. Without any grain, Wang had to go back to her parents' house for food. Later Wang made a living through grounding rice for others. She often ate chaff and wild vegetables and saved rice for her kids.

王招凤1932年出生,是江西省吉安市村民。在这段口述中,王老人回忆了自己早年艰苦的生活。嫁到现在居住的村里后,王老人家被划为地主,王老人也一度被拉去批斗了七天七夜,没有粮食的王老人只能回娘家吃饭。之后王老人靠为别人磨谷为生,经常要吃糠皮、野菜,把米粒留给孩子吃。

Lijia Village|吉安市青原区富滩镇李家村, 2014

Lijia Village is located in Qingyuan County, Ji'an City, Jiangxi Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Guo Zhihua.

李家村位于江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇。村民的录像采访人是郭志华。

Li Xinfeng | 李新凤, 2014

Li Xinfeng (b. 1926) is a resident of Lijia Village, Jiangxi Province.In this interview, Li recalls the life during the Great Leap Forward and Great Famine. In 1958 during the Great Leap Forward, villagers sold all their surplus grain to the government. Li could only make some money by weaving cloth. Life was very difficult during that time. People had to build the road even when it was raining. They sometimes were so busy working in the field and they had their lunch delived there. They had to rely on old people to look after their children. When eating at the communal canteen, people had congee in the morning and rice for lunch and dinner. Everyone's daily grain ration was clearly regulated according to their labor. Whoever did not go to work would not get any food. Because of hunger, Li ate all kinds of leaves and wild vegetables. Lots of kids starved to death in the village.

李新凤1926年出生,是江西省吉安市青原区富滩镇李家村村民。在这段口述里,李老人回忆了大跃进和大饥荒时的生活。58年大跃进时,村民把余粮都卖给了国家,李老人只能靠织布赚钱。当时生活艰苦,下雨天也要去修路。生产队在田里干活没时间吃午饭,就让人把饭送到田里吃,孩子也只能托老人照顾。吃大食堂时,早上喝粥,中午和晚上吃饭。每个人的口粮都按照劳力有明确规定,如果不出工就没有饭吃。因为饥饿,李老人吃过各种叶子和野菜,村里好多孩子饿死。

Huanzidong Village | 沈阳市法库县獾子洞村, 2010

Huanzidong Village is located in Faku County, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Lin Tao.

獾子洞村位于辽宁省沈阳市法库县。村民的录像采访人是林涛。

Lin Fuchen | 林福臣, 2010

Lin Fuchen (b. 1936) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Lin recalls the life during the Great Famine. When there was a good harvest in 1958, the corns that were not consumed were wasted and directly buried in the field. Then from 1959 the Great Famine started. Lin was working at Sanjiazi Coal Mine where he was given 55 jins of grains each month. Although he did not starve, the work there was very hard. During that time many people starved to death on the street, but no one had the strength to bury the dead bodies. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

林福臣1936年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,林老人回忆了大饥荒时的生活。1958年大丰收时,吃不完的玉米棒子就直接埋地里浪费了,到了1959年就开始挨饿。林老人在三家煤矿工作,一个月给五十五斤粮食,但工作非常辛苦。当时不少人饿死在路边,但也没有人有力气去埋葬尸体。

Cui Suzhen | 崔素贞, 2010

Cui Suzhen (b. 1931) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Cui recalls the life during the Great Famine. Cui was working at the town's clothing shop where she could earn work credits and eat at the canteen. Her husband was working in Haerbin, Heilongjiang Province. Because they only had one kid and her husband's parents to feed, the family did not starve too much during that time.

崔素贞1931年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,崔老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。当时崔老人在城里的成衣铺工作,可以换工分,一天两顿都在食堂吃。崔老人的丈夫在哈尔滨工作,家里就一个孩子和公公婆婆,所以一家并没有太饿着。

Bai Xiuqing | 白秀清, 2010

Bai Xiuqing (b. 1923) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Bai talks about her experience of feeding the eleven family members during the Great Famine. Bai's husband was the head cook at the production team, while Bai worked at home cooking and doing needlework. During the collectivization when every household had to hand in their food to the production team, Bai's family hided some at their place. As a result, they did not suffer too much during the Great Famine.

白秀清1923年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,白老人回忆了大饥荒时期照顾家里十一口人吃喝的经历。白老人的丈夫在生产队当伙夫长,老人一个人在家烧饭做针线活。集体化的时候粮食都归生产队,白老人家偷存了点粮食,所以大饥荒时没太饿着。

Zhang Zhihua | 张志华, 2010

Zhang Zhihua (b. 1946) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Zhang recalls the life during the Great Famine. There were people who fled to Huanzidong Village from Hebei Province, while many local villagers fled to the Great Northern Wilderness for the relatively sufficient foods there. Zhang also talks about several villagers who starved to death during the Great Famine. Niu Fengtian's grandpa starved to death during sleep the day before the Chinese New Year. Without a proper coffin and clothes, he was buried in a crate that was used to contain soybean oil. In addition, many people died of food poisoning because of eating wild herbs and tree leaves. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张志华1946年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,张老人讲述了大饥荒时期的生活。当时獾子洞有从河北逃难过来的,当地也有不少人逃到粮食相对充足的北大荒去。张老人还回忆了几位饿死的村民,其中牛丰田的爷爷是在春节前一天睡觉时饿死的,当时没有棺材和新衣服埋葬死者,只能用裝豆油的木箱充当棺材。除了饿死,还有好多人因为吃野菜、树叶导致食物中毒而死。

Pan Zhenhua | 潘振华, 2010

Pan Zhenhua (b. 1945) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Pan talks about the life during the Great Famine. Despite the reduced production, the cadres of the local production teams exaggerated the numbers in their report to the higher government for their own profit. As a result, the grains were taken to the higher level government and ordinary villagers had to starve. The situation was at its worst in 1960, when many people starved to death and corpses were put in cabinets due to the lack of coffins. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

潘振华1945年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,潘老人讲述了大饥荒时的经历。当时粮食减产,但生产队干部为了自己的利益向上级政府虚报收成,导致粮食都被上缴而百姓只能挨饿。60年情况最严重,好多人饿死,因为没有棺材,尸体只能用柜子装。

Yang Deshan | 杨德山, 2010

Yang Deshan (b. 1934) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Yang talks about the life during the Great Famine. The communal canteen was established in 1958: everyone had to eat there and no one was allowed to cook at home. 1958 saw a very good harvest, yet people wasted a lot of food. 1960 saw a much reduced production and the country had to pay back the debt to the Soviet Union, the Great Famine started as a result. Yang was working as the warehouse keeper at the production team, so he could sneak out some food for his family to keep them from starving. However, many villagers starved to death, especially the elderly and the sick. There were foods in the granary but because it was the government's grain reserves in case of war, the government did not open the granary even though people were starving. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

杨德山1934年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,杨老人回忆了大饥荒时的生活。1958年成立大食堂,不许各家烧火,要求人们都上食堂吃饭。1958年大丰收粮食多,不少人都浪费粮食,到60年粮食就减产了,加上要还苏联外债,饥荒开始了。杨老人因为是在生产队当保管长,可以拿点粮食回家,所以他们家没太挨饿,但好多村民都饿死,尤其是老人和病人。当时粮库虽然有粮食,但因为是国家的储备粮,所以并没有发放给挨饿的百姓。

Yang Zhizhong | 杨志忠, 2010

Yang Zhizhong (b. 1934) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Yang talks about his life during and after the Great Famine. Back then Yang's family was at his wife's hometown, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia. Foods were sufficient there, so Yang's family did not starve much. Yang was working on a livestock farm, but in order to make extra money, he hunted wild birds during his spare time.

杨志忠1934年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,杨老人回忆了大饥荒时期及之后的生活。当时杨老人在他老伴老家内蒙古省通辽市,那边粮食充足,老人一家并没挨饿。杨老人在牧场工作,为了多挣点外快,他还在业余时打野鸟卖钱。

Yin Tingzhi | 尹廷芝, 2010

Yin Tingzhi (b. 1929) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Yin talks about her experience of fleeing to the Great Northern Wilderness where foods were relatively sufficient during the Great Famine. In order to make money for the trip, Yin's family sold the wooden parts of their house to the Sanjiazi Coal Mine, but they had to keep the land because everyone was starving and no one wanted it. In the Great Northern Wilderness, Yin's husband worked for the local production team. The family of six had to sleep on a small bed extended by a piece of plank. After six months, because it was too cold there and her daughter was old enough to get married, Yin's family moved back to Huanzidong Village. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

尹廷芝1929年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,尹老人回忆了大饥荒时期逃难到粮食相对充足的北大荒的经历。为了凑够路费,尹老人一家把房子的木结构卖给三家子煤矿,但因为饥荒没人需要地皮,他们只能自己留下。到了北大荒后尹老人的丈夫在生产队工作,一家六口人就睡在一个小炕上,一边还拿木板接着。待了半年以后因为北大荒太冷,女儿也到了该结婚的年纪,尹老人全家又搬回了獾子洞。

Yin Tingxiang | 尹廷祥, 2010

Yin Tingxiang (b. 1942) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Yin recalls the life during the Great Famine. Many people were starving to death and the dead bodies were stacked up on the streets. Yin was still at school during that time. However, because of the famine, they did not have any class but all went out to dig wild herbs and tree barks for extra sustenance. Many people fled to Jilin and Heilongjiang Province because there were more foods there.

尹廷祥1942年出生,是沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,尹老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。那时村里饿死不少人,尸体堆得很高。尹老人当时还在上学,但因为大家都挨饿,学校也不上课,大家都去挖野菜吃树皮。好多人都逃到吉林、黑龙江等粮食相对充足的地方。

Yang Wanxiang | 杨万祥, 2010

Yang Wanxiang (b. 1922) is a resident of Huanzidong Village, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. In this interview, Yang recalls the life during the Great Famine. Yang was working as the supervisor of the village's production team. In 1959, everyone was still eating at the communal canteen, but starting from 1960 when the famine was at its worst, people had to eat at home. Many starved to death in that year. The situation began to improve in 1961. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

杨万祥1922年出生,是辽宁省沈阳市法库县獾子洞村村民。在这段口述中,杨万祥回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。杨老师当时是村里生产队的指导员。村里1959年还在大食堂吃饭,到了1960年就回家里吃饭,那一年最困难,村里饿死了不少人。情况直到1961年才有所好转。

Chenjia Village | 滨州市阳信县商店镇陈家村, 2010

Chenjia Village is located in Yangxin County, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zou Xueping.

陈家村位于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇。村民的录像采访人是邹雪平。

Gao Junrong | 高俊荣, 2010
Si Jinguan | 司金官, 2010

Si Jinguan (b.1935) lives in Chenjia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Si recalls life during the Great Famine. She and her husband were in their 20s, but the hunger weakened them so much that they coulnd't do any work. They ate all kinds of leaves and wild herbs. Several people starved to death in the village.

司金官1935年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇陈家村人。在这段口述中,司老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。因为挨饿,那时才二十几岁的她和他丈夫都干不动活,各种树叶和野菜都拿来吃。村里饿死了好几个人。

Zhang Peiying | 张佩英, 2010
Wang Xiuying | 王秀英, 2010

Guanzhuang Village | 滨州市阳信县劳店乡官庄村, 2010

Guanzhuang Village is located in Yangxin County, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zou Xueping.

官庄村位于山东省滨州市阳信县劳店乡。村民的录像采访人是邹雪平。

Wang Xiangrong | 王香荣, 2010

Xiaoyin Village | 滨州市阳信县商店镇小殷村, 2010

Xiaoyin Village is located in Yangxin County, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zou Xueping.

小殷村位于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇。村民的录像采访人是邹雪平。

Li Hongying | 李红英, 2010

Li Hongying (b. 1941) is a resident of Xiaoyin Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Li remembers life during the Great Famine. Beginning in 1958, people worked together in the field (called 'large formation combat'). They were starving and looking everywhere for things to eat. Only later did people get some food at People's Commune canteen. That year, four people in her family starved to death.

李红英1941年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇小殷村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒时的生活。1958年开展'大兵团作战',人们挨着饿在地里干活,四处找东西吃。之后吃上食堂才分到些食物。她家里那一年饿死了四口人。

Yin Huizhang | 殷会章, 2010

Yin Huizhang (b. 1939) is a resident of Xiaoyin Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Yin remembers life during the Great Famine. He used to be the barn keeper of the Production Team, yet he didn't see grains for six months between 1959 and 1960. Later, people could get half jin (250 grams) of food each day after working. In the worst year, more than 800 people, about half of the population in Shawo Village and Guanzhuang Village either starved to death or left (migrated to the Northeast, re-married, etc.).

殷会章1939年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇小殷村的村民。在这段口述中,殷老人回忆了大饥荒时的生活。他当时是生产队的粮食保管,1959年到1960年期间有六个月没见过粮食。在此之后人们干了活能在食堂领半斤粮食。那一年沙窝村和官庄村饿死的和离开的(逃去东北、改嫁等等)总共有八百多人,约原人口的一半。

Zoujia Village | 滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村, 2009-2013

Zoujia Village is located in Yangxin County, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Zou Xueping.

邹家村位于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇。村民的录像采访人是邹雪平。

Zou Shoutang | 邹寿堂, 2012
Zou Peishan | 邹佩珊, 2012
Li Guiying | 李桂英, 2010

Li Guiying (b.1925) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Li recalls her experience during the Great Famine. At that time, people were so starved that they were too weak to do anything, and they ate whatever they could find. Many people in the village starved to death.

李桂英1925年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒期间的经历。那时人们饿得做什么都没力气,也找来各种东西吃。村里饿死得人不少。

Chen Fengying | 陈凤英, 2010

Chen Fengying (b. 1937) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Chen talks about what she ate during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

陈凤英1937年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。 在这段口述中,陈老人讲述了她在大饥荒期间吃的食物。

Fu Yu'e | 付玉娥, 2010

Fu Yu'e (b.1926) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Fu recalls her experience during the Great Famine. When People's Commune canteen started, she had a daughter, and she gave birth to her younger son in 1960. In order to save food for her children, she was often so starved that she could barely move.

付玉娥1926年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中,付老人回忆了大饥荒期间的经历。吃食堂时她已经有了个女儿,1960年生下了小儿子。为了省下粮食给孩子吃,她常常饿得动弹不得。

Du Fengying | 杜凤英, 2010

Du Fengying (b. 1935) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Du recalls her experience at home and at People's Commune canteen during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

杜凤英1935年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中,杜老人回忆了大饥荒期间她在家里和公社食堂的经历。

Gao Yurong | 高玉荣, 2010

Gao Yurong (b. 1941) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. Four of Gao's family members died during the Great Famine. In this interview, she talks about People's Commune canteen, and those who starved to death, particularly her mother-in-law and grandmother. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

高玉荣1941年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。她家在大饥荒期间死了四口人。 在这段口述中,高老人说起了公社食堂和饿死的人,特别是她的婆婆和奶奶。

Zou Dengwu | 邹登武, 2010
Zhang Xuerong | 张学荣, 2010
Lv Junrong | 吕俊荣, 2010

Lv Junrong (b. 1946) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this oral history, Lv remembers how people suffered and what they ate during the Great Famine.

吕俊荣1946年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述历史中, 吕老人回忆了大饥荒期间人们受的磨难和吃的食物。

Zou Dengke | 邹登科, 2010

Zou Dengke (b. 1938) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou recalls life during the Great Famine. In the beginning, Zou and his wife tried everything to earn money for food, saving most food for their children. After the People's Commune canteen was established, he could get food after carrying coal every day, and life became slightly better. Although he saw food get wasted and knows that the famine was not a natural disaster, Zou still insist that the famine is not caused by Chairman Mao's policy, but the cadres at the local level.

邹登科1938年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。饥荒刚开始的时候,他和妻子用各种办法挣钱换吃的,还把吃的省給孩子们。食堂办起来后,他每天去推碳能分到粮食,生活稍微好转了些。虽然邹登科看见过好好的粮食被糟蹋,也知道饥荒不是自然灾害,他却强调说这不是因为毛主席的政策,而是下边的官有问题。

Zou Ailin | 邹爱玲, 2012

Zou Ailing (b.1941) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. She is Zou Quantang's older sister. In this interview, Zou clearly remembers the starvation she experienced during the Great Famine. When the 'Five Winds' first started, people had nothing to eat and the People's Commune canteen was not set up; Zou has eaten anything she could find. During the famine, her mother and two uncles all starved to death. The situation improved slightly later and people could eat sweet potato after earning work points, but many children starved to death.

邹爱玲1941年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。她是邹全堂的姐姐。在这段口述中,邹老人讲述了她记忆深刻的大饥荒期间挨饿的经历。刚开始'刮五风'时,人们没有粮食,集体食堂也没有建立,邹爱玲什么都找来吃过。她的大伯,二伯和母亲都在这段时间饿死了。后来稍有好转,挣了工分能吃地瓜,但饿死了不少孩子。

Zou Jinping | 邹金萍, 2010-2011

Zou Jinping (b. 1941) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou describes life during the Great Famine when there was severe shortage of food, even cooking utensils.

邹金萍1941年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中, 邹老人描述了大饥荒期间食物和炊具都匮乏的生活。

Zou Peiji | 邹佩吉, 2010-2012

Zou Peiji (b. 1944) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou recalls the difficult time during the Great Famine, when two people died every day in the village and nobody worked in the field. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

邹佩吉1944年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了三年饥荒最困难的时期;村子里每天饿死两个人,地里也没人干活。

Li Yutian | 李玉田, 2010

Li Yutian (b. 1940) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. He went to Boshan to work at a steel furnace in 1958. In this interview, Li talks about what and how he ate during the Great Famine.

李玉田1940年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。1958年他去了博山炼钢铁。在这段口述中,李老人讲述了他在大饥荒期间吃了什么,怎么吃的。

Li Xintian | 李鑫田, 2010

Li Xintian (b.1934) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Li talks about his experience during the Great Famine. The most bitters days started in the later half of 1959, when People's Commune Canteen had no food. Not only were grains extremely lacking, but both men and women also had to go dredging and ditching, leaving the elder and children at home. The starving people were forced to eat anything they could find. More than eighty people in his village starved to death, including his mother and two grandmothers. Life became a little better in the later half of 1961, when eight liang of grains was offered.

李鑫田1934年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人讲述了大饥荒时期的经历。最苦是1959年的下半年,食堂都吃不上了。不仅分的粮食远远不够吃,还不管男女都要到出去挖河挖沟,只剩下老人和孩子在家。挨饿的人们被逼得什么都吃。村里饿死了八十几个人,包括他的母亲和两个奶奶。1961年下半年开始按'八大两供应',生活才好了一些。

Zhao Changfeng | 赵长凤, 2010

Zhao Changfeng (b. 1941) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zhao recalls her experience during the Great Famine. When she was seventeen, she went begging with her mother; due to his lame leg, her father stayed home and made bamboo baskets in exchange of food. Later, she went begging in another county with a girl called Xiao Huan, walking long distances on foot and very scared of people's dogs. At that time, it was fortunate to get even just a little food from others. At 18 years old, she worked in the field for work points and ate anything she could find.

赵长凤1941年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中,赵老人回忆了大饥荒期间的经历。她17岁时和母亲一起去要饭,父亲因为腿瘸待在家里编箩筐换粮食。后来她也和另一个姑娘小寰一起走着去别的县要饭,最怕别人家里的狗。那时偶尔要到几口干粮已经觉得不错。18岁的时候在地里干活,饿得什么都找来吃。

Zhang Xirong | 张希荣, 2009-2012

Zhang Xirong (b. 1936) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zhang talks about eating at People's Commune canteen and at home during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张希荣1936年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。 在这段口述中, 张老人描述了大饥荒期间在公社食堂和家里吃饭的情况。

Wang Xiuqin | 王秀芹, 2010

Wang Xiuqin (b. 1936) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. During the Great Famine, Wang and her husband were working in a nearby town named Zhangjiadian, where they survived the hardest time. She says that she does not know the reason for the famine. She only heard that their team leader's superiors refused to give out food, and that there was grain in the barns but it was not for villagers.

王秀芹1936年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。大饥荒期间,王秀芹和她的丈夫在附近一个叫张家店的镇子干活,熬过了最困难的时候。她说她不清楚饥荒的原因,只听说上级不发给队长粮食,以及仓库里面有粮食,但不能发给村里人。

Song Qiuying | 宋秋英, 2010

Song Qiuying (b. 1928) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. During the Great Famine, many of Song's family members (including her father and son) died of starvation. She is one of the interviewees in the documentary The Starving Village (2010) by Zou Xueping. In this interview, Song describes the days before the death of her 11-year-old son. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

宋秋英1928年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。大饥荒期间,宋老人的许多家人(包括父亲和儿子)都饿死了。 她也是邹雪平的纪录片《饥饿的村子》(2010)中被采访的人之一。 在这段口述中,宋老人描述了她11岁的大儿子临死前的生活。

Zou Peijin | 邹佩瑾, 2012
Lv Zhuangai | 吕转改, 2010

Lv Zhuangai (b. 1928) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. During the Great Famine, she worked daily in the field and cried so much that she almost became blind. In this interview, Lv talks about what she ate for survival. She also remembers one time when her daughter Xiaozhu fell asleep in the field.

吕转改1928年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。大饥荒期间,她每天在田里干活,还几乎哭瞎了双眼。 在这段口述中,吕老人描述了她为了生存吃了什么。她还回忆起了女儿小珠在地里睡着的经历。

Zou Dengchang | 邹登昌, 2012

Zou Dengchang (b.1952) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. He is Song Qiuying's second son. He was very young during the Great Famine, but it left him a clear and profound memory. In this interview, Zou recalls what food he ate. His mother went out begging. His older brother died at 11 years old, who got poisoned after eating worms because of hunger. His grandfather starved to death. He also recounts which family suffered more and had more people died during the famine. He also recalls experience during the Cultural Revolution, especially how grandpa Changjin was forced to commit suicide by jumping into the well because he was accused of 'speculation and profiteering' by the cadres, who were punished afterwards.

邹登昌1952年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村,是宋秋英的二儿子。大饥荒时他的年龄虽不大,对那段时期的记忆却十分清晰深刻。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆起当时的经历:吃了什么、母亲出去要饭、大哥十一岁时怎么挨饿又吃了虫子中毒后死的,爷爷怎么饿死的。他还回忆了谁家饿死人最多,谁家饿得少些。另外,他还讲述了文革期间的经历,特别是长今爷爷因为做买卖被说是'投机倒把'逼得跳了井,村里的干部都受到处罚的事。

Zheng Yuping | 郑玉平, 2013

Zheng Yuping (b.1948) is a resident of Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zheng remembers life during the Great Famine. At that time, she went begging in other villages with her mother and younger brother who almost starved to death. One time, the villagers mistakenly accused her father of stealing sweet potato, tied him up and denounced him in a struggle session. Her father even thought of committing suicide because of the false accusation.

郑玉平1948年出生,是山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村的村民。在这段口述中,郑老人回忆了大饥荒时期的生活。那时母亲带着她的弟弟去别的村子要饭,弟弟差点饿死。一次,村里人误以为父亲偷地瓜,把他绑起来批斗,父亲甚至动了自杀的念头。

Zou Peiquan | 邹佩全, 2010

Zou Peiquan (b.1945) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou recalls his experience during the Great Famine. In 1958, people worked together in the field (called 'large formation combat') and sometimes grains were left rotten in the field. He picked and ate those rotten grains when he was very hungry. Soon afterwards he quit school, began eating in People's Commune canteen and went out working in the field and digging wild herbs. That year forty people in his village starved to death.

邹佩全1945年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。1958年兵团大作战,粮食都被放烂了,他挨饿的时候就去拾来吃。他很快就退学了,开始吃食堂,出去干活、挖野菜。那一年村子里饿死了四十口人。

Zou Quantang | 邹全堂, 2012

Zou Quantang (b.1955) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. He is Zou Ailing's younger brother. In this interview, Zou recalls his experiences during the Great Famine. In 1958, four-year-old Zou Quantang was given one bun per day; he would have starved to death if his sister did not save food for him. When he had dumplings for a New Year, he almost died of overload on that day.

邹全堂1955年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。他是邹爱玲的弟弟。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。1958年,四岁的邹全堂一天定量吃一个馍馍,靠姐姐省下来的饭才没饿死。过年的时候吃上了一顿饺子,差点被撑死。

Zou Zengtang | 邹增堂, 2010

Zou Zengtang (b. 1936) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. He is one of the interviewees appeared in the documentary The Starving Village (2010) by Zou Xueping. In this interview, Zou Zengtang talks about the starvation and deaths during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

邹增堂1936年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。 他也是邹雪平的纪录片《饥饿的村子》(2010)中被采访的人之一。在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了大饥荒期间人们挨饿和饿死的情况。

Zou Peiyi | 邹佩义, 2010

Zou Peiyi (b. 1941) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou remembers about People's Commune canteen, what people ate, how they starved and died during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

邹佩义1945年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中, 邹老人回忆了大饥荒时的公社食堂,人们吃的东西,挨饿以及饿死的情况。

Zou Peiyao | 邹佩瑶, 2010

Zou Peiyao (b.1938) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. He was the keeper of commune property in the village during the Great Famine. In this interview, Zou recalls what people ate at that time. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

邹佩瑶1938年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。 他在大饥荒期间是村里的保管员。 在这段口述中,邹老人回忆了当时人们吃了什么。

Zou Peifu | 邹佩浮, 2010

Zou Peifu (b. 1941) was born in Zoujia Village, Shangdian Town, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. In this interview, Zou recalls that 1960 was the hardest year with severe shortage of grain. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

邹佩浮1941年出生于山东省滨州市阳信县商店镇邹家村。在这段口述中, 邹老人回忆了1960年最困难时粮食极度短缺。

Li Xisheng | 李西生, 2012

Passed away in 2013

2013年去世。

Zoujia Village additional notes and transcripts | 有关邹家村的更多信息和采访抄录

Additional notes and transcript files created by Zou Xueping.

笔记和采访抄录人是邹雪平。

Qujia Village | 咸阳市泾阳县王桥镇屈家村, 2014-2015

Qujia Village is located in Jingyang County, Xianyang City, Shanxi Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Qu Yufeng.

屈家村位于陕西省咸阳市泾阳县王桥镇。村民的录像采访人是屈玉凤。

Li Yaqin | 李亚芹, 2014

Li Yaqin (b.1942) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. She is the interviewer's grandmother. In this interview, Li recalls experiences during the Great Famine. When the "three years of starvation" just began, she was still in her hometown in Gansu, where there was not much food at all. People ate all kinds of wild herbs, and many starved to death. In 1961, following others, she beggd her way to Shanxi and got married with her husband, life became a little better after that. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李亚芹1942年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。她是采访人的奶奶。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒时的经历。"三年饥饿"刚开始的时候,她还在甘肃老家,没吃的,人们什么野菜都吃,也饿死了很多人。1961年,她跟着别人要饭到了陕西,和现在的丈夫结了婚,之后日子就好过些。

Jiang Qiuyun | 蒋秋云, 2015

Jiang Qiuyun (b.1939) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. In this interview, Jiang remembers life during the Great Famine. There was not enough food at the People's Commune canteen, and people ate all kinds of things. At that time she worked at the agricultural cooperative, and her children were left with people who looked after children for work points, or be brought to the field with her. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

蒋秋云1939年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。在这段口述中,蒋老人回忆了大饥荒期间的生活。在食堂粮食不够,什么都拿来吃。那时在农业社干活,孩子只能交给专门看孩子赚工分的人,或者带去地里。

Wang Huiling | 王慧玲, 2015

Wang Huiling (b.1943) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. In this interview, Wang remembers life during the Great Famine. Working at the agricultural cooperative then, she could barely sleep for two hours every night. It was good when the People's Commune canteen first started, but it went from bad to worse and people had to eat chaff and wild herbs. People stole clovers from the field at night and ate corn skins because they were too hungry. She says even dogs would not eat those things now. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

王慧玲1943年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。在在这段口述中,王老人回忆了大饥荒期间的生活。那时在农业社干活,每天睡不到两个小时。吃食堂一开始很好,但后来就吃糠咽菜。群众吃不饱晚上去地里偷苜蓿菜,吃玉米皮,她说那些东西现在狗都不吃了。

Qu Quanyun | 屈全云, 2014

Qu Quanyuan (b.1930) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. In this interview, Qu remembers his experiences during the Great Famine. 1958 was a year of good harvest, and people could eat as much as they liked in People's Commune canteen, but slowly things got from bad to worse in 1959. The commune members didn't have enough to eat, but the cadres all ate well. The policies were strict then, and one would get criticized for complaining. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

屈全云1930年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。在这段口述中,屈老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。1958年是个丰收年,食堂里随便吃,但到1959年就慢慢不行了。社员吃不饱,但干部都吃得很好。那时得政策很严,如果胡说的话会被批斗。

Luo Suxia | 罗苏霞, 2015

Luo Suxia (b.1924) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. In this interview, Luo remembers life during the Great Famine. With four or five children in the family, they had neither enough work forces nor enough to eat. Her husband and she worked from day to night at the agricultural cooperative, often too starved to even walk. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

罗苏霞1924年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。在这段口述中,罗老人回忆了大饥荒期间的生活。因为家里有四五个孩子, 劳力少, 又不够吃,她和丈夫黑夜白天地在农业社干活,饿得走不动。

Zhang Xiuxia | 张秀霞, 2015

Zhang Xiuxia (b.1948) is a resident of Qujia Village, Yuqiao Town, Jingyang County, Shaanxi Province. In this interview, Zhang remembers life during the Great Famine. She recalls that once there were only two eggs left at home, and nothing left after she ate them, and her mother brought her to the grandmother's grave and cried. After getting married, they were so poor that she and her husband only had one comforter. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张秀霞1948年出生,是陕西省泾阳县王桥镇屈家村的村民。在这段口述中,张老人回忆了大饥荒期间的生活。她记得有一次家里只剩下两个鸡蛋,她吃了之后就没吃的了,被妈妈领着去外婆的坟上哭。结婚后,穷得和丈夫只有一床被子。

Longju Village | 泸州市合江县白米乡龙聚村, 2013

Longju Village is located in Hejiang County, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

龙聚村位于四川省泸州市合江县白米乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Li Zhezhen | 李泽珍, 2013
Cheng Wenbi | 程文碧, 2013

Cheng Wenbi (b. 1945) is a resident in Longju Village, Baimi Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. Her family moved here from another village as poor peasants during the Land Reform. In this interview, Cheng remembers the communal dining hall during the Great Famine, all kinds of food people ate at that time, and her family members (mother, younger sister, grandmother, two uncles) who starved to death.

程文碧1945年出生,是四川省合江市白米乡龙聚村的村民。土改时她和家人作为贫雇农从另一个村子搬了过来。 在这段口述中,程老人回忆了伙食团时期的集体食堂,那时人们吃的各种食物,还有她饿死的家人(母亲,妹妹,外婆,两个叔叔)。

Li Chenyu | 李成玉, 2013

Li Chengyu (b. 1946) was born in Yuhewan Village, Juewu Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province,and now lives in Longju Village, Baimi Town. In this interview, Li remembers her bitter life since she was four years old. When China was just 'liberated' in 1949, the Li family was classified as 'landlord'; everything was confiscated and her mother was taken for struggle sessions. In 1958, People's Communes were established, not only communal canteen was established in place of family ones, neighbors were forced to live together. Without enough food, she ate whatever she could find. Due to the landlord class, her mother's family was given very little food and five people starved to death.

李成玉1946年出生于四川泸州市合江县觉悟乡玉河湾村,现居白米乡龙聚村。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了她从4岁开始的苦日子。1949年刚'解放'时,李成玉家被判为'地主成份',东西统统没收,妈妈被抓去批斗。1958年公社化开始后,不仅食堂实行集体化,邻里也强迫搬到一起住。因为食物不够,她什么都找来吃过。因为地主成份,她妈妈家分到的粮食少,饿死了五个人。

Xian Zhongshi | 先宗诗, 2013

Xian Zongshi (b. 1944) lives in Longju Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. He is the other interviewee, Cheng Wenbi's husband; they moved together to the Wu family's house after land reform. In this interview, Xian recalls his experiences during the Great Famine. Because his father died in the early fifties, his mother with bounded feet had to earn work points with the children when People's Commune was established in 1958. Xian ate whatever available at the time, and got terribly ill. In 1961, the Production Team cadres and the keeper divided the village's grains among themselves and accused the Liu brothers (Liu Chaoyun, Liu Chaogui, who are also interviewed) of stealing. They also took away the animals raised by the villagers to make up for the grains. Xian became the Production Team leader between 1972 and 1983, and has taken revenge on these old cadres during the Cultural Revolution.

先宗诗1944年出生,现居四川省泸州市合江县白米乡龙聚村。他是另一位被访人程文碧的丈夫,土改时作为贫农一起搬到吴家。在这段口述中,先老人回忆了他在大饥荒期间的经历。他的父亲50年代初就去世了,人民公社开始后,只有裹脚的母亲带着孩子抢工分。当时正在长身体的先宗诗什么都吃过,还得了'湿黄病'。生产队的干部和保管员1961年私分了公粮,却诬陷说是刘家的兄弟偷了,还拖走村民的牲口来抵粮。先宗诗1972年到1983年是队长,在文革时也对这些老干部实施了报复。

Wu Tinyi | 吴廷易, 2013

Wu Tinyi (b. 1937) was born in Longju Village, Baimi Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. As a son from a landlord's family, Wu's life has been strongly influenced by his class background. In this interview, he recollects about the struggles of poor peasants against landlords. He also recalls his experience during the Great Leap Forward after the village started the People's Commune in 1957. He talks about all kinds of food people ate during the Great Famine, and the struggle against village cadres during the Cultural Revolution.

吴廷易1937年出生于四川省合江市白米乡龙聚村。他的一生被地主子女的阶级背景深深影响。 在这段口述中,吴老人回忆了土改时贫下中农斗地主,大跃进时他(1957年)加入人民公社后的所见所闻,大饥荒期间人们吃的各种东西,还有文革时对村里干部的批斗。

Wu Tinqia | 吴廷恰, 2013

Wu Tinqia (b. 1942) was born in Longju Village, Baimi Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. In this interview, he talks about his family being classified as landlord, two were even killed during the Land Reform. He talks about what people ate and how some stole food during the Great Famine. He also remembers the struggle sessions during the Cultural Revolution.

吴廷恰1942年出生于四川省合江市白米乡龙聚村。在这段口述中,他说起了土改时吴家被判为地主,有两人被枪毙。大饥荒时期人们吃的东西,有人偷食物,还有文革时的批斗会。

Xiangyang Village | 泸州市合江县白米乡向阳村, 2013

Xiangyang Village is located in Hejiang County, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

向阳村位于四川省泸州市合江县白米乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Liu Yuqing | 刘玉清 (刘清云?), 2013
Liu Chaogui | 刘朝贵, 2013

Liu Chaogui (b. 1937) is a resident of Longju Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. He is Liu Chaoyun's younger brother. In this interview, Liu recalls his experiences during the Great Famine, such as being in charge of the food tickets at People's Commune canteen, working at the Production Team, and being falsely accused of stealing. He thinks people starved 'not (because) the country persecuted the people, but the people persecuted the country, the people persecuted the people'.

刘朝贵1937年出生,是四川省泸州市合江县白米乡龙聚村的村民。他是刘朝云的弟弟。在这段口述中,刘老人回忆了大饥荒期间的经历,包括吃食堂时管饭票,搞生产和被诬陷偷粮食。他认为人们挨饿'不是(因为)国家整人民,是人民整国家, 人民整人民'。

Chen Shuxian | 陈淑仙, 2013

Chen Shuxian (b. 1928) lives in Xiangyang Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. She is from a 'poor peasant' family, and was the director of the village committee of the Women's Federation during the land reform. In this interview, Chen recalls the experience of starvation during the Great Famine. She also talks about the reason for the famine: Mao Zedong called for production increase but the cadres exaggerated the production too much.

陈淑仙1928年出生,现居四川省泸州市合江县白米乡向阳村。她出身贫农,土改时是妇女主任。在这段口述中,陈老人回忆了大饥荒期间挨饿的经历。她还说饥荒的原因是毛泽东号召增产以及干部虚报产量。

Luo Zhaoying | 罗招英, 2013

Luo Zhaoying (b.1933) lives in Longju Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. In this interview, Luo recalls her experiences during the Great Famine. When eating at the People's Commune canteen, she has eaten anything, even raw grasshoppers. Her father-in-law starved to death due to edema disease.

罗招英1933年出生,现居四川省泸州市合江县白米乡龙聚村。在这段口述中,罗老人回忆了大饥荒期间的经历。她在吃食堂的时候,什么都找来吃,甚至生吃过蚂蚱。她的公公饿出了水肿病,死了。

Hu Naiqing | 胡乃清, 2013

Hu Naiqing (b. 1938) lives in Xiangyang Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. In this interview, Hu recalls the experience at People's Commune canteen during the Great Famine, and what people ate when they were starved.

胡乃清1938年出生,现居四川省泸州市合江县白米乡向阳村。在这段口述中,胡老人回忆了大饥荒期间吃食堂的经历,以及最饿的时候找来吃的东西。

Liu Chaoyun | 刘朝云, 2013

Liu Chaoyun (b. 1933) is a resident of Longju Village, Baimi Town Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. He is Liu Chaogui's older brother. In this interview, Liu talks about his experience during the Great Famine. Whether constructing blast furnace or working for the Production Team during the Great Leap forward, some people worked hard, some didn't. Honest people had a rougher time. His father got edema disease and starved to death in 1959 when eating at the People's Commune canteen. The situation did not improve until households were allowed to contract land from the collective.

刘朝云1933年出生,是四川省泸州市合江县白米乡龙聚村的村民。他是刘朝贵的大哥。在这段口述中,刘老人讲述了大饥荒期间的经历。在大跃进炼钢铁时或是生产队上工作时,都有人干活有人偷懒,老实的人就吃苦。他的父亲1959年吃食堂的时候得水肿病饿死了。直到田土被下放人们才又不挨饿了。

Banli Village | 泸州市合江县白米乡板栗村, 2013

Banli Village is located in Hejiang County, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

板栗村位于四川省泸州市合江县白米乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Liu Dunping | 刘敦平, 2013

Liu Dunping (b.1946) was born in Banli Village, Baimi Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province. In this interview, Liu talks about life during the Great Famine. Although his family had neither land nor house, they were classified as 'rich peasant' because of conflict with the chairman of the peasant association. They got less food in the People's Commune canteen and earned fewer work points. After his father starved to death in 1961, 14-year-old Liu Dunping quit school and worked at home, taking care of three younger sisters and his mother.

刘敦平1946年出生于四川泸州市合江县白米乡板栗村。在这段口述中,刘老人讲述了大饥荒时期的生活。家中虽然没地没房产,却因为得罪农会主席被定为'富农成份'。在食堂分到的食物少,干活挣的工分也少。1961年父亲饿死后,14岁的刘敦平退学回家劳动,照顾三个妹妹和母亲。

Mu Liangzhao | 穆良昭, 2013

Mu Liangzhao (b.1950) was born in Chenwuji Village, Baiguo Town, Hejiang County, Sichuan Province, and now lives in Banli Village, Baimi Town, Hejiang County. In this interview, Mu recalls life during the Great Famine. In 1958, Mu Liangzhao quit school when she was at third grade and stayed at home to work. She clearly remembers what she had eaten when there was not enough food at the People's Commune canteen, as well as the experience of stealing food from Production Team's field. In 1960, her father, sister-in-law and two nieces all starved to death.

穆良昭1950年出生于四川省泸州市合江县白果乡陈屋基村,现居合江县白米乡板栗村。在这段口述中,穆老人回忆了大饥荒期间的生活。1958年,小学三年级的穆良昭退学回家干活。她清楚地记得食堂不够吃的时候找来吃的东西以及去生产队地里偷吃的经历。1960年,她的父亲,嫂子和两个侄女都饿死了。

Gaojia Village | 昆明市富民县款庄乡高家村, 2010

Gaojia Village is located in Fumin County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

高家村位于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Gu Ming | 顾明, 2010

Gu Ming (b. 1943) was born in Gaojia Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Gu recalls his experiences during the Great Famine. In 1958, he worked at the reservoir, and once worked continuously for ten days and night. People ate very well when People's Commune canteen first began, but that did not last long. Because his brother was the head of the canteen, Gu did not starve as much as others did. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

顾明1943年出生于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷高家村。在这段口述中,顾老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。1958年,顾明上水库工地干活,有一次持续工作了十天十夜。伙食团刚开始时吃的很好,但过了一段时间粮食就不够了。因为哥哥是伙食团的'老总',他才比别人饿得少一些。

Li Meiying | 李美英, 2010
Ni Meilan | 倪美兰, 2010

Ni Meilan (b. 1942) lives in Gaojia Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Ni talks about her experiences from 1958 to 1961 (during the Great Famine). She joined the Great Leap Forward and Great Collaboration at 16 years old. Without enough cattle for plowing, people did it themselves, and someone died because of that. Once Ni got caught stealing food; not only were her work points deducted, she was forbidden to eat for three days. In May 1959, her parents were poisoned to death because they were too old to work. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

倪美兰1942年出生,1959年嫁到了云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷高家村。在这段口述中,倪老人讲述了她从1958年到1961年(大饥荒)的经历。她16岁参加大跃进,去搞大协作。当时犁地牛不够,让人去,有人活活拉犁拉死了。有一次她偷吃东西被发现,不仅工分被扣,还被罚三天不许吃饭。1959年5月,她的父母因为不是劳动力被人毒死了。

Li Xingfu | 李兴富, 2010

Li Xingfu (b.1933) was born in Gaojia Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province (where the interviewer used to be an intellectual youth). In this interview, Li recalls his experience at the People's Commune canteen during the Great Famine. He clearly remembers how much grain each person got at that time and the starvation he experienced.

李兴富1933年出生于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷高家村 (采访人曾经在此插队)。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒期间吃食堂的经历。他还清楚地记得当时分得多少粮食以及一些挨饿的轶事。

Sun Shaomei | 孙绍美, 2010

Sun Shaomei (b.1932) is a resident in Yuxueshan Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Sun recalls the bitter days during the Great Famine. During the day, while carrying her child, she cut firewood, carried water and cooked for the People's Commune canteen. At night, she also made straw sandals.

孙绍美1932年出生,是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷小白坡村的村民。在这段口述中,孙老人回忆了大饥荒期间的苦日子。她白天带着孩子去砍柴挑水,給食堂做饭,晚上还要打草鞋。

Jiaochangba Village | 昆明市富民县款庄镇校场坝村, 2016

Jiaochangba Village is located in Fumin County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

校场坝村位于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Li Jiade | 李家德, 2016

Li Jiade (b.1940) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. He is the older brother of Li Jiaren. He was born in a poor peasant family and never went to school. He was a production team leader for over two decades. During the Great Leap Forward, they worked every day, which was called 'launching satellites'. Their goal was to surpass the iron and steel output in the US and the UK. During farming seasons, they could have six liang of grains per day; at other times, only five liang. They were constantly starved. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李家德(1937年出生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民,李家仁的哥哥。他出生贫农,没念过书,当了二十多年的生产队长。大跃进期间,他们每天干活,被称为'放卫星',目标是使中国的钢铁量赶超英美。他们农忙的时候可以吃六两粮食,平时五两,饥饿难耐。

Li Jiaren | 李家仁, 2016

Li Jiaren (b.1940) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. He is the younger brother of Li Jiade. During the Great Leap Forward, Li Jiaren was a teenager in school. There was no food at home, so he and his family could only wait for canteen meals every day. There were grains stored in the village barns but only cadres dared to steal from there. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李家仁(1940年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民,李家德的弟弟。大跃进期间,李家仁十几岁,还在学校念书,家里没有东西吃,每天等食堂开饭。仓库里有粮食,但只有干部敢偷吃。

Xiong Jiahong | 熊家红, 2016

Xiong Jiahong (b. 1937) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. Xiong was born in a poor peasant family and was a production team leader for a few years. During the Great Leap Forward, Xiong worked every day with his fellow villagers but they didn't have enough to eat. He complained about to some cadres but was accused of being 'reactionary' by cadres. Xiong's wife Yang Shizhen came from a landlord family in a nearby village. Xiong was too poor to afford betrothal gifts, so he married this landlord's daughter who didn't ask for any betrothal gifts. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

熊家红(1937年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民。熊家红出身贫农,当过四五年生产队长。大跃进期间,熊老人和其他人天天劳动,却填不饱肚子,和干部抱怨,被指反动。熊老人的妻子杨世珍来自邻村一个地主家庭。熊老人因为家里没有钱买彩礼,所以娶了不需要彩礼的地主家女儿。

Li Xingke | 李兴科, 2016

Li Xingke (b.1934) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. Li Xingke was born in a poor peasant family and never went to school. He was a production team leader for over a decade. During the period of communal canteens, villagers were drafted to work outside their village and few people were left to work in the field. There was little production as result of this. Li said that Chairman Mao was always right. Nobody died of hunger there, but some got sick because of hunger and died eventually. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李兴科(1934年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民。李兴科出身贫农,没上过学,当过十几年的生产队队长。吃集体食堂时期,劳动力被外调,无人生产粮食,所以没有很多东西吃。李老人说毛主席做的事情都是对的。当地没有人饿死,但是有人饿出病来,随后去世。

Yang Shizhen | 杨世珍, 2016

Yang Shizhen (b.1939) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. Yang is Xiong Jiahong's wife and she cannot manage her daily life on her own. During the Land Reform, Yang's family was classified as landlord. Out of fear, her father hanged himself. Her mother was locked up for a month. Since her mother was sick, 12-year-old Yang Shizhen went to struggle session in lieu of her parents. She got married at the age of 18 and then had 10 children, 5 of which died at the age of 2 or 3. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

杨世珍(1939年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民。杨世珍是熊家红的妻子,生活不能自理。土地改革期间,她家被评为地主后,其父由于恐惧,上吊自杀,其母被关押一个月。由于母亲患病,十二岁的杨世珍代父母去参加批斗大会。她十八岁嫁人,生了十个孩子,五个在两三岁的时候病死。

Li Meicui | 李美翠, 2016

Li Meicui (b. 1939) is a resident of Jiaochangba Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. She is the wife of Li Jiade. Li moved to her current village after getting married when she was 18. She gave birth to three children. During the Great Leap Forward, she brought her two little kids to work every day and did all kinds of work. Her kids cried when they were hungry but she had nothing to feed them. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李美翠(1939年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡校场坝村村民,是另一位被采访人李家德的妻子。李老人十八岁的时候从外地嫁过来,生了三个孩子。大跃进期间,她每天带着自己两个年幼的孩子出工,做各种各样的工作。孩子饿了会边哭边叫,但是她没有东西喂孩子吃。

Xiaobaipo Village | 昆明市富民县款庄乡小白坡村, 2010-2016

Xiaobaipo Village is located in Fumin County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

小白坡村位于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Pan Zhongmei | 潘宗美, 2010

Pan Zhongmei (b. 1941) was born in Xiaobaipo Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province. She was the accountant in the village during the Great Famine. In this interview, Pan recalls her experiences at that time. When People's Commune canteen started, she calculated work points to decide how much food each person could get. Some cadres stole grains home, but she 'did not dare to speak up, did not dare to interfere'. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

潘宗美1941年出生于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷小白坡村。她在大饥荒期间是村里的会计。在这段口述中,潘老人回忆了当时的经历。伙食团开始后,她每天要统计工分来算給多少吃的。当干部的会把粮食偷回家,但她'不敢说,不敢管'。

Li Guoen | 李国恩, 2016

Li Guoen (b.1935) is a resident of Xiaobaipo Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. He was born in a landlord family, which was once the richest family in the village. They had the largest yard in the village. During the Land Reform, the yard was used as the brigade's office, medical station and village store. Li Guoen was fairly young when his family properties were confisticated and redistributed. Since he had finished elementary school, he was sent to be an account in another village. He tried his best not to exaggerate harvest amount in the village so their team wasn't gravely starved. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李国恩(1935年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡小白坡村村民。他出生于地主家庭,他家曾是该村首富,有全村最大的院子。土地改革期间,这个院子充公作为大队办公室,医疗站,卖东西的商店。 那时李国恩年龄还小,家庭财产被重新分配。他因为读过小学,被抽调去另外一个村做会计。他尽量不虚报粮食产量,所以他们队没有挨很多饿

Xiong Yun | 熊云, 2016

Xiong Yun (b. 1940) is a resident of Xiaobaipo Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. During the period of communal canteens, Xiong was a teenager. Many people were slowly starved to death. Thus, a 'nutrition canteen' was set up to amass sick people and serve a little bit more rice. Later when individual families could keep pigs, people had to hand in their pork and offer a pig tail as evidence. Xiong was a teacher in a non-public school in the village and was paid poorly. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

熊云(1940年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡小白坡村村民。公社食堂时期,熊老人才十几岁。当时很多人慢慢饿死,于是当地办了'营养食堂',把身体差的人聚集起来多给他们一点米。每家可以养猪以后,杀猪必须上交,并拿猪尾巴证明。他在村里当民办教师,待遇很差。

Xugu Village | 昆明市富民县款庄镇蒣谷村, 2016

Xugu Village is located in Fumin County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

徐(蒣)谷村位于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Li Fuxuan | 李富选, 2016

Li Fuxuan (b. 1935) is a resident of Xugu Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. Li attended school till third grade and then started to work as an apprentice with his father to learn to flatten out felts. His family was classified as poor peasant and got two acres of land. Li participated in some struggle sessions. Peasants were encouraged to vent out their grievances and beat up the denounced. During the Great Leap Forward, villagers worked every day but they didn't work hard. They could finish the work in a village overnight so the crops were not taken proper care of at all. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李富选(1932年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷村村民。李老人回忆,他读书读到小学三年级以后,便跟着父亲学手艺,擀羊毛。他们家被评为贫农,分得了两亩地。李老人参与了批斗,农民被启发诉苦,然后打被批斗的人。大跃进期间,农民天天干活却都是马虎了事,一夜完成一个村子,庄稼都被搞烂了。

Dong Cuimei | 董翠美, 2016

Dong Cuimei (b. 1942) is a resident of Xugu Village, Kuanzhuang, Fuming County, Kunming, Yunnan Province. During the period of communal canteens, she was 12 years old and didn't starve. She recollects people wearing coarse clothing, self-made shoes and living in thatched cottages. During the Cultural Revolution, because their village was relatively remote, life wasn't much affected there. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

董翠美(1942年生)是云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷村村民。公社食堂期间,她十二岁,没有挨饿。她回忆了当时人们穿粗布衣,自己缝制鞋子,住茅草房。文革期间,他们村由于比较偏远,没有受到太大影响。

Zhou Zhengying | 周正英, 2010
Jiao Meilan | 角美兰, 2010
Hu Xiuying | 胡秀英, 2010

Yuxueshan Village | 昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷玉学山村, 2010

Yuxueshan Village is located in Fumin County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Wu Wenguang.

玉学山村位于\云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡。村民的录像采访人是吴文光。

Qi Binghong | 齐炳洪, 2010

Qi Binghong (b. 1933) was born in Yuxueshan Village, Fumin County, Kunmin City, Yunnan Province. He is the first party member and the first Production Team leader in the village. In this interview, Qi talks about his experience during the Great Leap Forward. As a Party member, he had to lead the mass and work more for the Great Collaboration. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

齐炳洪1933年出生于云南省昆明市富民县款庄乡蒣谷玉学山村。他是村子里的第一个党员,也是第一任队长。在这段口述中,齐老人讲述了大跃进时期的经历。因为他是党员,大协作时要带领群众多干活。

Baiyun Village | 临沧市凤庆县洛党镇白云村, 2011-2014

Baiyun Village is located in Fengqing County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. Interviews in this sub-series were conducted and filmed by Li Xinmin.

白云村位于云南省临沧市凤庆县洛党镇。村民的录像采访人是李新民。

Li Guocheng | 李国城, 2011

Li Guocheng (b.1949) was born in Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li remembers those who died during the Great Famine: one uncle who starved to death at 53 after his share of grain from People's Commune canteen got stolen, and another uncle who hung himself after being caught stealing corns, etc. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李国城1949年出生于云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村。在这段口述中,李老人忆起大饥荒期间死去的人们:因为集体食堂分配的粮食被偷走而在53岁被饿死的叔叔,另一个偷吃玉米被抓后上吊自杀的叔叔,等等。

Zhang Guiying | 张贵英, 2012

Zhang Guiying (b.1947) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Zhang remembers the difficult days during the Great Famine. The family of five (she has two younger brothers) hardly had enough to eat in People's Commune Canteen. Her father froze to death when he went to buy salt on one winter day. After losing the main labor, the family's life became even harder. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张贵英1947年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村大树林寨子的村民。在这段口述中,张老人回忆了大饥荒时期困难的生活。 她的一家五口人(她有两个小兄弟)在公社食堂很难吃饱。一个冬天她的父亲出去买盐时冻死后,家里失去了劳动力日子更难过了。

Hui Congxiang | 辉从香, 2011

Hui Congxiang (b. 1935) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. She gave birth to a baby during the Great Famine. In this interview, Hui describes how she took care of her new born when there was severe food shortage and heavy workload. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

辉从香1935年出生, 是云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村的村民。她在大饥荒期间生了孩子。在这段口述中,辉老人描述了她在食物短缺又工作量大的情况下照顾新生婴儿的经历。

Li Guotai | 李国泰, 2011

Li Guotai (b. 1948) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li talks about his experiences during the Great Leap Forward. In 1958, he was sent to Huangcaoba with his father to construct blast furnace; everyday, he carried water for the Gao family who maintained the steel furnace. Later in the same year when he returned to Baiyun village, the "White Flag and Red Flag Campaign" started. In 1960, his family ate at the People's Commune canteen. He still clearly remembers how much grain each person could get in 1962.

李国泰1948年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。在这段口述中,李老人讲述了他在大跃进期间的经历。1958年,他同父亲一起被分到黄草坝大闹钢铜铁,天天为守炉子的高家抬水。下半年回到白云村后,"拔白旗,插红旗"运动开始了。1960年一家人在伙食团吃饭。他还清楚地记得1962年每个人分得多少粮食。

Li Guofen | 李国芬, 2011

Li Guofen (b. 1945) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. She is the interviewer's maternal grandmother. In this interview, Li recalls the food people ate during the several years of People's Commune canteen. Because her family had more children and elderly to support, life was very difficult. The few animals raised at home died mostly. Dead cows could not be eaten, they would be taken away and buried by the Production Team.

李国芬1945年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村 。她是采访者的外婆。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了伙食团那几年大集体吃的食物。因为家里小孩老人多,劳动力少,生活很是艰苦。牲口养的虽多,死的也快。死牛不能吃,还会被生产队拖走埋起来。

Yang Lanzhao | 杨兰赵, 2012
Bi Guangrong | 毕光荣, 2011

Bi Guangrong (b.1942) was born in Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Bi describes food shortage in People's Commune canteen, which was shared among several villages during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

毕光荣1942年出生于云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村。 在这段口述中,毕老人描述了大饥荒期间被许多村子所共享的公社食堂粮食紧张的情况。

Luo Shiying | 罗世英, 2011

Luo Shiying (b.1921) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Luo recalls the Great Famine when the People's Commune canteen gave little food but people had to work day and night. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

罗世英1921年出生, 是云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村的村民。在这段口述中,罗老人回忆了大饥荒期间的日子。她说当时集体食堂分配的食物粮太少,但人们还是日夜干活。

Li Chunfang | 李春芳, 2012

Li Chunfang (b. 1950) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. He is educated, and has written a genealogy book for the Li family. In this interview, Li recalls the development of the Great famine, and believes that it is "not a natural disaster, but a man-made misfortune". Life was good during the first few months in 1958 when the People's Commune canteen first started, but soon went from bad to worse. In 1959, a few starved to death. The canteen once took down a vacant house for firewood. Li also narrates other movements he experienced with his family and other villagers, such as the campaign of "supassing the UK and the US" in iron and steel production, the "White Flag and Red Flag" campaign, and constructing blast furnaces druing the Great Leap Forward. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李春芳1950年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。他是个文化人,曾写过一本李氏家谱。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒的过程,认为"大食堂化不是天灾是人祸"。1958年集体食堂开始的几个月生活很好,之后却越来越差,1959年就饿死了人。食堂还把空置的房子砍来当柴烧。另外,李老人也讲述了他和家人与其他村民共同经历的赶英超美,红旗白旗,大炼钢铁等运动。

Li Wenxue | 李文学, 2012

Li Wenxue (b.1944) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li recalls experiences during the Great Famine. He used to be the head of the militiamen, and had led them capturing bad guys and crticizing landlords and rich peasants at struggle sessions. Later when eating at the People's Commune canteen, he had two liang of rice for each meal, and had all kinds of wild herbs when that was not enough.

李文学1944年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。他当过民兵的头,带着大家抓坏人、批斗地主和富农。后来吃食堂,他一顿吃二两米,不够的时候吃各种野菜。

Zhang Xiaomei | 张小妹, 2012

Zhang Xiaomei (b.1928) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Yang remembers the experience of eating at People's Commune Canteen and working for the collective during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

张小妹1928年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村大坟地寨子村民。在这段口述中,张老人回忆了大饥荒时吃食堂以及集体干活的经历。

Li Guangzu | 李光祖, 2012

Li Guangzu (b. 1928) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. He joined the People's Liberation Army in 1951. In this interview, Li remembers the difficult life while eating at People's Commune canteen and all sorts of famine food people ate.

李光祖1928年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。他1951年参加了解放军。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了吃集体食堂的困难生活以及拿来充饥的食物。

Li Xiaozhi | 李小枝, 2014

Li Xiaozhi (b. 1941) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li talks about her experiences during the Great Famine, such as working on the mine, picking tea-leaves and eating at People's Commune canteen.

李小枝1941年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。在这段口述中,李老人讲述了她在大饥荒期间挖矿,采茶,吃伙食团的经历。

Yang Chunyun | 杨春云, 2012

Yang Chunyun (b.1930) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. During the Great Famine, Yang stole grains from the interviewer's great grandfather, who later starved to death; the grandparents of the interviewer never talked to him afterwards. In this interview, Yang remembers his experiences during the Great Famine. While eating at the People's Commune canteen, his household had six children and his old mother (who starved to death). He did all kinds of work in the village, and was sent to a steel mill, where he constructed blast furnace and forged hoes for four years.

杨春云1930年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。在大饥荒期间,采访人的太祖父被杨春云偷过米,之后饿死了,因此采访人的外公和外婆至今不和他说话。在这段口述中,杨老人回忆了他三年饥饿的经历。吃集体食堂的时候,他家里有六个孩子和年迈的母亲(在这期间饿死了)。他在村里样样活都做过,还被调去铁厂4年,炼铁水,打锄头。

Yang Du | 杨渡, 2011

Yang Du (b. 1946) was born in Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. He used to be the keeper of commue property in the village, and also is the interviewer's maternal grandfather. In this interview, Yang talks about how his father starved to death due to the People's Commune canteen during the Great Famine. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

杨渡1946年出生于云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村。他曾经是村子里的保管员,也是采访者的外公。 在这段口述中,杨老人讲述了大饥荒期间他的父亲因为集体食堂而饿死的经历。

Pu Yingzhen | 普应珍, 2012

Pu Yingzhen (b. 1941) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Pu remembers the experience of communal eating during the Great famine, especially different kinds of famine food that were hard to swallow. She did a lot of hard labor in order to earn work points.

普应珍1941年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。在这段口述中,普老人回忆了大饥荒期间集体吃饭的经历,尤其是各种难以下咽的食物,为了挣工分,她也干了很多活。

Pu Yingxiang | 普应香, 2012

Pu Yingxiang (b.1955) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province.In this interview, Pu recalls that her mother married three times. Her first two husbands died young.

普应香1955年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在这段口述中,普老人回忆了她母亲三次结婚的事情.前两人丈夫都去世早。

Li Bugao | 李步高, 2012

Li Bugao (b.1930) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province.In this interview, Li recalls experiences during the Great Famine. He had cooked for the People's Commune canteen and known many cadres, who went to his place to eat. He had a wife who died in 1961. He says that his wife now is from the landlord class.

李步高1930年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒时期的经历。 他以前帮大食堂煮过饭,还认识很多当官的人,以前常常去他那吃饭。他有过一个老婆,1961年死了。他还说现在的老婆是地主分子。

Li Wenshuang | 李文双, 2012

Li Wenshuang (b.1949) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. He is disabled. In this interview, Li remembers the experience of having to work while there was little to eat during the Great Famine. In addition, he recalls that three people in his neighbor's family died in one month, and a cadre called Bi Guangxiong hung himself fearing that he would be a victim of struggle sessions because he ate too much. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李文双1949年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。他是个残疾人。 在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒期间粮食短缺却必须干活的情况。另外,他还说起邻居家一个月饿死三个人和叫毕光雄的干部怕因为多吃被斗争而上吊自杀的事。

Li Qiaoying | 李侨英, 2011

Li Qiaoying(b.1939) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li remembers life during the Great Famine. People's Commune canteen was set up in 1958. 18-year-old Li Qiaoying was sent to different places for Great Collaboration (voluntary labor). At the People's Commune canteen, ten people had ten bowls of rice and shared a pot of vegetable soup each day. Several years were endured in this way.

李侨英1939年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了伙食团时期的生活。大集体开始于1958年,18岁的李侨英到处调去大协作(义务劳动)。在集体食堂,十个人每天只分吃十碗饭和一盆菜汤。几年的日子这样"硬熬过去"。

Li Shaozhong | 李绍忠, 2012

Li Shaozhong (b.1944) was born in Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. He used to be a militiaman. In this interview, Li recalls his experiences during the Great Famine – communal dining, communal labor, and constructing blast furnace. He also explains the militarized organization of villages at that time.

李绍忠1944年出生于云南省凤庆县白云村。他曾经是一名民兵。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了大饥荒期间集体吃饭,集体干活,以及大炼钢铁的经历。他还解释了那个时期对村子的军事化组织 。

Li Wenming | 李文明, 2012

Li Wenming (b.1947) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province.In this interview, Li recalls his experiences at the People's Commune canteen during the Great Famine.

李文明1947年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在这段口述中,李老人回忆了他吃大食堂的一些经历。

Li Hao | 李浩, 2011

Li Hao (b. 1929) was born in Baiyun Village, Luodang Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. In this interview, Li talks about the different amount of food distributed to cadres and regular villagers during the Great Famine. He also recalls how the cadres exaggerated the grain production. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

李浩1929年出生于云南省临沧市凤庆县落党镇白云村。在这段口述中,李老人讲述了大饥荒期间干部和其他人分到食量的区别。他还回忆了干部如何谎报粮食产量。

Pu Guizhen | 普桂珍, 2014

Pu Guizhen (b. 1928) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. During the Great Famine, she was a cadre and gave birth to her child. In this interview, Pu remembers the hardship of having to do all kinds of work after giving birth, the starvation while eating in People's Commune Canteen, and the struggle sessions. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

普桂珍1928年出生,是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。在大饥荒期间她是个干部,也生了孩子。在这段口述中,普老人回忆了刚生完孩子干各种活的困难,吃集体食堂时的饥饿,还有批斗会。

Hui Shilan | 辉仕兰, 2012

Hui Shilan (b. 1950) is a resident of Baiyun Village, Fengqing Town, Yunnan Province. During the Great Famine, she quit school and worked in the field. In this interview, Hui remembers the starvation, People's Commune Canteen and the struggle sessions at that time. The transcript of this interview has been translated into English.

辉仕兰1950年出生, 是云南省凤庆县白云村的村民。大饥荒期间她退了学回家做生产。在这段口述中,辉老人回忆了那时的饥饿,集体食堂和批判会。

 

Historical Note

In 2010, documentary filmmaker Wu Wenguang launched the Memory Project to collect oral histories from survivors of the Great Famine that devastated rural China between 1958 and 1961. Officially known in China as the "Three Years of Natural Disasters" or "The Difficult Three-Year Period," the Great Famine caused the death of between 20 and 43 million people. More recently the project has also covered the Great Leap Forward of 1958-1960, the Land Reform and the Collectivization of 1949-1953, the Four Cleanups Movement in 1964, and the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976.

Wu's studio in suburban Beijing, known as the Work Station, is the home for this project. More than 150 young filmmakers have joined the project, and since 2010 they have visited 246 villages in 20 provinces and interviewed more than 1,100 elderly villagers. These filmmakers, many of whom returned to their families' rural hometowns, developed new intergenerational relationships with elderly relatives. During the process of interviewing the villagers, they reconciled the official history taught in schools with each family's experiences.

Wu Wenguang was born in 1956 in Yunnan Province, China, as is considered a founding figure in Chinese independent documentary films. His other work includes Bumming in Beijing: the Last Dreamers (1990), 1966: My Time in the Red Guards (1993), At Home in the World (1995), Jiang Hu: Life on the Road (1999), Dance with Farm Workers (2002), Fuck Cinema (2005), Treating (2010), Bare Your Stuff (2010), Investigating My Father (2016), and Gao Bo between Beijing-Paris (2019).


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Processing Information

Processed by Luo Zhou and Matthew Farrell, 2013-2019. Accessions described in this collection guide: 2013-0011, 2013-0111, 2014-0206, 2015-0171, 2016-0063, 2016-0244, 2016-0273, 2017-0100.