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Guide to the Duke Chapel Illuminated Photographs, 2000-2001, 2017 (bulk 2000)

Summary

The Duke Chapel is the central focus of Duke University's West Campus, a Gothic-style church completed in 1935. The book Duke Chapel Illuminated, consisting of numerous photographs of the Chapel including the stained glass windows, carvings and statues, and other details, was published in 2001. The collection includes photographs taken for the creation of the book, especially of the stained glass windows, statues, and carvings in, and views of, the chapel, as well as some material about the production of the book.

Collection Details

Record Group
UA.12.03.0003
Title
Duke Chapel Illuminated Photographs
Date
2000-2001, 2017 (bulk 2000)
Creator
Duke University. Photography
Extent
1.5 Linear Feet
Repository
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Language
Materials in English

Collection Overview

The collection includes photographs taken for the creation of the book Duke Chapel Illuminated as well as some materials related to the production of the book. The majority of the photographs are of the stained glass windows, statues, and carvings in, and views of the chapel; also included are photographs of events in and around the chapel, as well as images from the Duke University Archives of people, events, and scenes from the history of the Chapel. A small amount of material related to the layout and production of the book Duke Chapel Illuminated is also included.

The book The Architecture of Duke University by William Blackburn, 1939, was used to number and identify the stained glass windows, as well as provide information on the location of statues and carvings. A digital copy of this book is available via HathiTrust.

More Biographical / Historical Info

Using These Materials

A majority of collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 2 full business days in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More »

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Collection is open for research.

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Copyright for Official University records is held by Duke University; all other copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.

More copyright and citation information

How to Cite

[Identification of item], Duke Chapel Illuminated Photographs, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Contents of the Collection

1. Windows, circa 2000

This series includes images of the stained glass windows in the Chapel. Images are grouped by window, and arranged numerically by window number as assigned and described in the Architecture of Duke University, Appendix A.

Window 1: Adam
(47 items)
Box 1
Window 2: Noah
(78 items)
Box 1
Window 3: Melchizedek
(51 items)
Box 1
Window 4: Abraham
(52 items)
Box 1
Window 5: Isaac
(68 items)
Box 1
Window 6: Jacob
(78 items)
Box 1
Window 7: Joseph, Archangel Gabriel, Virgin Mary (unnamed), Elijah, Elisha, Hezekial
(35 items)
Box 1
Window 8: Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany, Lazarus, Martha, Mary Cleophas, St. Veronica, St. Longinus, Joseph of Arimathea, Nicodemus, Mary Salome, Ezra, Nehemiah, Isaiah, the Prophet Jeremiah, Ezekiel
(46 items)
Box 1
Window 9: Archangels Michael, Raphael, Uriel
(30 items)
Box 1
Window 10: Joseph (Old Testament), Rachel, Benjamin
(15 items)
Box 1
Window 11: Moses
(81 items)
Box 1
Window 12: Joshua
(51 items)
Box 1
Window 13: Peter, Andrew, Jesus, James the Elder, John, James the Minor, Jude, Philip Bartholomew, Matthew, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah
(92 items)
Box 1
Window 14: Gideon
(41 items)
Box 1
Window 15: Samson
(107 items)
Box 1
Window 16: Enoch, Seth, Methuselah
(38 items)
Box 1
Window 17: Archangels Chamael, Josephial, Zadkiel
(22 items)
Box 1
Window 18: Thomas, Simon, Stephen, Barnabas, Mark, St. Luke, Matthias, Zacharias, Simon of Cyrene, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah
(43 items)
Box 1
Window 19: Elizabeth, St. John the Baptist, Zacharias, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
(27 items)
Box 1
Window 20: Samuel
(36 items)
Box 1
Window 21: David
(42 items)
Box 1
Window 22: Solomon
(41 items)
Box 1
Window 23: Job
(63 items)
Box 1
Window 24: Tobit
(62 items)
Box 1
Window 25: Judas Maccabeus
(90 items)
Box 1
Windows 26-31: Rebekah, Hagar, Ruth, Naomi, Hannah, Esther
(167 items)
Box 1
Window 101
(35 items)
Box 1
Window 102
(98 items)
Box 1
Window 103
(39 items)
Box 1
Window 104
(51 items)
Box 1
Window 105
(58 items)
Box 1
Window 106
(55 items)
Box 1
Window 107
(23 items)
Box 1
Window 108
(53 items)
Box 1
Window 109
(34 items)
Box 1
Window 110
(49 items)
Box 1
Window 111
(52 items)
Box 1
Window 112
(29 items)
Box 1
Windows 113-114: Episoodes from the Life of Christ
(62 items)
Box 2
Windows 115-124: Turret windows
(10 items)

Melchizedek, David, St. Longinus, Gideon, Hezekiah, Joshua, Judas Maccabeus, Jehoshaphat

Box 2
Windows 125-132: Memorial Chapel
(83 items)
Box 2
Windows 140-146: Preacher's Study and Robing Room
(4 items)

Windows behind preacher's desk, St. Mark (winged lion), St. Lucas (winged ox)

Box 2

2. Statues, Carvings, and Chapel Views, circa 2000

This series includes images of statues and carvings in and just outside the Chapel's entrance as well as views and objects in the Chapel's interior. Images are primarily grouped according to the subject's location within the Chapel, as described in the Architecture of Duke University and Duke Chapel Illuminated.

Portal statues
(122 items)

Above: Thomas Coke/Edward Coke; Inside: Preacher of the Bible (Girolamo Savonarola), Religious Reformer (Martin Luther), Translator of the Bible (John Wycliffe), Statesman of the South (Thomas Jefferson), Soldier of the South (Robert E. Lee), Poet of the South (Edward Lanier), Knowledge, Piety

Box 2
Reredos statues
(81 items)

St. Francis of Assisi, St. Gregory the Great, St. George, St. Augustine of Hippo, Paul, John the Baptist

Box 2
Reredos carvings
(70 items)

Features the three sculptured panels in limewood of Jesus with the Doctors in the Temple, Jesus before Pilate, and the Entombment as well as two carved angels between the panels.

Box 2
Patriarchs and Apostles, choir walls
(119 items)

Abraham, David, Samuel, Moses, Peter, Matthew, Thomas, Simon, Matthias, Bartholomew, James the Less, Philip, Andrew, Thaddeus, James the Great, John

Box 2
Main roof boss
(48 items)
Box 2
Christ as a King, pulpit canopy pinnacle
(72 items)
Box 2
Singing angel, Figure with clasped hands
(53 items)
Box 2
Pulpit, lectern, and pulpit canopy
(58 items)
Box 2
Hidden cross
(29 items)
Box 2
Chancel
(5 items)

Panoramic images

Box 2
Memorial Chapel sarcophagi and altar
(68 items)
Box 2
Memorial Chapel view from transcept, Duke Family coat of arms boss
(36 items)
Box 2
Crypt
(3 items)
Box 2
Flentrop organ
(66 items)

Includes panoramic image of nave with Flentrop

Box 2
Portal exterior
(67 items)
Box 2
Sounds of the Chapel slides
(13 items)

Includes images of organ, carillon, choir, and musicians, among others.

Box 2
Taize service, Chapel interiors
(23 items)
Box 2
Taize service, Chapel interiors slides
Box 2
Chapel objects
(25 items)
Box 2

3. Other Images, circa 2000

This series includes images of events, exterior images of the Chapel, and photographic copies of images from the Duke University Archives used in Duke Chapel Illuminated.

Chapel in snow, graduation
(6 items)

Panoramic images

Box 2
Aerial views of the Chapel, events, and other images
(38 items)

Most slides include page number in book on which they appear.

Box 2
Images from the archives
Box 2
Organ builder, scaffolding on spire
Box 2

4. Book Production Material, 2000-2001, 2017

This series includes materials used in the production of the book Duke Chapel Illuminated, including manila envelopes used to hold the photographs selected for inclusion in the book, arranged by final page number in the book, as well as scanned versions of images, some of which were used in the book.

Correspondence, outline of Chapel with windows labeled, photo of Chris Hildreth on scaffolding, 2000-2001, 2017
Box 3
Oversize-folder 1
Layout envelopes, circa 2000-2001
(2 folders)

Manila envelopes for each page spread of final book, labeled with images, including frame numbers, to be used. Some include filenames for scanned images.

Box 3
Scanned images for book production
Digital-materials UA12030003-SET-0001
 

Historical Note

The Duke Chapel is the central focus of Duke University's West Campus, a Gothic-style church rising 210 feet high and completed in 1935. It is constructed with what is commonly called Duke stone, a bluestone from a quarry in Hillsborough, N.C., which is used across West Campus. The Chapel contains 77 stained glass windows and hundreds of carvings and sculptures depicting scenes from the Bible.

In 1924 James B. Duke created the Duke Endowment, funding the development of Trinity College, which renamed itself Duke University. James B. Duke was closely involved with the planning of the new campus for the university, and declared "I want the central building to be a church, a great towering church which will dominate all of the surrounding buildings." The firm of Horace Trumbauer of Philadelphia, P.A., was hired to design the new campus, and the chief designer of the Trumbauer firm was Julian Abele, the first African American graduate of the architecture program at the University of Pennsylvania.

Construction on the Chapel began in 1930, with the cornerstone laid on October 22; the majority of the initial construction on West Campus had been completed already. Construction took more than two years, although the Chapel was not completely finished and formally dedicated until 1935; the building was complete enough to be used for Commencement in 1932. Designed in an English Gothic style, the building combines modern materials such as steel trusses with traditional architectural methods such as flying buttresses.

The stained glass windows were created between 1931 and 1933, and were designed and made by G. Owen Bonawit. A panel in Window 2, the Noah window, also credits designer S. Charles Jaekle and craftsman Hugh Doherty. Bonawit apparently selected the subjects depicted in the windows.

Stone carving was done by the John Donnelly Company; woodwork by Irving and Casson-A.H. Davenport, Inc.; ironwork by William H. Jackson Company; carving of the sarcophagi in the Memorial Chapel tombs by Charles Keck; and the carillon was cast by the Taylor Bell Foundry of England. It is unknown exactly who chose the subjects of the exterior and interior carvings. John Donnelly was located in New York, and is likely the one who chose the subjects of the exterior carvings, consulting with a professor from Vanderbilt University. The statues include what appear to be several mistakes: the statue meant to depict Thomas Coke, an 18th century Methodist bishop, may actually depict Thomas Coke, a 17th century English judge; the statue of Robert E. Lee originally had a belt buckle that read U.S. despite Lee being famous as a Confederate general; and other unusual choices.

The original main organ was created by the Aeolian Company, and in 1976 the Chapel received a new organ made by Dirk Flentrop, which was officially named the Benjamin N. Duke Memorial Organ but is commonly referred to as "the Flentrop." A smaller organ is located in the Memorial Chapel.

The Chapel also includes a Memorial Chapel and crypt. Entombed in the Memorial Chapel are James Buchanan Duke, Washington Duke, and Benjamin N. Duke, all of whom were removed from Maplewood Cemetery in 1935. Within the crypt can be found Duke President William P. Few, Duke President and N.C. politician Terry Sanford, and several other figures from Duke's history.

Beginning in 1994, some of the stained glass windows underwent restoration by artisan Dieter Goldkuhle. From 2015 to 2016, the ceiling and roof of the Chapel were completely restored.

In August 2017, after the white supremacist rally and counter-protests in Charlottesville, Va., of August 8, and subsequent protests in the Durham and Chapel Hill areas that included the toppling of a Confederate statue in front of Durham City Hall, the statue of Robert E. Lee was vandalized. Duke President Vincent Price ordered the removal of the statue of Lee from the entrance to the Chapel to an unknown location. In 2018, President Price announced that no new statue would be added, and the spot remains empty.

The book Duke Chapel Illuminated was published in 2001. Photographs of the stained glass windows and other Chapel images were done by Les Todd and Chris Heldreth of Duke Photography. The text was written by Minnie Glymph and the design by Lacy Chylack, both of the Duke University Medical Center.

Sources: Duke Chapel Illuminated, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

The Architecture of Duke University, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

"Robert E. Lee statue is removed from Duke Chapel," 2017 August 19, The Chronicle, https://www.dukechronicle.com/article/2017/08/robert-e-lee-statue-removed-from-campus, viewed 2018 October 04.

Related Material

Duke Chapel Illuminated, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

The Architecture of Duke University, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Duke Chapel Records, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.

Duke Photography Records, Duke University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.


Click to find related materials at Duke University Libraries.

Provenance

The Duke Chapel Illuminated Photographs were received by the University Archives as a transfer in 2018.

Processing Information

Processed by Tracy M. Jackson, October, 2018

Accessions described in this collection guide: UA2018.0054