Access to PODES data is limited to enrolled students, staff, faculty and instructors at Duke University.  

The Village Potential Statistics (PODES) dataset provides information about village/desa characteristics for all of Indonesia, with a sample of +/- 65,000. It is surveyed in the context of the periodic censuses (Agriculture, Economy, Population). It has useful information on village characteristics, including the main sources of income.

Central Bureau of Statistics has collected village-level data since 1980. PODES activity has always been conducted in-line with the implementations of the Population Census, Agriculture Census and Economic Census.

The PODES survey covers all villages within the Indonesian archipelago. As a part of Agriculture Census 2003, village-level data was collected completely in August 2002. The scope of the survey is entire villages in Indonesia including Transmigration Resettlement Unit (UPT) and Remote Ethnic Resettlement (PMT). Total villages covered were 68,816.

The questionnaire used basically can be divided into two parts: core data, which is collected in every census, and module data that is collected only in the implementation of agriculture census.

Data Files (Zip format)

PODES Data - 1996
PODES Data - 2000
PODES Data - 2003
PODES Data - 2005
PODES Data - 2008
PODES Data - 2011

Dataset Details

Using the example of the 2006 PODES, types of data collected are:

Agriculture-Related Items

Population & Labor Force

  • main economic activities of population

  • if agriculture, which agriculture sub-sector (food crops, horticulture, plantation, fishery, livestock, forestry)

Housing & Environment

  • whether there is pollution (water, land, air, noise) during one year ago; if yes, whether the pollution is reported to village head
  • whether there is natural disasters (earthquake, land sliding, flood) during three years ago; if yes, how many times
  • whether the community is prone to natural disasters (earthquake, land sliding, flood); if yes, how many households living in the area
  • whether there are families living in forest conservation area; if yes, how many families


  • whether there are farmer’s association (food crop, fishery, livestock)
  • whether there is irrigation scheme
  • existence of agricultural extension workers

Land Use

  • total area of village
  • area of wetland (irrigated, non-irrigated, land temporarily fallow)
  • area of dry land (plantation, forestry, housing, office, industry, etc.)
  • conversion of wetland area into dry land, housing, industry, office and other purposes during the last three years
  • conversion of dry land area into wetland, housing, industry, office and other purposes during the last three years


  • number of agricultural firms such as plantation, livestock, fishery/fishpond, forestry, etc.
  • number of trade facility, hotel and banking by province
  • number of villages having production marketing facility by province and type of facility
  • number of villages having economic activity by province and type of economic activity
  • number of villages having no shopping center by province and the nearest distance to shopping complexes
  • number of villages having no permanent market/non-permanent market by province and the nearest distance to market
  • number of small-scale industry by province and the nearest distance to market

Information available in PODES 2003 and omitted from PODES 2006 are as follows:


  • number of food crops establishments by type of crops, cultivated area and production
  • number of plantation establishments by type of crops, cultivated area and production
  • number of livestock/poultry establishments by type of crops and number of livestock
  • number of forestry establishments by type of crops and area
  • number of fishery establishment by type of culture
  • number of households engaging in aqua culture and fish capture
  • Pro-Poor HPAI Risk Reduction
  • Africa/Indonesia Team Working Paper

Agriculture Machinery

  • number of tractors, sprayers, dusters, blowers, etc
  • number of rice hullers, rice milling units, etc.
  • number of machines to process corn, cassava, sugarcane
  • number of smoked houses, remilling operations, crumb rubbers
  • number of ships/boats
  • number of cold storage

Trade & Industries

  • whether there is permanent food market; if not, the distance to the nearest market
  • availability of livestock market, slaughter house, fish landing port, fish auction place
  • whether there is rural bank providing credit service by type of credit
  • whether there is Village Unit Cooperative or other cooperatives