Frequently Asked Questions
Why did I remain on the Search page after
I pressed the search button?
Why do I get a list of the categories but no "hits" beside any of them?
Why did I get a search return with all 0's beside the category names?
Why is there a "2" (or any other number besides "1") shown beside the headline
of an advertisement after a search?
- Why are there different search pages for each category?
- What do you mean by "transcribed text" and how do I search it in
the Early Advertising
Publications and the Advertising Cookbooks categories?
- How do I search across all categories at the same time?
I've never searched this site before - are there special rules to follow in
Who do I contact if my question about searching is not answered
in this FAQ?
Why did I remain on a category's Complex Search page after
I pressed the search button?
2. Why do I get a list of categories after my search but no "hits" beside any of them?
a Lynx browser, or if you have an older browser such as Netscape version 2).
The EAA General Search Page
browse each of the eleven categories separately on the
Category Descriptions Page. The browse pages allow you to enter a
specific term to search within that category.
3. Why did I get a search return with all 0's beside the category names?
If you see a list of the categories and there are no numbers listed on the left,
check the search query that you entered. If the pull-down menu was on
"Everything in EAA" or "ALL"
and nothing is entered in the "contains" (or blank) areas, the default return
for this is
simply to list all the categories to allow further searching within them.
4. Why is there a "2" (or any other number besides "1")
shown beside the headline/title
of an advertising item after a search?
A search return with all 0's means that the search engine
could not find what you requested. There may be a few reasons for this:
- If you entered
a word in the "contains" (or blank) fields, the spelling of the word may not
in the EAA database. Try a different spelling of the word, or type part
of the word and then end it with * (e.g. Koda* entered as a term for
searching will result in returns that include Kodak).
- The Field, if one was chosen, may not contain that
information (e.g. the term Kodak will not be found in the
Database Terms and Descriptions page for more clarification
on what type of information is found in each of the Field areas.
- The EAA project - which is representative, not comprehensive - may indeed not contain any advertising items with the information
5. Why are there different search pages for each category?
Searches result in a list of categories with a number
beside them. Within each appropriate category, there is a list of the titles or
headlines from the advertising items with a number listed on the left side.
This number notes how many "hits" were found within
an ad. If your complex search included two or more parts (e.g. date and
company name) then both those fields count as a "hit" and the number "2" will
be listed to the left of the headline.
Keep this 'number inflation' in mind when there are
large numbers beside the list of categories in the search
numbers may reflect double, triple, etc. the number of actual ads that meet the
parameters of your search.
6. What do you mean by "transcribed text" and how do I search it in the
Early Advertising Publications and the
Advertising Cookbooks categories?
There is a wide range of physical material in the eleven categories of EAA.
An advertising cookbook as a physical and
intellectual item is quite different from a trade card or a broadside. Therefore, to allow
more targeted searching for specific
items, we created separate search pages for each
category. With Hartman Center staff assistance, we identified database fields that would best
meet the access needs of our users.
There are some fields, such as headline/title, company, date of publication, etc.
are consistent across all categories. These are included in the Keyword pull-down menu
on the EAA General Search Page. Most Illustration and Special Features are
also found in all eleven categories.
(For information on searching across all categories,
please see Search FAQ #7 below.)
The majority of categories, though, are so distinct that without the Category-Specific Complex Search pages
a great deal of descriptive
information would have been omitted from EAA. The category-specific search pages are accessible
through the Category Descriptions Page and the
EAA General Search Page.
7. How do I search across all categories at the same time?
For the Early Advertising Publications and the Advertising Cookbooks categories, we typed into
a word document all of the information contained within the
Title Page and the Table of Contents/Index pages for each book.
No other pages from the books were transcribed.
This text represents information "within" the book, as opposed to the database which contains information
"about" the book. For example, bibliographic data and chapter titles will be found in the
transcribed text for a specific book; chapter title names are not available in the database.
This information "within" the book is provided
for researchers to assess if the printed work contains useful information that may not
be represented in teh images selected for the project.
To search the transcribed text, go to the EAA General Search Page.
The first search box has as the default search option
"Everything in Emergence of Advertising in America." With that selected, you will be able to search
transcribed text as well as information on all categories for whatever keyword(s)
you enter in the "Search for:" space.
Your search return will list three areas: Advertising Cookbooks, All Advertising Items, and Early
Advertising Publications. The transcribed texts are found only in the
Advertising Cookbooks and the
Early Advertising Publications areas.
A number may appear in the search return beside the term "All Advertising Items."
This area contains database information (i.e. descriptive information about an item) for all eleven
categories in EAA, including
the Cookbooks and Early Advertising Publications categories. By showing all three areas, this
allows you to take advantage of additional search options.
8. I've never searched this site before - are there special rules to follow in
You are able to search across all categories on the EAA General Search Page.
In the first search box on that page, you are able to
do a simple keyword search across all categories and all database fields, or you can limit your search to one
database field only (e.g. if you are looking for advertising items from 1918 only, you would enter "1918" in
the "Search for:" space and then choose "Date" in the "In:" pull down menu). To search for advertisements
with particular types of illustrations or
other special features across all categories, the second search box on the
EAA General Search Page allows you to search on one feature at a time.
These two types of searches - Keyword and Illustration - can not be combined on this page.
The Category-Specific Complex Search Pages allow these complex ("boolean") searches,
one category at a time.
9. Who do I contact if my question about searching is not answered
in this FAQ?
The method to perform simple searches on this site are similar to those you would
employ in using a web search engine. There are helpful hints on searching at the bottom of each search page, as
the General Search Page and the Category-Specific Complex Search Pages employ slightly different
In general, some searching tips to remember include:
- The information on these
pages is not case sensitive, so searching for
lillie langtry will give you the same results as searching for
- The asterisk * is treated as a wildcard. You can
use it in words or dates.
If you are unsure of how to spell tobacco, you can
enter tobac* as a search term. The returns will include any word that
begins with tobac. Dates are the same way. If you want to find all the
ads from the 1910s, you would type in 191*.
The asterisk is a powerful tool. If a term with a wildcard is too
broad (e.g. looking for to*) your search will be extremely slow, and the
returns will most likely not be of much assistance.
If you aren't sure
of what exactly you want to find, browsing the ads
may give you a better idea
of what is available.
If your question is not answered on this page or in the
Help and Examples section of
the EAA General Search Page or the
Category-Specific Complex Search Pages,
please email the Hartman Center Reference Archivist
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