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Guide to the William Holland Thomas papers, 1814-1900s and undated

Summary

White agent and representative for the Cherokee, merchant, lawyer, and trader, of Haywood Co., N.C. Collection includes correspondence, account books, day books, ledgers, and other papers, relating to Thomas's life in western North Carolina; the removal of the Cherokee and the status of those who remained; the development of intrastructure including turnpikes and railroads in North Carolina; Civil War fighting in east Tennessee; postwar administration of Indian affairs; and his private business operations as a trader among the Cherokees. Includes records of Thomas's five stores in Haywood and Cherokee counties, and business correspondence and accounts of Thomas's son, also William Holland Thomas, a merchant and farmer of Jackson County, N.C.

Collection Details

Collection Number
RL.01290
Title
William Holland Thomas papers
Date
1814-1900s and undated
Extent
30 Linear Feet, approximately 30 linear feet
Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Language
Material in English and Cherokee

Collection Overview

Collection contains letters and papers of William H. Thomas (1805-1893) concerning his life in western North Carolina; the removal of the Eastern Band of Cherokee on the Trail of Tears; the legal and financial conditions of those who remained behind in North Carolina; the building of roads and railroads through Western North Carolina; fighting during the Civil War in East Tennessee, including Thomas's leadership of Thomas's Legion in the Confederate Army; postwar administration of Indian affairs; and private business of Thomas, including some documentation of his declining health and his institutionalization for mental instability. There are also account books, day books, and ledgers showing a record of goods bought and sold in Thomas's five stores in Haywood and Cherokee counties. Included also are business correspondence and miscellaneous accounts, 1875-1890, of his son, William Holland Thomas, Jr., merchant and farmer of Jackson County, North Carolina.

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How to Cite

[Identification of item], William Holland Thomas Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Contents of the Collection

1. General papers, 1814-1900s and undated

Thomas's assorted correspondence along with extensive notes, loose account pages, and other miscellaneous items are sorted chronologically by year into General Papers. There are also volumes with travel diaries for various business ventures and letterbooks with copies of his incoming and outgoing correspondence. This series documents his various businesses and investments, his Confederate service during the Civil War, his work as an Indian agent, and his family life and friendships. Additional material on his work with the Eastern Band of Cherokee can be found in the Cherokee Series; additional contracts, reports, and petitions relating to railroads and turnpikes can be found in the Infrastructure Series.

General papers, 1814-1842
(23 folders)
Box 1
General papers, 1843-1851
(11 folders)
Box 2
General papers, 1852-1874
(23 folders)
Box 3
General papers, 1875-1900s
(7 folders)
Box 4
Memorandum, correspondence, legal papers, notes, undated
(2 folders)
Box 4
Newspaper clippings, 1800s
Box 8
Depositions, legal notes, etc., 1827-1843
(Vol.; 150 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Copies of legal depositions, bills of sale, court judgments, and other cases regarding accusations of fraud, real estate exchanges, receipts, evidence, and memorandum.

Volume M:3894
Diary and Account Book, 1839-1841
(Vol.; approx. 62 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C.. Includes an account of a trip to Louisiana in March 1839.

Volume S:3857
Diary and Account Book, 1840
(Vol.; approx. 20 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Thomas describes a trip to Athens, Georgia.

Volume S:3895
Letterbook, 1835-1842
(Vol; approx. 76 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Includes Scott's Creek store payments and bills, as well as copies of outgoing correspondence by Thomas regarding store and other business matters.

Volume L:3918
Letterbook, 1858
(Vol.; approx. 24 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Copies and abstract of letters sent by Thomas.

Volume M:3920
Account Book ("Journal of the business of Anson Banks and Co."), 1853, 1878
(Vol.; approx. 100 pages.)

Junaluska, Jackson County, N.C. Book originally included journal and account of the Anson Bangs Co. (1853), but was later annotated and supplemented with accounts from William H. Thomas, Jr. in 1878. A note on the inside cover explains how Thomas came into possession of of the book. On page 53, Thomas notes that his father was released from the asylum after one year on May 10, 1878.

Volume S:3861

2. Financial and business papers, 1826-1890s and undated

This series includes a portion of Thomas's documentation regarding his business ventures and financial obligations. His account books and ledgers include a wide range of customer accounts, inventories, and store management records for stores he owned and operated in Murphy, Qualla Town, and Scott's Creek, North Carolina. There is also substantial additional material, including settlements of individual accounts, filed in the General Papers series and in the Cherokee Papers series.

The account books and ledgers are in varying condition. Account books specifically dealing with Thomas's Cherokee customers have been filed in the Cherokee Papers series; additional assorted records of Thomas's business transactions with Cherokee can be found in this series or in General Papers.

There is also a significant amount of receipts, some sorted loosely by date and some entirely unsorted. Though the bulk of these files are actually receipts, there are also invoices, bills, and other paper scraps related to financial exchanges of goods, labor, and products, including agricultural goods. There is some documentation of enslaved people being bought and sold.

Account Book, 1834-1836
(Vol.; approx. 122 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Contains a list of 16 "Rules of Shoal Creek Store," one of them being "Sell to all customers alike. Let not the price vary on any Article in order to do so keep the price of the goods marked on Each Article." Also contains customer accounts; billing accounts for leather, salt, and other goods; spending accounts for purchases in Augusta and Philadelphia.

Volume F:3849
Accounts, 1835-1839
(Vol.; approx. 117 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts and retail prices. Includes notes from purchases in Augusta and Philadelphia.

Volume F:3850
Accounts, Records of Indebtedness and Inventory of Goods, 1836-1853
(Vol.; approx. 150 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Includes accounts, lists of cash paid out on debts, and bills of articles carried forward; contents include hard ware, jewelry, crockery, among others.

Volume L:3851
Account Book: Inventory, Order Book, Notes and Accounts Due, Misc. Accounts, 1836-1841
(Vol.; approx. 160 pages.)

Indiantown / Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Multipurpose volume with sections listing customer accounts owed and due (including Cherokee accounts); inventories of stock; cash at the Indian Town stores; orders and debts from Thomas's purchases in Charleston and Philadelphia.

Volume L:3853
Account Book, 1837
(Vol.; approx. 34 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Records of Thomas's personal accounts. Also includes to-do lists.

Volume S:3854
Accounts ("Bill Book"), 1837-1838
(Vol.; approx. 85 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Expenses accrued by Thomas in Murphy, Athens, Ga., and Philadelphia. Also contains customer accounts and inventories of goods.

Volume F:3855
Accounts ("List of goods sold"); Day Book, 1845-1851
(Vol.; approx. 200 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Daybook "Sail book" listing purchases chronologically (1845-1849); account book listing purchases chronologically, grouped by customer name (1849-1851).

Volume L:3858
Account Book, 1849-1850
(Vol.; approx. 260 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts, including alphabetical index.

Volume L:3859
Account Book, 1864
(Vol.; 36 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Includes accounts and lists of soldiers mustered into Thomas' Legion.

Volume S:3860
Accounts ("White Customers"), 1879-1880
(Vol.; 350 pages.)

Junaluska, Jackson County, N.C. Largely blank book, with many torn-out pages; contains assorted notes by Thomas, some recording expenses and financial accounts but others relating to his travels and activities.

Volume F:3862
Accounts of Indebtedness, 1839-1842
(Vol.; 80 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Lists of amounts due and brought over, including columns with officers and Cherokee accounts.

Volume L:3863
Cash Book, 1837-1872
(Vol.; 200 pages.)

Calhoun, Tenn. Multi-purpose book with cash accounts, customer accounts, employee work records, memorandum and notes, as well as doodles and scribbles.

Volume M:3864
Cash Book, 1838 March
(Vol.; 100 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Largely blank book. Contains accounts of cash taken in and cash paid (and to whom), as well as some individuals' accounts. References "squaws," lists names of individual customers, perhaps Cherokees.

Volume F:3865
Collection Book, 1834-1838
(Vol.; 200 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer/loan expenses and notations regarding repayment. Large portions blank.

Volume F:3866
Collection and Receipt Book, 1875-1880
(Vol.; 50 pages.)

Junaluska, Jackson County, N.C. Multipurpose book with many marks, torn pages, etc. Assorted writings by Thomas, including his name many times. Also contains lists of accounts collected by Ferrill in 1875.

Volume L:3867
Day Book, 1832-1833
(Disbound volume.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Daybook, with entries grouped by customer. Includes notations about Indian customers.

Volume F:3868
Day Book, 1833-1834
(Vol.; 280 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook, with customer expenses at Scott's Creek store.

Volume F:3869
Day Book, 1834-1835
(Vol.; 231 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook, with customer expenses and credits at Scott's Creek store.

Volume F:3870
Day Book, 1836-1838
(Vol.; 428 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Daybook. Includes laid-in booklet of pages, same size but separately bound (approx. 50 pages, includes index), documenting the settlement of accounts following the 1836 Treaty between the U.S. government and individual Cherokee families, with Thomas serving as agent. Regularly bound portion of the daybook contains chronological entries of customer accounts, 1836-1838. The end of the book has fold-out pages that seem to have been bound in later.

Volume F:3871
Day Book, 1836-1845
(Vol.; 240 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Chronological daybook kept by Thomas and J.W. King with customer entries of expenses/sales for Valley / Valey River (1836-1837); Fort Delaney (1837-1838); and Murphy (1841?, 1843-1845).

Volume F:3872
Day Book, 1837
(Vol.; 300 pages.)

Indiantown, [Quallatown], Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries of expenses/sales for Indian Town.

Volume F:3873
Day Book ("Day book for 1838 by J. W. King"), 1837-1839
(Vol.; 635 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Daybook, with entries grouped irregularly by date or by customer. Includes Thomas's notations about Indian and Negro customers.

Volume F:3874
Day Book, 1839
(Vol.; 240 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological list of sales at Quallatown store for July-Dec. 1839.

Volume L:3875
Day Book, 1839-1840
(Vol.; 240 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Murphy store chronological accounts including customer number/purchases, 1839 Sept-1840 Feb.

Volume L:3876
Day Book, 1839-1840
(Vol.; 138 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer expenses/credits for Scott's Creek. Includes some of Thomas's notations about Negro customers.

Volume F:3877
Day Book for Year 1840 Qualla Town, 1840
(Vol.; 240 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood Co., N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for Jan.-Aug. 1840.

Volume L:3878
Day Book, 1840-1841
(Vol.; 220 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of sales at store.

Volume L:3879
Day Book, 1832-1843
(Disbound volume.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries for Scott's Creek and Weedan, N.C.

Volume F:3880
Day Book, 1841-1842
(Vol.; 578 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries (name and number) for Murphy, N.C. Includes note: "Thomas and King commenced their copartnership at Murphy on the 8th day of April 1841."

Volume L:3881
Day Book, 1845-1848
(Vol.; 475 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for 1845 Dec.-1848 Oct.

Volume L:3882
Day Book, 1848-1850
(Vol.; 256 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for 1848-1850.

Volume L:3883
Day Book, 1851
(Vol.; 100 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for 1851 Mar.-Aug. Starts with page 260; other portions of book appear to have fallen out. Spine/binding loose.

Volume L:3884
Day Book ("Day Book White"), 1851-1853
(Vol.; 640 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for 1851 July-1853 May.

Volume L:3885
Day Book ("Book B"), 1852-1854
(Vol.; 260 pages.)

Fort Montgomery, Cherokee County, N.C. Fort Montgomery store customer/sales chronologically listed 1852-1854.

Volume L:3886
Day Book ("Qualla Town Day book for 1854"), 1855
(Vol.; 185 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Quallatown store chronological list of customers/sales at store for 1855 Feb.-June.

Volume L:3888
Day Book ("Qualla Town Day Book Farmer's Journal"), 1854 June 27-1855 June 2
(Vol.; 235 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries (name and purchase) for Qualla Town.

Volume F:3889
Day Book, 1854-1857
(Vol.; 150 pages.)

Fort Montgomery, Cherokee County, N.C. Fort Montgomery store customer/sales chronologically listed 1854-1857. Back half of the book is blank.

Volume L:3890
Day Book ("Wm. H. Thomas Day Book for Qualla Town NC"), 1855-1856
(Vol.; 292 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries (name and purchase) for Qualla Town.

Volume F:3891
Day Book ("Wm. H. Thomas's Day Book"), 1856-1857
(Vol.; 475 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries (name and purchase) for Qualla Town.

Volume F:3892
Day Book, 1858 Apr. 29-1863 Mar. 4
(Vol.; 530 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Chronological daybook with customer entries (name and purchase) for Qualla Town. Includes stitched in mini-quire in the front with title "Private accts at Qualla Town store for which R. Watts is responsible," dated 1859-1862.

Volume F:3893
Index to Ledger for 1847, 1847
(Vol.; 50 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Alphabetical index with customer names and assigned number.

Volume ff:3896
Invoice Book and Day Book, 1838-1840
(Vol.; 80 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Multi-purpose volume. Pages 1-8 appear to be invoice lists. On page 9 the book's entries become more like a daybook, with customer expenses from 1840 listed chronologically. Also includes a copied contract on the back page.

Volume F:3899
Journal and Day Book, 1836-1838
(Vol.; 424 pages.)

Indiantown, [Quallatown], Haywood County, N.C. Volume with two distinct sections: pages 1-238 are customer accounts; the latter half of the book (about 180 pages) is a daybook recording purchases at Indian Town between January and July 1838. Also includes Rules of the Store at the end.

Volume F:3900
Journal and Day Book, 1840-1844
(Vol.; 633 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Volume with two distinct sections: pages 1-156 are customer accounts; the latter half of the book (about 180 pages) is a daybook recording purchases at Quallatown in 1842.

Volume F:3901
Land Book for Cherokee County, 1838-1853
(Vol.; 86 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Multi-purpose volume with land sales and customer accounts.

Volume F:3903
Ledger, 1833-1834
(Vol.; 134 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts with Scott's Creek store.

Volume ff:3904
Ledger, 1835-1837
(Vol.; 142 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts. Includes index at the front.

Volume F:3905
Ledger, 1836-1838
(Vol.; 420 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts detailing purchases, including a name index at the front.

Volume F:3906
Ledger, 1836-1845
(Vol.; 310 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts.

Volume F:3907
Ledger, 1837-1867
(Vol.; 425 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer account book, including indices. Cherokee customers are included.

Volume F:3908
Ledger, 1839-1844
(Vol.; 500 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts ledger, with alphabetical index for customer names. Pages 266-462 are blank. Later entries are miscellaneous notes, including some references to Indian chiefs' payments and other store expenses/credits.

Volume L:3909
Ledger, 1839-1845
(Vol.; 550 pages.)

Cherokee County, N.C. Customer accounts, including an index. Book only partially used; pages 337-342 are "disbursement of the old concern". Pages 345-544 are blank. Page 545-546 have "expenses paid out of the new firm for building".

Volume F:3910
Ledger and Day Book, 1839-1841
(Vol.; 630 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Daybook. First portion of the book has customer accounts, by name; volume then shifts to recording purchases and expenses chronologically.

Volume F:3911
Ledger, 1840-1845
(Vol.; 630 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts, including periodic indices with alphabetical lists. Includes inlaid clipping.

Volume F:3913
Ledger (Postage Accounts), 1844-1845
(Vol.; 200 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Includes index and accounts with individuals noting postage paid on various goods, mail, and newspaper subscriptions.

Volume M:3915
Ledger, 1845-1848
(Vol.; 430 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts of purchases; indexed by name each year.

Volume F:3916
Ledger ("Wm H. Thomas's White Book"), 1847-1855
(Vol.; 620 pages.)

Scott's Creek, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts; index in the front, rest of the volume has customer names with chronological entries of purchases.

Volume F:3917
Letterbook and Accounts ("Receipt book Old Firm"), 1837-1845
(Vol.; 350 pages.)

Murphy, Cherokee County, N.C. Accounts/payments received; records of work (including construction, brick paving); copies of outgoing correspondence for business at the Murphy Store. Pages 33-175 blank. Later pages have assorted blank segments. Some letters composed upside down.

Volume L:3919
List of White Accounts, Notes, Judgements, Etc., 1849-1867
(Vol.; 46 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts.

Volume M:3921
Miscellaneous Accounts, 1874

Haywood County, N.C. Entries mostly illegible.

Volume S:3922
Financial papers, notes, bills, accounts, undated
(2 folders)
Box 4
Disbound account books, miscellaneous, 1840s-1860s
(2 folders)

Includes George Gibbons book fragments.

Box 4
Receipts, 1834-1900s
(5 folders)
Box 7
Unsorted receipts, approximately 1830s-1870s
(15 folders)
Box 7
Box 8

3. Infrastructure papers, 1828-1859 and undated

Assorted materials relating to Thomas's work on various railroad and turnpike boards and as a community leader advocating for infrastructure expansion to Western North Carolina. Items include General Assembly acts, copies of company minutes and contracts, petitions by various communities and citizens asking the state for turnpikes and railroad stops, and surveys and statistics regarding the building and planning for transportation needs throughout the region.

Report of engineers upon a canal connecting the Okoa and Connesauga rivers, in Tennessee and Alabama, 1828
Box 4
Draft excerpts, incomplete, of notes and other writings re: railroad, approximately 1851
Box 4
Railroad company articles of incorporation (incomplete), 1851 Jan. 28
Box 4
A condensed statement of statistics taken from the Report of the Board of Public Works of Virginia, 1851
Box 4
Railroad statistics from the Board of Internal Improvement of Virginia, 1852
Box 5
Petition for the extension of the N.C. railroad west, signed by 600 citizens W. of Buncombe County, 1852
Box 5
Rail Road meeting, Rabun Co., N.C., 1852 Feb. 23
Box 5
Petition of Jackson Co. citizens to N.C. General Assembly requesting a charter for a turnpike road, 1854 Sept. 26
Box 5
Railroad Statistics, 1854-1855
(Vol.; approx. 30 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Includes distances by rail between various locales in N.C. and surrounding states. Also includes miscellaneous accounts.

Volume S:3923
Turnpike bonds, 1855-1856
Box 5
S.W. Gibson road accounts and payments, 1856 Oct. 1
Box 5
Act to incorporate Qualla Town and Ocanabuftas Turnpike Company: amendment for the N.C. General Assembly, 1857
Box 5
An Act to incorporate the Jonathan's Creek and Tennessee Mountain Turnpike Co. in the County of Haywood: amendment for the N.C. General Assembly, 1857 Jan. 8
Box 5
Turnpike Records, 1859

Haywood County, N.C. Records expenses and accounts with shareholders of a turnpike.

Volume M:3928
An Act to amend the charter of the Western N.C. Railroad Company: N.C. General Assembly, 1859 Jan. 4
Box 5
An Act to incorporate the Western N.C. Rail Road Co.: amendments for the N.C. General Assembly, 1859 Feb. 21
Box 5
Appointment by the N.C. Board of Internal Improvement of William Holland Thomas as director on the Board of the Western N.C. Railroad Company, 1859 Nov. 28
Box 5
Turnpike charters (incomplete), undated
Box 5
Agreement to grant right-of-way to the Blue Ridge or Rabun Gap Railroad, undated
Box 5
Letter by William Johnston, in relation to railroad, etc. (incomplete),  undated
Box 5
A Bill to secure the payment of tolls to the state of N.C. on the Western Turnpike, undated
Box 5

4. Cherokee papers, 1823-1876 and undated

This series includes a wide range of material documenting the legal and financial status of North Carolina Cherokees during the early 19th century. It includes copies and correspondence regarding several treaties between the U.S. government and the Cherokee chiefs; powers of attorney for various Cherokee families who relied on Thomas to support their interests to the Dept. of the Interior; censuses of Cherokee remaining in North Carolina following the Indian Removal Acts; legal depositions, opinions, and complaints involving Cherokee land claims, crime by and against Cherokee citizens, pensions and relief due the Cherokees, and compensation collected by Thomas according to the terms of the various Indian treaties. There are also columes of customer accounts designated by Thomas as "Indian Books" kept by him and his employees at his various stores; additional documentation of Cherokee financial accounts can be found on loose pages in the General Papers series and in other account books in the Financial Materials series.

Cherokee Account Book, 1823-1835
Box 5
Conditions under which the Cherokees enrolled and emigrated West, 1828-1834
Box 5
List of claims filed for the action of the board of Cherokee Commissioners under the 17th Act of the Treaty of 1835, 1835
Box 5
Supplementary Report of Cherokee Indians Remaining in N.C., 1835-1840
(Approx. 50 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Census and records of Cherokee families living in N.C., including ages and notes about their location.

Volume L:3927
Opinion of the Cherokee Commissions on the claim of Wacheechah/Grasshopper, for value of a preemption, 1835
Box 5
"333 Indians belonging to the Town Qualla," including lists of Cherokee and verifications by white citizens, 1835-1837
Box 5
Part of the evidence of the heirs of deceased Cherokees (excerpts, in Cherokee), 1838
Box 5
The United States to W.H. Thomas, to furnishing the following named poor Indians with corn in the year 1839 in the spring, 1839
Box 5
Indian Book debts remaining due this store, 1839 Dec. 1
Box 5
Census of the N.C. Cherokee, 1840
Box 5
Claim of Coticawa or Cinthio Young Deer re: payment for property from which she was dispossessed, 1844 Sept. 30
Box 5
Application by Western Cherokee for fulfillment of guarantees made by U.S., written to William Wilkins, Secretary of War, 1844-1845 (undated)
Box 5
List of Cherokee claims filed by William Holland Thomas as attorney; filed before Board of Commissioners, 1847
Box 5
Cherokee of Buffalo (names and ages) entitled to interest under Act of July 29 1848, 1848
Box 5
Location of Tracts in the different towns in Cherokee Nation (including Wolf Town, Paint Town, Deer Town, and Pretty Face Town), 1848
Box 5
Census of the Cherokees under the Act of July 29 1848, approximately 1848
Box 5
List of suspended Cherokee claims made under the Act of 1838, 1849
Box 5
Cherokees entitled to pensions from U.S. for service in War of 1812 (re: fighting Creek Indians), 1850
Box 5
Petition to N.C. General Assembly for relief of solvent purchases of Cherokee lands, 1850
Box 5
Copies of testimony in the case of James R. Love vs. William H. Thomas, 1850
Box 5
Persons (Cherokees) who died in Haywood Co., N.C., 1850
Box 5
Waddy Thompson argument in relation to the Cherokee, N.C., 1851 Mar. 9
Box 6
Attorney General Jonathan Crittenden: opinion on the Cherokee Treaties, sent to H. H. Stuart, Secretary of Interior, 1851 Apr. 16
Box 6
Attorney General Jonathan Crittenden opinion to H. H. Stuart, re: payment of attorney fees for agents Waddy Thompson and Arnold Harris, 1851 Apr. 26
Box 6
Copy (unsigned) of letter to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Luke Lea rejecting claims by agents Thompson and Harris, 1851 May 1
Box 6
List of deposits of money by Cherokees for purchases of lands: Wolf Town, Paint Town, Pretty Woman Town, 1851
Box 6
Statement showing the names of the Cherokee Indians in the neighborhood of Murphy, N.C., intilled to interest on 53.33 dollars and the amount due each, 1857 Jul. 29
Box 6
Resolutions of the North Carolina Cherokees, 1859 Oct. 29
Box 6
List of the Indians supposed to have died in Cherokee County N.C. administered upon by S.P. Sherrill, 1867 Jul. 10
Box 6
Cherokee Reservation Record taken at Murphy, N.C., 1868 Nov.-Dec.
Box 6
Ledger / List of Indians Living on Catugajay Creek, N.C., 1839-1845, 1870
(Vol.; 150 pages.)

Cherokee County, N.C. Multi-purpose volume. First portion is customer accounts and store accounts. Second portion is a census of Cherokee "on the Catugajay Creek, Macon Co., living on the land of William Siler Esq." The Cherokee residents are listed with an assigned number, including their names and relevant notes. Many deceased Cherokee are also noted. Some of the pages in this ledger are mutilated and torn.

Volume F:3912
Deposition of George T. Mason, witness before the Commission in certain Indian suits in Statesville, N.C., 1874 Oct. 17
Box 6
Indian Book, 1837
(Vol.; approx. 90 pages.)

Shole Creek (Shoal Creek), Cherokee Co., N.C. Alphabetical index with Cherokee names and unidentified quantities of money (accounts?).

Volume ff:3897
Ledger and Indian Accounts ("Indian Book"), 1840-1859
(Vol.; 500 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Customer accounts, presumably of Cherokee although it is not always clear. Includes purchases and expenses, listed by name.

Volume F:3914
Indian Book, 1857
(Vol.; 18 pages.)

Quallatown, Haywood County, N.C. Entries are dated, but otherwise entirely in Cherokee language.

Volume S:3898
Powers of attorney, 1837-1876
(6 folders)

Most of these grant powers of attorney to William Holland Thomas from individual Cherokee.

Box 6
Register of Reservations Under the Cherokee Treaty of 1817, undated
(Approx. 72 pages.)

North Carolina and Tennessee. Alternative title: "Register of persons who wish reservations under the Treaty of July 8, 1817." Includes names and places of residence and occasionally other remarks such as "enrolled for Arkansas."

Volume M:3924
List of William Holland Thomas's powers of attorney from Cherokees East, and their claims, undated
Box 6
Names and valuations of allowed Cherokee Reservations, undated
Box 6
Cherokee Indian accounts, Murphy store, undated
Box 6
Claims of the Cherokees East, undated
Box 6
Indian Lands/Indian Tax List purchased as trustee for Cherokee, undated
Box 6
List of claims/claimants for preemptions, Buffalo, N.C., undated
Box 6
Statement showing the names of Cherokee Indians who reside East of the Mississippi ... and the amount due to each for their claims ... under the treaty of 1835-1836, undated
Box 6
Indian accounts written in the Indian language (Cherokee), undated
Box 6
List of sums of money paid to the Cherokees through their attorney William Holland Thomas, undated
Box 6
Payments made to William Holland Thomas for fees in the per capita case (Cherokees), undated
Box 6
List of Buffalo Cherokee and payments under the act of July 29, 1838, S. P. Sherrill, undated
Box 6
A list of Cherokee claimants residing in Qualla Town, N.C., undated
Box 6
Roll of Reservations to Cherokees by the Treaties of 1817 and 1819, undated
Box 6
Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Certified copies of Cherokee reservation claims, 1856-1874, undated
Box 6
List of deeds for land in Indian boundary, 1831-1868, undated
Box 6
List of names of Cherokee and clans to which they belong, undated

Including Paint Town, Wolf Town, Pretty Woman Town, Deer Town, and Bird Town

Box 6
List of persons entitled to Reservations under 1819 Treaty with the Cherokees, undated
Box 6
Rejected claims of George W. Churchwill left with William Holland Thomas, undated
Box 6
Land surveys, Bird Town, N.C. by George Mason, undated
Box 6
Persons who had died on the census of 1838, undated
Box 6
Explanation of the rights and claims of the Cherokee Indians remaining in the States east of the Mississippi, addressed to H. Conner, Charleston, undated
Box 6
Cherokee Indians vs. Thomas: original answer of James R. Thomas, undated
Box 6
List of names of Cherokee Indians who are supposed to have been engaged in the late war between the U.S. and the Confederate States, undated

Including whether allied with Union or Confederate side (sometimes, both sides)

Box 6
William Holland Thomas claim for subsisting Euchalla and his band of Cherokees, including statement explaining the case, undated

Re: Charley and his band of outlaws

Box 6
List of Cherokee Indians that aided in capturing Charley and his band of outlaws, undated
Box 6
Register of the names of Cherokees allowed citizenship, undated
Box 6
Names and number of Cherokees on Valley River, undated
Box 6
Account Book ("An estimate of land purchased lying on Soco Creek in Haywood County, the price paid for them, the No. of Acres, from whom purchased"), 1836-1841
(Vol.; approx. 40 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Records of land purchased for Cherokee in Quallatown. Pages 8-40ish are blank. More text on last page.

Volume M:3852
Account Book ("Book account of cloth sold on Smoky mounts to the Indians"), 1838
(Vol.; 25 pages.)

Haywood County, N.C. Accounts of cloth sales by Robert Collins to Cherokee, including amount and customer names. Middle portion of booklet is blank. There are also accounts at the end of the booklet with additional Cherokee names.

Volume M:3856

5. Personal papers, 1853-1889 and undated

Thomas's assorted personal materials, including scrapbooks, that document his role as a community leader in Haywood County as well as inventories of his personal library.

Scrapbook, 1852-1888
(Vol.; 120 pages.)

Jackson County, N.C. Clippings and pencilled notes by Thomas on a range of political topics and figures.

Volume F:3925
Scrapbook, approximately 1890
(Vol.; 15 pages.)

Waynesville, N.C. Scrapbook with valentines, printed pictures/clippings kept by unknown Thomas. Mutilated.

Volume L:3926
Unsigned draft of a letter to the editor of Pickens Courier, 1853 Sept. 1
Box 5
N.C. Superintendent of Public Instruction: blank forms for county officials, 1885-1889
Box 5
"Standridge Book", undated
Box 5
Webster Township, Jackson Co., N.C. petition to Congress for funding of schools, undated
Box 5
Old North State poem/ballad, undated
Box 5
Books bought by William Holland Thomas at sale/auction, undated
Box 5
Catalogue of books held by William Holland Thomas, undated
Box 5
 

Historical Note

William Holland Thomas (1805-1893) was a Cherokee Indian agent, merchant, lawyer, and trader, of Haywood Co., N.C. He also served as a colonel in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and led Thomas's Legion, which enlisted both Cherokee and Southern white recruits.


Click to find related materials at Duke University Libraries.

Provenance

The William Holland Thomas papers were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library between 1938 and 1952.

Processing Information

Processed by Meghan Lyon, Sept. 2017

Encoded by Meghan Lyon, Sept. 2017

Accession(s) described in this finding aid: 1938 to 1952